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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Oct 2004
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Aug 2004
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Apr 2004
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
Ecosystem Structure and Improvement of Naturalness in Urban Area -In the Case of Kangseo-gu in Seoul-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 1~17
The focus of this study is the promotion of green area volumes and their naturalness, water circulation system, decline of entropy, creation of biological habitats and linkage of separated urban green space. Re-presentative urban biotope survey sites were categorized as urban biotope, semi-natural biotope, and natural forest. In the urban biotope, a residential biotope was constructed near the Han river and in mountain areas. The green-area ratio at the housing complex was about 25%. GVZ(Grunvolumenzahl) was 0.35m
at the 5∼10-story housing complex, and 1.53m
over the 11-story. As for the green-area structure of the housing complex, canopy layer, understory layer, and shrub layer were not differentiated and the green-area volume was not high enough. The green-area ratio of school areas as a public area biotope was 5∼20%. GVZ was 1.12m
at Myungduk High School, and 1.78m
at Jeonggok Elementary School. In order to convert the urban biotope into an ecological area, green areas around the buildings should be connected to urban buffer green areas, and multi-layer structures should be established with natural plant species. In the semi-natural biotope, neighbor parks were created park in the vicinity of the natural forests. GVZ was 0.28m
, and plantation was established with single layer structure and was definitely insufficient for the area. The urban buffer green areas have been established in strip corridors with the width of 20∼123m. In those areas, GVZ was 0.16∼0.27m
and had a deficient canopy layer, understory layer, and shrub layer. Soil conditions were not favorable for tree growth. In the natural biotope, GVZ of the plantation was 1.03∼1.5m
but the high crown closure of this area reduces the chance of species change and succession. GVZ of natural forest was 2.53∼2.57m
. It is desirable to plant diverse plants and the natural forest should be succeeded by broad-leaf deciduous tree species. To improve the value of biotope at Kangseo-Gu, building height needs to be limited to reduce the environmental deterioration in the city. In order to maintain the water circulation system, water-permeable material is recommened when the urban surface areas are paved. The establishment of a water circulation system will improve ground water levels, soil moisture, water quality, and habitats. In order to improve biological diversity, it is desirable to have multi-layer structures in urban green areas with native species.
A Study of Selecting Target Species for Rooftop Greening Construction from Urban Ecological Network Point of View
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 18~31
Ecological network can solve the ecological problems such as habitat cutting and fragmentation that are resulted from urbanization. Recently, rooftop biotope construction has been appeared as a usefull method for ecological networking in urban area. The objective of this study is to seek the possibility of rooftop greening introduction as well as to select target species for rooftop greening construction from the urban ecological network point of view. In order to select target species, we monitored two adjacent rooftop greening sites, where we found 22 species of birds and insects and 33 species of plants. We set criteria to select target species through documents research, and gave marks species according to the criteria with the help of specialists. We divided the target species into 5 groups on the basis of the 12 selecting criteria. In those two monitored rooftop greening sites, we did not find any species belong to group A, which is the best target species, but we found species belong to the other groups. Orthetrum albistylum, Sympetrum dawinianum belong to group B, which is the priority target species, 7 species besides Passer montanus, Coccinella axyridis, Agrionidae to group C, which is the possible target species, 6 species besides Atractomorpha lata to group D, which is the potential target species, and the others were found to be inadequate to the target species. We found Orthetrum albistylum, Sympetrum dawi-nianum to be the best appropriate target species in the two sites. According to the result of this study, the method of ecological network construction from the dra-gonfly habitat network point of view through the construction of rooftop habitat is ideal for Orthetrum albistylum, and Sympetrum dawinianum. For successful urban ecological network construction, selection criteria and construction techniqes & methods for rooftop habitat should be developed through future research.
Ecological Planning for the Preparation of an Eco-Road on the Pyungtak-Eumsung Highway
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 32~42
This study aims at establishing an ecological planning for road construction. which is considered to be a main cause of damage to the natural environment in Korea. This study focuses on the Pyungtak-Eumsung Highway development project. It considers the ecological factors and status of the site and its surrounding area. The study site is a four-way highway with a width of 23.4m and a length of 5.7km that spans from Hyungok-ri, Anseong City, Kyeonggi Province to Jukhyun-ri, Jincheon-gun, Chungbuk Province. The objective of the plan is "the establishment of an eco-road in harmony with nature." The plan is divided into five detailed goals: 1) restoration of river morphology and ecosystem through ecological planning; 2) establishment of wet biotopes; 3) construction of ecological corridors; 4) restoration of damaged forest ecosystems; and 5) ecological restoration of the roadside slopes that are linked with the surrounding forest. A master plan has been developed based on the detailed goals. The master plan involves: 1) establishment of a natural river, wet biotopes, and ecological corridors that facilitate the movement of amphibians, wild fowls, mammalians and fish; 2) development of a planting plan for the visitor center, the tunnel entrance, and soundproof banks; and 3) the presentation of a planting model for restoring roadside slopes that are connected to the surrounding forest. The eco-road plan needs to entail ecological conservation and restoration plans. In addition, a monitoring plan for ecological corridors and habitats should be included in the comprehensive plans, along with the continuous development of environmentally friendly technologies.
The Change of Physiological Characteristics as Water Purification Capability by Native Aquatic Plants
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 43~50
This study looked into the water quality improvement effect of reed (Phragmites communis), bur reed (Sparaganium stoloniferum), Alisma canaliculatum, and Hydrocharis dubia in order to develop native hydrophytes suitable to natural-type wetlands for ecological restoration. The result confirms that the concentration of wastewater was lowered in most plants indicating a possibility in wastewater treatment. Among four species, reed (Phragmites communis) and bur reed (Sparaganium stoloniferum) were most effective in removing a majority of contaminants. Considering that reed (Phragmites communis) is a species that has been used most often among hydrophytes, bur reed (Sparaganium stoloniferum), which is a native species in Korea, showed equivalent level of outstanding effect. In the physiological and growing activity and its relations to water quality improvement effect, each species appeared differently. Reed (Phragmites communis) and bur reed (Sparaganium stoloniferum) were best also in physiological and growing activity. In the case of Hydrocharis dubia, growth was strong in polluted water environment but its physiological activity was poor, indicating that it was under stress. The growth and physiological activity of Alisma canaliculatum were also poor, indicating that it too is being stressed. However, measuring organic contents in the plants of each species shows that the organic contents of Alisma canaliculatum was high. Alisma canaliculatum is a species effective in removing pollutants in water, although it is under stress. A unique phenomenon in removing water pollution with plants is that each species removed different pollutants. In the case of Alisma canaliculatum, which was relatively poor in removing pollution, it was remarkable in reducing nitrogen and phosphorus. Hydrocharis dubia was also effective in eliminating floating matter.
The Effect of Urban Shade Trees on the WBGT(Wet Bulb Globe Thermometer Index)
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 51~59
Focusing on WBGT(Wet Bulb Globe Thermometer Index) according to the LAI(Leaf Area Index) variation of trees, this study verifies the effects of urban shade trees on the outdoor thermal environment. As for methodology, air
globe temperature, air humidity and WBGT were measured under three shade trees whose LAIs were 2.1, 4.0 and 8.2 respectively at midday(12:00-13:00) of 14 sunny days from the 4th through the 29th day of September 2003. Those factors were also measured at the unshaded areas and compared with the values of shaded areas. The measured site was paved with interlocking concrete bricks. The measurements were analyzed through the ANCOV A(Analysis of Covariance) and the regression routines of SPSS11 for windows (SPSS Inc., 2001). The major findings were as follows. 1. The direct correlation between WBGT and LAI was very low. On the contrary, the WBGT showed close correlation with air
globe temperature and air humidity, and the LAI also showed very close correlation with globe temperature. These results tell that dominant shading effect by the tree is on the screening of direct solar radiation which lower the globe temperature and WBGT consequently. 2. While the average globe temperatures and WBGT at unshadowed area were 40.4
respectively, the former under the shade tree with LAI 2.1, 4.0 and 8.2 were 34.5
, and the latter were 24.6
respectively. 3. The relationship between LAI(x) and WBGT(y) can be presented with the following equation: y = 24.23+1.53
Evaluation of Eco-Village Planning Characteristics by Introducing Landscape Unit System
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 60~75
The purpose of this research is to evaluate five types of eco-village planning in order to introduce a landscape unit concept and theory in Korea. Although they had different backgrounds and motives of eco-villages planning, their common goal is to always maintain ecological planning and design in their villages. As concrete methods of ecological planning, we suggest three fundamental planning theories. 1. The boundary of a plan unit should be a watershed. 2. The survey and analysis of village ecotopes should be done in that defined watershed. 3. These results should be applied in the site and lot planning of eco-villages. These 3 steps should be done in a process and relevantly. In the evaluation of the five eco-village planning types, we found three results. 1. On a viewpoint of watershed, most planners recognized a watershed in survey and planning stages unconsciously. But they did not mention watersheds concretely and did not use this concept in the planning stage. 2. They did not define the concept of ecotope, but most planners recognized land-uses and vegetations of villages and vicinities as ecotopes. Also these could be proper ecotopes, but they did not use these compartment of ecotopes in the planning of ecosystem structure in villages. In addition, they did not deeply survey and analyze the ecotopes of villages and its vicinity. 3. On the viewpoint of sites and lots planning, they did not relevantly use the characteristics of watersheds and ecotopes in sites and lots planning. Therefore, they failed to implement the indigenous lots and subdivisions plan. In the size of lots and sites, they did not seriously consider the carrying capacity of ecosystem. We hope that our suggestion about the establishment of eco-villages planning is a fundamental theoretical framework of ecological planning in future eco-village planning.
The Psychological Reaction of Landscape Design Elements on the District Unit Plan(DUP)
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 76~90
The purpose of this study is to extract landscape design elements regulation of the District Unit Plan(DUP) in new town areas, and to find out characteristics in terms of urban design elements in comparison with the psychological and physical aspects. For this purpose, we reviewed urban design elements and design elements in terms of the landscape by DUP and analyzed the activation of landscape on the selected case-area by interviewing experts such as planners, public officials, and professors in the department of urban planning and landscape, as well as the university students. The analysis framework for the case-study consists of 4 components: the section of region, street, building, open space, etc. The new development areas in Daejeon Metropolitan City was chosen as the case study area, because they have been developed by DUP regulations. As a result of this study, we can extract characteristics of landscape. The results indicate that `skyline design',`view corridor design',`landscape design',`street furniture design' and `building design(form, height, color, and elevation)' are the key planning and design factors influencing differences in the landscape preference. This research identifies that there are no detailed planning and design guidelines adopted within the four case study areas in Daejeon for regulating the characteristics of skyline, planting and street furniture while detailed guidelines established for density, building height and site layout. Considering their significant correlation with the level of landscape preference, this study suggests that detailed planning and design guidelines for the characteristics of skyline, rooftop and streetscape should be established in future DUP.
A Study on Classification and Preference of Physical Features in Front Plaza of Department Store
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 91~105
Recently the function of a department store has changed to the concept of a multi-functional center because of the alternative stores such as discount stores, home shopping, and internet shopping. This means that the front plaza of a department store is not a personal or private space any more, but a public space. This study focuses on the special character of public space through the classification and preference types of department store front plazas. The major results of this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Components of front plaza of department store are classified by three factors. The first factor, named "space limit", has 14 elements ; the second, named "space decoration" has 16 elements ; third, named "activity", has 2 elements. The first preferred element is easily- used and easily- serviced wide space. The second preferred element is the equipment that is placed linearly along the street. The third preferred element is cultural events. (2) The comparison between the frequency and preference shows that the plazas could not satisfy the user-needs. (3) Preference factors of front plazas were examined to three characters such as familiarity, peculiarity, and openness. Familiarity, peculiarity, openness have a positive correlation in all types. Peculiarity especially influences the other two space - preference factors.
Prediction of Urban Development and Cityscape with a Simulation Model
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 106~113
The shapes(mass) of buildings are determined by many interrelated factors, such as planning and building regulations, the size and shape of building parcels, and adjoining road conditions. Understanding the effects of the determinants on the building shapes is not a simple task because of the multiplicity and complex interrelationships of the determinants. This study developed a prototype of three dimensional computer model that can simulates the determination process of building shape using GIS and CAD techniques. A commercial block in the south of Seoul was selected for the case study. Several methods of building height control were applied, and their effects on the cityscape were evaluated. The results shows that the three dimensional computer modelling offers an effective means for evaluating the effects of planning and building regulations. The implication of the case study and future research directions were discussed.
An Importance-Performance Analysis by Benefit Sought in Neighborhood Park - Focused on the Neighborhood Parks in the City of TaeJon
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 3, 2004, Pages 114~125
On the assumption that marketing is a useful technique to activate park use, this study aims to find what benefits people pursue and how much they attain them through a park visit. To achieve this, the survey of a Benefits-Sought for a park was conducted at four major parks in the city of Taejon and an Importance-Performance Analysis(IPA) was conducted. Additionally, a Present Condition survey was performed with the park managers. As a result, first, it was found that major benefits are a comfortable rest, an escape from bustling city life, to see natural scenery and to promote physical health, and so forth. Second, performance was relatively lower than importance in the case of recreation and leisure activities, which means that facilities should be improved and programs for park use should be developed. Third, at GaYang park, importance and performance are good in balance. DongChunDang park and Seattle park have 5 items and 7 items for which immediate improvements are required. Saemmeury park generally shows good proportions and it can be much activated by improving the learning and experiencing activities. The results objectively show conditions of neighborhood parks in the city of Taejon from a view of park users. Therefore, it is expected that the results would be useful in determining priorities when improving park facilities or their programs.