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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Oct 2004
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Aug 2004
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Apr 2004
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
Constraints and Negotiation Strategies of National Park Visitors
Hong Sung-Kwon ; Jang Ho-Chan ; Lee Seok-Ho ; Kim Jae-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 1~10
This study applied the leisure constraints and negotiation concept to the travel context, especially for traveling in national parks. More specifically, it tries to identify how constraints and negotiation impact a person's travel behavior. The population of this study is the people who intend to visit the national parks for their summer vacations. The data was collected through the panel study, which surveyed the same set of people before and after their trip. Among 527 samples, 39.7％ traveled what they planned without any changes. 24.7％ did not travel or postponed their trip, and 35.7％ enjoyed their vacation but with changes of destination, time or travel periods. These results support that people may use negotiation strategies to overcome their constraints in a travel context. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the impact of constraints on travel behavior among the three groups. The results also confirm that people have to overcome intra-, inter-, and structural constraints for visiting the national parks. Thus, the findings of the study suggest that the concepts of leisure constraints and negotiation is applicable to the travel contexts. Because of its exploratory characteristics, several limitations and cautions were raised.
A Critical Examination of Public Sphere Communication in the Decision-making Process in Relation to Seoul City Hall Plaza
Kim Yun-Geum ; Lee Kyu-Mok ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 11~22
A few years ago, many people proposed that a plaza be added to Seoul City Hall. The proposal, however, did not materialize because of traffic confusion. The June 2002 World Cup cheering in front of Seoul City Hall has prodded the public to reconsider the plaza. Even though the exercise failed to gain support, many democratic procedures, opening a Web page and design competitions, and so on were attempted while the design and management of Seoul City Hall Plaza was being deliberated. In the future, the need for proper communication and democratic procedures in the process of making decisions regarding public spaces is expected to increase because of the strengthening of the requirement of participatory and deliberative democracy. An examination of the nature and extent of the communication that has been carried out in relation to the plan to add a plaza to Seoul City Hall will be very helpful in gathering feedback to guide decision-making in regards to the use of other public spaces. Thus, this study has a three-fold purpose. : (1) to examine the theories that may justify the need for public input in relation to decisions made regarding the use of public spaces, and to propose the criteria to be used for the methods of communication (2) to examine the contents and conflicts of communication in relation to the decision made regarding the design and management of Seoul City Hall Plaza and (3) to examine the potential distortion of that communication by analyzing the communication according to the criteria previously proposed. The study method that is used herein is the analysis of articles about the subject matter, which have been posted on the Seoul City Hall Plaza Website and which have been published in newspapers such as the Chosun ilbo, Donga ilbo, the Jungang ilbo, and the Hankyoreh. Diverse article contents are also discussed. As result, there are many differences in the contents and viewpoints of the newspapers that are included in this study. In addition, the related Internet bulletin board has not been used actively, but has contributed to forming public opinion on this issue. Finally, the public demanded to be given acceptable reasons for the results of the design competition, and for the decision to make the grass plaza, which ignores the chosen design in the newspapers or on the Web page. However, their demand was rejected. The communication therefore became distorted and consequently did not become successful in bringing about its intended result.
A Study on Suitable Illuminance by Spaces in Urban Parks
Kim Jin-Seon ; Choi Yeon-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 23~34
In this study, 1 dependent variable and 9 independent variables were established to examine suitable illuminance by spaces in urban parks in consideration of night users' psychological reactions and activity types. Such fixed variables were evaluated by a series of experiments of changing illuminance, and correlation among those variables was verified by correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis to suggest suitable illuminance by spaces. The results of this study are as follows: 1) The independent variables influencing suitable illuminance by spaces in urban parks were directly influenced rather by the psychological reaction of night users than the activity types by spatial functions. 2) Securing suitable illuminance by spaces commonly increased spatial availability, created certain atmosphere, and provided safety in the psychological reaction of night users. 3) Suitable illuminance by spaces in urban parks is: Central square is 31.88lx, resting space 6.30lx, exercising space 33.14lx, children's playground 14.19lx, pedestrian road 12.29lx, entry space 16.30lx, and green space 7.03lx. That is, when a place had more positive activities, spatial illuminance was increased. 4) Though comparison by spaces with the illuminance standard for urban parks as mentioned in KS A 3011-1993 can not be made, such illuminance was relatively compatible with the permissible range of illuminance in the author's opinion. It is expected that this study investigating suitable illuminance by spaces for night use in urban parks, will provide necessary knowledge for securing suitable illuminance by spaces in urban parks through classifyingin detail the illuminance standard of KS A 3011-1993. Besides, by helping make us aware of the importance of illuminance in urban parks as well as of external space in the night, this study will contribute to academic research and development in the field of landscape architecture and associated fields and be utilized in establishing legal and institutional standards.
Traffic Noise Reduction of Sunken Squares
Min Jang-Ki ; Chang Tai-Hyun ; Jung Jae-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 35~42
This study examines the traffic noise reduction effects of the diverse efficiency features of a sunken square, and investigates the reduction effects and characteristics of noise alterations according to the construction conditions in order to verify its possibility as a new noise reduction facility. The measured data were analyzed. As a result, (1) the traffic noise from the roads around the sunken squares exceeded the regulatory standards; (2) the sunken squares were protected from noise; (3) the sunken spaces yielded a greater reduction by 6∼7dB than the flat ground thanks to the diffraction effect; and (4) there were fine changes to noise according to the conditions of space construction. In short, a sunken square has the potential to afford new applications as a noise reduction facility in a highly concentrated downtown with the existing defects solved. In addition, its use for effective noise control is evident based on the noise characteristics of a space. Future studies need to include efforts to provide clearer quantitative data, as well as research on shape, layout, and materials.
Psychological Character Analysis of Pavement Materials
Kim Dae-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 43~51
Recently, the importance of choosing correct pavement materials has been increasing in urban spaces and streets. Much research regarding the pavement theory and construction method have been conducted, but analysis in terms of human psychological character has not yet been performed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological characters to 12 pavement materials, that are commonly used in our urban spaces and streets. The results of the psychological character for each pavement material can be summarized as follows: 1. The psychological characters to each pavement material were as follows: ① Clay embodies a natural, traditional, soft and intimate psychological character; ② Pebble stone has a natural, hard, cool and intimate psychological character; ③ Turf grass incorporates an intimate and soft psychological character; ④ Ceramic brick has an artificial and hard psychological character; ⑤ Tile pavement has a modern, artificial, hard and cool psychological character; ⑥ Water permeable concrete has a modern and artificial psychological character; ⑦ Flag stone has a natural psychological character; ⑧ Granite has a modern and artificial psychological character; ⑨ Portland concrete has an artificial and hard psychological character; ⑩ Small compacted brick has an artificial, dynamic and modern psychological character; ⑪ Wood block pavement has a natural and traditional psychological character; ⑫ Asphalt concrete pavement has a modern, hard and artificial character. 2. On the results of the cluster analysis regarding psychological indexes for 12 pavement materials, pavement materials were categorized in 3 clusters. Among them, one cluster was mainly used as the most popular pavement material in our urban spaces and streets. From this point of view, psychological character for pavement material in our urban spaces and streets was not as various as we expected. 3. In conclusion, the proper selection of pavement materials was very important and the factors affecting the human psychological character should be considered in the design of urban spaces and streets.
How to Choose the Species of Trees on the Afforestation Project of Shilla Dynasty′s Capital Forest
Kim Yoon-Ha ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 52~62
This research is basic research about 「the afforestation project of the Shilla Dynasty's capital forest」 which is controlled by the research institute of forest and environment of Kyungbuk province. The results of the investigation about target places and selection of major species of trees is as follows. 1. In the Shilla Dynasty's times, the peach tree was the indicator of unusual changes in weather, and was also the symbol of unsurpassed beauty. Peach trees were so prevalent that people called the forest peach-hill or peach-forest. Therefore, the main tree of Shilla Dynasty's capital forest would have to be a peach tree. 2. From several records, pine and bamboo were planted or grown together. The pattern of planting trees like this case is also historic, so should be utilized positively. 3. In order to afforest the capital forest, the bamboos have to be planted on Nam-mountain in Kyung-ju, and maple trees have to be planted on Kumgang mountain. 4. There were many big trees during the Shilla Dynasty, and the name of one of the Six Main Villages was 'Big Tree Village'. Therefore, big and long-lived trees have to be planted also. 5. The willow tree has to be considered for afforesting the capital forest even though the willow trees are misunderstood to cause allergies. They are traditional landscape architecture trees. In the traditional literature, the willow tree stands for good news. 6. Japanese cornellian cherry(Cornus officinalis), which is related with old narrative literature in the era of King Kyungmun, has to be planted for the forest, and has to be considered to be an educational tree. 7. Korean Rhododendron, which is related with Madam Suro's story, has to be planted in stone gardens.8. Lotus, Korean pulsatilla, Boxwood, Bombycis Mulberry, and Japanese Apricot have been recorded just one time, but these are also important plants which have to be reflected on afforestation of capital forest project. 9. The forests of Shilla on the old records exist in 17 places. The afforestation project has to be undertaken at these places. 10. The people of Shilla deified the forest and trees, which were the places where ancestral rites had been performed. For example, Gyerim, Sinyurim, and Wanggasu were the sacred forests of the capital forest.
Effects of Soil, Water Level and Shading on Growth of Acorus calamus var. angustatus
Shin Seung-Hoon ; Kim Min-Soo ; Kim Yoon-Ha ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 63~72
This study was carried out to analyze effects of soil, water level and shading on growth of sweet flag(Acorus calamus var. angustatus). Three types of soil were used, which included sandy, silty loam and paddy loam soil. Three levels of shading were applied in the experiment: no shading, 55％ shading and 75％ shading. The water levels were also adjusted to three levels in the experiment. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The cultivation of sweet flag in sandy soil with low water level resulted in decreased fresh weight compared to that at planting. This result indicates that the water level should be maintained higher than the soil surface for sweet flag growth in sandy soil. 2. 5 out of 72 sweet flags died in paddy loam soil. Water saturation of soil easily reduced paddy loam soil, and root growth of sweet flags in reduced soil condition were restricted, resulting in the dead plants. 3. The growth of sweet flag in paddy loam soil was worse than those in silty loam, indicating that reduced soil conditions in paddy loam is harmful to root growth. In planting sweet flags in paddy loam, improved soil aeration in paddy loam soil is necessary for good growth of sweet flag. 4. The maintaining of high water levels is better than that of low water levels in sweet flag cultivation. During winter, soil near the water surface froze and sweet flags in frozen soil were stressed physiologically. Maintaining high water levels prevents soil from being frozen which is good for the growth of sweet flags. 5. There was not significant difference in the growth of the sweet flag between non-shading and 55％ shading. It thus appears that sweet flags can grow soundly under shading rate lower than 55％.
Review of Issues and Problems in Using Landscape Ecology Indices
Lee Sang-Woo ; Yoon Eun-Joo ; Lee In-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 73~83
Ecological Management Plan Based on Environmental and Ecological Characteristics for the Tancheon Ecosystem Conservation Area in Seoul
Han Bong-Ho ; Kim Jong-Yeop ; Hong Suk-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 84~101
This study presents an ecological management plan for wildbird habitat conservation, an nature-friendly enhancement of bio-diversity using the riverside of the Tancheon Ecosystem Conservation Area in Seoul by analyzing environmental and ecological characteristics. As a result of analyzing actual vegetation, vegetation type was classified into 34 types. Humulus japonicus association covers an area of 441,568.6㎡(31.44％), and Artemisia princeps var. orientalis association covers an area of 89,690.1㎡(6.39％). Sandy plain as valuable wildbird habitat covers an area of 89,965.9㎡(6.4％). 125 taxa including 34 families, 93 genera, 107 species, and 18 varieties were recorded and the number of naturalized plants were 41 taxa at the survey site. Total naturalized index(NI) and urbanized index(UI) were recorded as 32.8％, and 15.5％. As a result of analyzing the herb plants association structure by surveying 8 belt-transects, the humid native plants was dominant in the partially adjacent revetment edge and damp riverside. On the other hand, naturalized plants was so extensively dominant that it was necessary to establish an ecological management plan. The observed wildbirds belonged to 50 species, 6,118 individuals, and 7 restricted species by law, which were Accipiter gentilis, Falco tinnunculus, Buteo hemilasius, and Buteo buteo. Oriolus chinensis,Hirundo rustica, and Alcedo atthis. The ecological administration plan for Tancheon Ecosystem Conservation Area as follows: in ecological land-use planning, the conservation area(695,518.5㎡) has native woody and herb vegetation and sandy plain with water as an wildbird habitat. The restoration area(653,702.7㎡) has a naturalized plants distribution are with artificial revetment. The nature-friendly Riverside Area(55,414.9㎡) was an easily approached area with damaged riverside vegetation, and a safe area to wildbird habitat. In riverside restoration planning, the artificial riverside should be restored to its natural riverside vegetation, and the artificial embankment should be restored with edge shrubs for wildbird habitat or revegetated for natural riverside landscape. For naturalized plants management planning, we selected naturalized plant species to be weeded out, and suggested an application method for ecological management.
Ecological Management Plan and Biotope Structure of Namsan Urban Natural Park in Seoul
Lee Kyong-Jae ; Han Bong-Ho ; Lee Soo-Dong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 102~118
The purpose of this study was to propose an ecological management plan by the comprehensive analysis of biotope structures on Namsan Urban Natural Park in Seoul. Classified by actual vegetation, structure of layer and vegetation damage, biotope structures were composed of forest area, compact management area, herb area, cultivated area and non-ecology(urban) area. Succession had seened to stop in the Native forest. Artifical forest was divided into two types. The first, upper layer, was too dense to accommodate lower layer plants, the other case was the appearance of Quercus spp. and the first stage plants of succession following the declination of the upper layer plants. The soil pH of Nam-san Urban Park was 4.21∼4.51, which meant the soil was becoming acid. As the result of acidity, leaching of available nutrition(K/sup +/, NH₄/sup +/, Ca/sup ++/ etc.) was immediately influenced by the natural ecosystem, influence of acid rain was disturbed to becoming organic matter which was use to plants. In the case of a biotope structure management plan, the urban area was prohibited to spread outside. Cultivated and herb area was regenerated to natural forest. In the forest area, the compact management area was maintained with its present condition, and then it is desirable to make a preservation area and to plant shrubs. Planted Pinus densiflora Community was needed to eliminate competitive species of canopy layer, and plant shrubs. Management of deciduous broad-leaved Comm. was maintained in its present conditionand it is desirable to raise the diversity of the understory and shrub layer. The management of the artifical forest seems to be suitable for Q. spp. community. The care of naturalized plants prevents the expansion and restores the structure of wild plants. The soil management was a marked restoration soil ecosystem in order to prevent soil acid and drying.
Landscape Design for the Song-Do Apartment Complex Development
Kim Do-Kyong ; Ahn Se-Hyon ; Joo Shin-Ha ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 119~128
In 2004, the Incheon Urban Development Corporation held a design competition for the Song-Do apartment complex development. Several projects that won the prize in the recent design competitions were reviewed to look around the current design tendency, and current conditions of the site were surveyed. The authors tried to combine digital and environment-friendly factors, considering the site condition. Because the site is on reclaimed land and is located at the center of the information-technology industrial area, these two factors inform the main concept of this project. The site was divided into two different zones : the Ocean Zone and the Digital Zone. The 'community spaces'(community street, community plaza and so on) were designed for the various activities of the residents. The Patios, 'private' community spaces, included many facilities for play, appreciation, rest, exercise, refreshment and gathering. To avoid common landscape styles in the patios, simple and minimal forms were designed. The environmental sculptures were carefully planned, allocated and shaped with digital technology, based on the 'Present and Future of Song-Do'. The authors also tried to introduce environment-friendly factors, such as the green roof system, wall planting, and the water recycling system. This project is following the M.A. (Master Architect) process, and is still being modified to make the hi-tech and environment-friendly apartment complex.
Chi-chi Earthquake Memorial Park, Taiwan - Approach and Design Process-
Kim Jungyoon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 32, issue 5, 2004, Pages 129~138
Cherishing the dead is based in sadness. Designing a memorial space therefore has an inherent challenge to evoke the feeling that is so personal and varied by providing a physical space. The tendency of memorials, especially in the US after the mid 20th century, has been to emphasis each dead individual, as seen at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D. C., the Oklahoma City National Memorial in Oklahoma City, and so forth. In the process of designing the memorial of the Taiwanese Chi-chi earth-quake, Cheng Kim Park Robidoux tried to set up a series of spaces through which not only the relatives of the dead but also unrelated visitors could have their own spatial experiences, private rituals and public events, so that they can finally build up a collective memory. Sky-Well consists of a large bamboo forest enclosing a void. Without a particular entrance and guiding system, visitors stroll and get lost in the bamboo forest before they find the central void. The horror they experienced during the earthquake is melted down into the motion and phenomenology of the bamboo forest whereas the central void is reinterpreted as an empty mind, where people find solace from the sky. Details, such as the bamboo wall to place commemorative flowers and lotus blossom paving, are echoing the theme of rebirth.