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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Oct 2004
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Aug 2004
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Apr 2004
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
Characteristic Analysis of Natural Landscape: Based on the Assessments of Naturalness by Landscape Professionals and Laypersons
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 1~14
As urbanization becomes widely spread, environmental benefits of natural landscapes have been highly appreciated. The social demands to conserve such landscapes are becoming stronger in modem society. In order to effectively manage natural landscapes, one should know what natural landscapes are. The characteristics of natural landscapes revealed by foreign research include wilderness, absence of human intrusion, and presence of diverse natural element (plants, trees, waters). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of diverse natural landscapes with different levels of naturalness. The methods adopted here consist of three phases. First, 368 landscapes were photographed to include different levels of naturalness. Second, two professional landscape groups assessed the degree of naturalness of the collected landscapes, in which the characteristics of five degrees of naturalness were examined. Lastly, undergraduate students, as laypersons, assessed the 33 landscapes that were selected as representative of the five degrees of naturalness. The results show that there is no difference between professionals and laypersons on the assessment of naturalness of landscape. The characteristics of natural landscape that participants perceive include no human intrusion, preservation of original state, traditional quality such as Korean-style architecture, dominance of natural elements, and minimum facilities that harmonize with natural surroundings, Many characteristics are similar to the results of foreign research, However, the results reveal that Koreans do not perceive man-made nature as natural, while they perceive traditional elements as natural. Based on the results, some suggestions for landscape management are presented in the conclusion section.
A Critical Review of the Seoul Forest Park Design Competition
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 15~27
The Seoul Woods Design Competition in 2003 was one of the most remarkable events within the field of landscape architecture in Korea since the Yeo-Ui Do Square Park Design Competition in the mid 1990s. This study examines the overall procedure, evaluations and competition guidelines for the Seoul Forest Park Design Competition and identifies the implications and issues related to Korean landscape architecture. In addition this study analyzes the design concepts, strategies and spatial composition, and programs of five selected design worts including the best awarded work. This study also examines key features and issues from the five selected design works. Finally, this study examines a new trend of landscape design in Korea, which can be observed at the Seoul Forest Park Design Competition. In this study, it is argued that the Seoul Forest Park Design Competition had significant implications for landscape architecture in Korea. Firstly, the Seoul Forest Park Design Competition was the greatest project in Korea in terms of its size. Therefore, it shows us an enhanced status of Korean landscape architecture. Secondly, the Seoul Forest Park Design Competition provided a good opportunity to redefine the concept of 'park' in Korean modern society. Thirdly, through the Seoul Forest Park Design Competition, we can observe a dramatic change and developments in Korean landscape design since the 1990s, as well as the present status of landscape design competitions in Korea. And this study identifies an emphasis of a program in design, an evolution in ecological approach an diminishment in concern of Korean tradition, and a change in design methods and media, which are some aspects of Korean contemporary landscape design observed at the Seoul Forest Park Design Competition.
The Characteristics of Monuments in a Cemetery - ln the Case of the Seoul Foreigners' Cemetery Park at Yanghwajin -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 28~40
The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of monuments in the Seoul Foreigners′ cemetery at Yanghwajin, a place where many prominent Christian missionaries and other Christians have been buried near Choltusan. In considering the characteristics of gravestone details, the researcher has divided the details into 4 analysis categories: forms, symbols, epitaphs, and materials. For this research, 281 monuments were selected including 68 of missionaries, 26 of U. S. Army Soldiers, and 13 of teachers. The analysis revealed that there were 26 types of monuments. This includes simple and standardized types like the tablet, headstone, marker, and monolith. These were used more often than other shaped types such as the Cross, obelisk, sculpture, etc. Standardized types made in Korea have been preferred after the 1950s even though the beauty of the gravestones has been degraded. Symbolical decorations related to religious, social, professional or military emblems were also introduced to strengthen their symbolical objectives. Among them, fie Cross was the most predominant Christian symbol and emblem. The families wanted to inscribe epitaphs, the greater part of which originated from the Bible, poems, idioms related to tribute, rest, supplications to deity, love, achievement, to express human sentiment and religious faith. When using materials for making monuments, monument makers have mostly used stone because of its durability. Until the 1950s, various stones had been used to make monuments, for most marble and granite were brought from foreign countries. These were very different from the Korean white marble stone used for many monuments. After the 1950s, the source of stone has been limited to Korean stone, for Korean could make stone monuments that foreigners were agreeable. Especially, a black marble stone called "O-Suk" which means black stone, has been used as a main material. The study identified the following characteristics of monument details in the Seoul foreigners′ cemetery at Yanghwajin. First, Christianity has been applied as the main concept, while symbolizing the homogeneity of religious, family, social, professional or military groups by having the symbolic form, symbol, and epitaph in common. Second, monuments made after the 1950s have been standardized into unattractive and monotonous forms by the limited materials, and so the beauty of the monuments has been degraded.
A Research of the Status of Nature Classrooms in Parks in Seoul and Suggestion of Improvement Plans
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 41~52
Recently, park usage for environmental education has gained popularity in Seoul. Therefore this study was performed by analyzing the status and problems of nature classrooms in neighborhood parks and citizen's parks that are located in residential areas in Seoul, and then by suggesting improved methods and user programs. The results of this study are summarized as follows. 1) 18 out of 281 neighborhood parks and citizen's parks have nature classrooms in Seoul. Facilities of nature classroom are comprised of direction signs, plant name card, pond, pavilion, pergola, bench, green house, waste baskets, lighting, drinking fountain and others. However, they have many problems in terms of quality. Nature classrooms were classified into three types according to their location in each park. Among the three types, the most popular type was the one that is a part of a park A Total of 479 species of plant (155 species in tree, 324 species in herb) were planted in nature classrooms. There are many kinds of environmental education user programs, but these are not connected with the nature classrooms. Most nature education programs in nature classrooms were self-guided. 2) The Problems that appeared were the featureless place composition, a lack of programs related to nature classrooms, access restriction to certain natured areas, and so on. 3) Finally, this study suggests some solutions to the problems of nature classrooms in urban parks. The solutions include full access to the parks, the creation of diverse theme, and setting up interesting panel and leaflets in order to encourage more active self-guided education.
The Planting Models of Maritime Forest by the Plant Community Structure Analysis in the Seaside, Incheon - A Case Study on Pinus thunbergil Community and P. densiflora Community-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 53~63
Planting models for restoration forest on the seaside have been demanded because coastal reclaimed land has increased for habitation sites, industrial complexes and new towns on the west seaside of Korea. The planting models have to consider endurance for bad environmental conditions in order to make a role to protect the urban space against the extreme seaside environment. The dominant species, relative impotance value, individuals and species number were analysed in natural forests that were exposed to extreme seaside conditions in Deokjeok island and Younghung island, Incheon. The native species such as Pinus thunbergii and Pinus densiflora, which survive on the seaside, were mainly recommended because the coastal reclaimed land had extreme environmental conditions. Stable vegetation structures could be made by multi-layer planing by using these species. A diverse vegetation community could be made according to these planting models. The maritime forests made by these planting models might be more effective for environmental adaptation and a windbreak forest than alone tree, and the young trees below 3m height could easily adapt to these conditions.
An Analysis of Influences on Partial Work Rates under the Whole Work Rates on the Landscape Constructions in the Ulsan Grand Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 64~72
This study analyses influences on partial work rates under whole work rates on landscape constructions in Ulsan Grand Park. The schedule management is one of the factors that are very important to the process management of landscape construction. The time process of the whole construction is supposed to be affected by several kinds of work that organize the whole construction. First, this study divides the construction of Ulsan Grand Park into 10 kinds of works: earth work, rain and sanitary sewage water work, water-supplying work, planting work, paving work, water proofing work, fountain work, instituting work and temporary work. Then the time-process curves of all kinds of work are statistically compared to that of the whole construction. The trial methods of statistics are lineal regression, non-lineal regression, and principal analysis. In the result of the non-lineal regression, the rain and sanitary sewage water work, the water-supplying work and the earth work strongly affected the whole construction. The principal analysis results show that the whole construction is affected strongly by the water-supplying work, the rain and sanitary sewage water work and the earth work. However the lineal regression is shown to be senseless because of its high collinearity.
Effects of Different Shading Levels on the Growth of the Native Fern Polystichum lepidocaulon
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 73~76
This study was conducted to investigate the growth responses of Polystichum lepidocaulon as influenced by 4 different shadings(Control, 50%, 70%, 90%). Under 50 or 70% shading, plant height, stipe length, blade length, blade width, and number of spores increased compared with the other shadings, except the number of frond and shoots. The plants grown under control was shown as smaller with more yellowish green leaf color, and under 90% shading the growth was slightly inferior to those under the 50 or 70% shading. Fresh weight and segment area of frond was better in increased shade levels, but they decreased in under 90% shading. Dry weight and segment thickness decreased as shading increased. Chlorophyll contents increased in proportion to lowered light intensity. Thus, 50 or 70% shading of Polystichum lepidocaulon seemed to maintain the highest growth.
Growth Characteristics of Pinus thunbergii Parl. after Replanting in Reclaimed from the Sea( I ) - On the Spatial Distribution of Fine Root Phytomass -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 77~84
This study was carried out to analyze the vertical and horizontal distribution of fine root biomass of Pinus thunbergii transplanted in reclaimed land from the sea near Gwangyang Bay. The fine-root biomass according to 6 planting ground types were as follows: 98.5 g DM/
for P2, 51.1 g DM/
for P6, 47.8 g DM
for P5, 44.6 g DM/
for P3, 38.2 g DM/
for P4, 31.8 g DM/
for Pl, respectively. The vertical distribution of fine root biomass decreased at descending soil depths of the 6 mounding types. Fine root biomass was 31∼55% in the topsoil of 20cm depth. Fine root biomass that were related to the Spatial distance from the nearest tree were unevenly distributed horizontally in 6 stands. distribution patterns of fine root biomass were closely related to soil hardness and alkalic cation (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+) concentrations. Therefore, in order to have good condition for the growth of landscaping plants, we suggest that there is a need for the construction of planting grounds as well as a need for soil improvement in bad soil environments.
The Physico-chemical Properties of the Soil at the Grounds of Replanted Zelkova serrata (Thunberg) Markino in Reclaimed Land from the Sea, Gwangyang Bay
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 85~94
This study was carried out to analyze physicochemical properties according to the soil height and to the six types of sites that were used as planting ground in the reclaimed land from the sea, Gwangyang Bay. The physicochemical properties of the soil types were tested by t-test(p<0.01, 0.05), at each of the 6 planting ground sites(p<0.01, 0.05), and at each height(p<0.01) of the planting grounds. These areas were tested by ANOVA and were significantly different. Improved soil was better than reclaimed soil from the sea for Zelkova growth because the improved soil contained lower amounts of pH, ECe, N
SAR. Due to freedom from variables such as salt content in the underground as well as the physical and chemical disturbance of the soil, favorable planting ground for tree growth was recorded at the higher grounds than at the lower ones. Soil detriment to the tree growth in the studied sites included elements such as soil hardness, and the distribution of sodium in the tree root systems. The planting grounds for the favorable growth of landscape trees were determined in the following order: the grounds of mounding> the coved ground of improved soil, and the filled ground of improved soil.l.l.l.
Growth Characteristics of Kentucky Bluegrass on Different Rootzone Foundations
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 95~103
A turfgrass rootzone foundation is one of the important iufluences on the growth of cool-season turfgrass such as Kentucky bluegrass, which is usually grown on korean golf courses and athletic fields in Korea. This study was carried out to evaluate the growth of Kentucky bluegrass on 4 types of turfgrass root-zone foundations: a 2cm thickness of Sand 90%+Peat humus 8%+Zeolite 2% mixture on a subsoil base (C), a 20cm thickness of Sand 90%+Peat humus 8%+Zeolite 2% mixture (S), a 20cm thickness of Sand 45%+fine sand(a sort of Bomyungsa) 45%+Peat humus 8%+Zeolite 2% mixture (S+F), and a 20cm thickness of Sand 45%+fine sand(a sort of Bomyungsa) 45%+Peat humus 8%+Zeolite 2% mixture on a 20cm thick drainage layer (S+F(G)). Visual ratings of Kentucky bluegrass on the C foundation were low throughout the experiment when compared to S, S+F, and S+F(G) foundations, which contained high contents of sand with a high water infiltration rate. However, poor growth of Kentucky bluegrass in the summer of 1991 on the S foundation was likely to be caused by a too high water infiltration rate (185.8cm/hr). The growth of Kentucky bluegrass on the S+F(G) was good while the growth was a little weak at the developing stage on the S +F foundation. If the cost had to be considered when constructing golf courses and athletic fields, The S+F foundation without the drainage layer would be the best choice in terms of low cost and good quality of Kentucky bluegrass compared to the S+F(G). In this result, the infiltration rate was regarded as the most influential factor to the growth of Kentucky bluegrass on rootzone foundations.
Research Trends Concerning Landscape Design in the Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 107~119
special subjects, from basic data-building to applied design itself, and from how-why studies to theory building research. It seems that the research concerns are mainly the explanation of the processes of design projects rather than the application and expression of design theory and conceptual work itself. The articles do not show a clear trend or design concerns that would lead landscape architecture firms or its market. A few articles deal with aesthetical theory and with design criticism that could be one of landscape design's fundamental theories. It is not enough to regard the Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture as the main stream of contemporary Korean landscape design trends. More research in the field of landscape design need to focus on pre-research work rather than on post-work reports. More research work in the field of landscape aesthetics is also required. The format of the journal needs to be reformed to include more design research papers that are of a free-presentation style in nature.
Research Trends Concerning Landscape in the Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 120~128
This paper was aimed to review the research trends on the subject of ′landscape′ that were published in the Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture (KILA) over the 30 years from 1973 to 2003. The total number of articles with the "landscape" subject is 132(12.1%) out of 1,089(the total number of articles). The ratio of the ′landscape′ articles to the total number of the two decades between 1980 and 1999 increased at 8.7% and 1.1% respectively, and decreased at 5.3% since 2000. It was found that each decade showed its own trend of research subject. The first trend during the 1980′s focused on the methodology of analyzing the characteristics of landscape. The second trend during 1990′s converged to the positivistic research method, which relies on computer technology. A new and very important trend began during the same decade. It was "visual landscape planning", which attracted much attention since the operation of local autonomy in Korea. This trend focuses on ′visual landscape planning′, and it is expected to grow drastically in the near future. Therefore, it is recommended that we promote the more elaborate methodology of ′visual landscape planning′, which also includes the ecological and cultural aspects of the environment.
Research Trends Concerning Landscape Ecology and Geographical Information Systems in the Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 6, 2004, Pages 129~135
This study reviews the research trends of landscape ecology, geographical information system(GIS) and remote sensing(RS) that have appeared in articles published in the Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture over the last 30 years. The aim is to identify the research characteristics in Korea. There were 905 papers published in the journal during this period. There were 35 papers concerning landscape ecology, and 26 papers concerning GIS/RS, which are few compared to other research fields. The papers were classified chronologically, and reviewed in terms of their contents. In the seventies and eighties, papers were contributed from other disciplines, e. g., forestry, and also included translated papers from foreign sources. However, in the nineties, the number of papers grew continuously. During the fist half of nineties, six papers were published. However, 30 papers were published during the last half of nineties, which shows a rapid increase in the number of papers contributed. From 2001 to 2003, there were 17 papers published. Overall, there tends to be an increase in the number of papers contributed and published.