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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Dec 2008
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Oct 2008
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Aug 2008
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Apr 2008
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
A Proposal of Bus Stop Park for the Improvement of Urban Street Environment
Sim, Woo-Kyung ; Kim, Soo-Jin ; Choi, Young-Jin ; Jung, Hae-Joon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 1~13
Bus stops are places that a variety of things happen including waiting, meeting and taking breaks. Therefore, these locations need to be made to meet the usage demands. They should be landscaped to provide a comfortable and satisfying environment for users. At present, bus stops are made with artificial materials and are all unified in form without consideration to landscape, ecology and other characteristics. Users are exposed to the poor surroundings. However, if small urban parks, which are of vital importance as well as extremely convenient, were connected to bus stops, the results would be a quantitative increase in the leisure locations and a qualitative change in the form of improved landscape and various forms of parks. The research was carried out to determine the effects of connecting bus stops and small parks, and the results are as follows. First, small parks provide resting areas for waiting passengers and buses. Second, it provides presently insufficient rest areas with convenience facilities and makes it more comfortable to take buses and use the park. Third, it provides a multi-functional efficient use of space that functions as both bus stop and park. Fourth, it can be a symbolic landmark that can represent the color of the area by adding a cultural element. Fifth, the existing green space in the park can contribute to the natural environment of the city. This study deduced general problems surrounding bus stops on the basis of selected indices and researched bus stops which are being used as parks and the places which have the potential for such purposes, in order to suggest a plan of attack. In addition, this proposal can create a new form of space, the bus stop park, and try to create a module of cases to establish it.
Landscape Design Proposal for Seoul Yeouido Riverside Park
Kim, Do-Kyong ; Choi, Won-Man ; Hong, Hyoung-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 14~23
Ran Gang is a huge, attractive river which meanders through Seoul, the capital of South Korea. However, during the modernization of Seoul, the river gradually lost its natural beauty and healthy condition. Han Gang Renaissance is a project to upgrade the look of the Seoul waterfront, by overcoming this disaster and reorganizing the surroundings of Han Gang. This research articulates the design strategies and description of the prizewinning work of the International Design Competition for Yeouido Riverside Park that was linked to the Han Gang Renaissance Project. There are three key points that basically speak to the identity of the new waterfront, Yeouido Riverside Park. First, the current day Yeouido was recreated as an artificial island through the rapid expansion of the city and the initiation of the shore protection works. However, because it is the only island still remaining that shows the history of Han Gang, the park was designed to be the place which preserves the lyric of sand island and the emotional memory of riverside. Secondly, among the six districts of the Han Gang Renaissance Project, the two districts that are facing each other, Yongsan and Yeouido, are the central areas promoting international finance and business. Despite Yongsan's complete urban image, the exquisite harmony of pastoral scenes and skyscrapers of the Yeouido waterfront is presented to develop an active mutual relation with Yongsan. Lastly, this design scheme re-establishes the relationship between this competition's site, Yeouido Riverside Park, and a neighboring site, Yeouido Park.
A Study on the Criteria for Demarcating Ecological Types of Urban Areas by the Affection of Ecosystems - Case Study in Gangdong-Gu, Seoul -
Hong, Suk-Hwan ; Lee, Kyong-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 24~31
Studies for demarcation of urban areas by ecological type have been developed, but the demarcation of urban areas by ecological perception is thus far dependent on artificial land use. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find factors that account for the urban area ecosystems by surveying a variety of ecosystem factors. By land use type, the urban area of Gangdong District, Seoul was defined. Then ecological factors in each polygon were surveyed. Ecological factors are associated with energy use(building coverage ratio, floor area ratio and ground temperature), water circulation(biotope area factors and impermeable pave ratio) and biological diversity(bird appearance index and green area ratio). The correlation between each factor was analyzed. The results indicate that urban ground temperature is divided into three groups(high, middle and low) by the biotope area factor. The bird population is divided into two groups(abundant and scarce) by the green area ratio. Therefore, demarcating the urban areas by ecological type is applicable to the biotope area factor and green area ratio.
The Environmental and Ecological Meaning of Bibo Landscape in Otgol Village
Jang, Byoung-Kwan ; Whang, Bo-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 32~41
An empirical study and environmental and ecological analysis were conducted on Otgol Village(a village of the Gyeongju Choi's clan in Daegu) where an enclosed pond and groves are still observed. In particular, the enclosed pond and groves and village water system were investigated from an ecological perspective. The enclosed landscape is described based on feng shui principles and the environmental and ecological significance were examined. In general, the environmental and ecological significance is very broad; however, they were analyzed in terms of the quality of life as an empirical study as follows: First, water quality was measured to investigate the improvement of continuous water system functions. In other words, water quality was measured at East Valley(resting space), West Valley(living space), the enclosed pond where the two valleys merge, and the stream that flows out of the pond. Second, the climate functions of the enclosed groves that border the village were examined. In other words, temperature was measured in two places(200m distance from the center of the groves). Third, whether or not a sound ecosystem can be sustained was investigated. In other words, landscape ecological indicators were chosen and measured. The results are as follows: First, the enclosed pond played the role of purifying water quality. While the East Valley has been popular with men for its rock walls and torrents, the West Valley has been popular with women as a living space(ex: doing the laundry). Therefore, the difference of water quality can be explained. Second, since enclosed groves are in a small village forest, they are very weak in terms of being wind proof and temperature reduction effects. Instead, they play the role of the village boundary. Third, the groves are ecologically sound considering the landscape ecological indicators and are similar to ordinary traditional rural villages. In terms of the connection of the green zone, the village groves are well connected to the village boundary wood. If the village groves are restored, in particular, they would offer a decent habitat for grove creatures. According to this study, the traditional village space was formed upon the influence of Feng Shui theories that are based on environmental and ecological principles that focus on the harmony between humans and nature. From the environmental and ecological perspective, the enclosed pond and groves are important factors in building a sustainable village. The diverse water space would help to improve water quality and increase water volume by promoting the water circulation system. In addition, the village woods would surround the village and decrease the temperature and humidity difference between winter and summer. If the groves are small and badly damaged, however, they are meaningful only in dividing the region. The overall improvement of a forestation system and botanical composition may increase the biological diversity and promote the migration of species. Otgol Village has developed an enclosed landscape to improve the village environment. In other words, a sound and refreshing living environment can be developed when the natural ecological system is well understood and properly preserved. Additionally, this traditional village planning will be the environmental and ecological method. From the perspective of environmental ecology, therefore, a traditional village is recommended.
Planting Characteristics of Pyeonghwa Park in World Cup Park, Seoul
Han, Bong-Ho ; Bae, Jung-Hee ; Kim, Ji-Suk ; Lee, Kyong-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 42~52
This paper categorized the functions of and investigated the characteristics of planting in Pyeonghwa Park near the Seoul World Cup Stadium as a preliminary study for improving tree planting in the park. The functions of planting were deduced based on related theoretical studies and an analysis of the intention of design and environmental factors. The characteristics of planting were analyzed after drawing the distribution and stratification of dominant planting species and setting samples by function. The functions of planting were classified into natural landscape planting, buffer planting, and shade planting. For dominant planting species, pine trees and elm-like trees have been widely observed while various species in addition to pine trees in natural landscape planting areas have been introduced in terms of the function of planting. These trees that were randomly planted before the park was developed have been obstacles in the formation of natural landscapes. For buffer planting and topographical correction, tall trees were planted. However, it seems that comprehensive complementary measures should be taken on the under-story planting.
A Study on the Visual Satisfaction of a Panel-type Facade Planting
Han, Seung-Ho ; Kim, Sun-Hae ; Song, Kyu-Seong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 53~59
As cities become more industrial and modern, they become overcrowded and the construction zones increase accordingly. In particular, the demand for panel-type planting methods has gradually increased due to early planting and easy installation. However, studies on panel-type planting have strictly concentrated on the vegetation sub system or irrigation system without any interest in landscape-centered system. Factors of preference will be made through landscape evaluation on the panel-type facade planting. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a location where panel-type facade planting was available. In terms of responses to the facade planting, 'natural (3.80)' was the highest, followed by 'friendly (3.70),' 'comfortable (3.65),' 'beautiful (3.65),' and 'peaceful (3.50).' On the contrary, negative responses such as 'too quiet,' 'simple,' 'heavy,' 'gloomy,' 'dark,' and 'dirty' were also received. It is thought that these responses refer to the poor management of the area. The results of this study will be useful as basic data for the development and distribution of panel-type facade planting.
An Approach to Enhance the Unfair Area in the Rural Landscape
Jang, Gab-Sue ; Park, In-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 60~68
Three land-use limitations including water hazard, soil erosion and fallow potential were evaluated to define an unfair area. Landscape indices in the unfair areas, defined by evaluations before and after landscape enhancement, were computed by Fragstats v3.3 and compared in order to propose a landscape enhancement plan. The results are as follows: First, as a result of the land evaluation, 388.56ha was analyzed for the 1st class(S1), 623.25ha for the 2nd class(S2), 138.08ha(S3s: 82.47ha, S3e: 51.88ha) for the 3rd class(S3), 230.44ha(N1w: 194.91ha, N1e: 23.09ha, N1es: 13.94ha) for the 4th class(N1), and 67.91ha(N2w: 60. 89ha, N2es: 7.02ha) for the 5th class(N2). The classes under the 3rd class(including the 3rd class) were determined as an unfair area, and proposed landscape enhancement for them. Second, it was proposed that unfair areas with potential water hazards(N1 w, N2w) be restored as a wetland and buffer zone. At this point, the farmers owning these fields could be compensated using the direct payment for landscape conservation(DPLC). Areas witha relatively lower slope(S3e) or a steep slope(N1e) containing soil erodibility potential were proposed to be restored as a sod-culture-applied field and substitute vegetation or potentially natural vegetation, respectively. The unfair areas having fallow potential(S3s, N1es, N2es) were proposed to apply special use crops for the S3s fields, native plants for the N1es fields, and intended fallow for the N2es fields. Third, after landscape enhancement, theforest had higher values in the indices of NP, PLAND, LSI, IJI, and TCA, while paddy and upland had lower values in most indices except NP and LSI. The forest patches increased and were more plentiful with their restoration and had much greater possibility to join with nearby patches. With continued restoration, forest patches will have a large core area and small number of patches due to the conglomeration of patches, which positively influences the species of diversity in the forest patches.
Analysis of Scale Sensitivity of Landscape Indices for the Assessment of Urban Green Areas
Lee, In-Sung ; Yoon, Eun-Joo ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 69~79
Landscape indices are effective tools to explain the spatial structure and patterns of ecological landscape including area/density, shape, core area, isolation/proximity, contagion/interspersion, and connectivity. More than 100 indices have been developed and an increasing amount of research explains changes in urban spaces using the indices. However, landscape indices have a high level of sensitivity to the scale of analysis - grain size and extent. If the scale sensitivity of indices is not considered, the research may produce inaccurate results. This study examines the scale sensitivity of landscape indices to find relatively stable indices in the complex geographical features of Korea. The scale sensitivity was analyzed using 20 categories of grain size and 41 categories of extent change. Landsat TM and ETM+ images of five years - 1985, 1991, 1996, 2000 and 2003 - were used, and 54 class level indices mounted on the FRAGSTATS program were examined. The results are as follows: First, according to the analysis of the scale sensitivity, 19 out of 54 class level indices were found to be stable to scale change. Second, the scale sensitivity was closely related to the green area ratio, and the typical threshold of change was
. Third, among the 16 indices which were frequently used in the research in Korea, only 6 indices were relatively stable to the scale change. These results can be an effective basis for the selection of indices in the landscape ecology research in Korea.
Trend Analysis of Strategic Factors to Promote the Image of Cities
Byeon, Jae-Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 80~98
In the past, the purpose of urban landscape planning was to beautify cities. Now, that is changing as cities with their own characteristic identities and images are focusing on the making of livable cities. The subject of international competition is turning from a country objective to that of individual cities. To increase the attraction of the urban image will, therefore, be the most important and urgent policy in all cities. A city without global competitiveness will be demoted to a sub-city. This study intends to suggest strategic ways to improve the urban image suitable for Korean cities by the analysis and classification of the advanced cases in other countries. This study can be summarized as follows: 1. The image of cities is promoted by diverse strategies such as establishing landmarks, making meaningful places, hosting festivals and sports events, and making cultural policies. These strategies can be classified by three factors: the landscape and ecological factor, the historical and cultural factor, and the administrative and economic factor. 2. Korean cities are making efforts to promote their images through a variety of ways. Mega cities in Korea are steadily carrying out projects to use the administrative and economic factor such as expanding the infrastructure, supporting enterprises, advertising and marketing with accumulated capital. However, local small cities mainly depend on festivals and simple events or programs that are of interest but which lack characteristic identity. 3. Cities of advanced western countries are upgrading their images by finding and applying strategic methods to reflect characteristic identity and to keep in step with the changes of the times. On the other hand, cities in Japan try to promote urban image with traditional native festivals and with the making of livable places based on resident participation. The central government in Korea needs to establish a master plan considering the regional balance to improve the image of each city. Local governments should carry out these diverse strategic methods. The task after benchmarking advanced cities with beautiful landscapes will be to find an 'All-Korean Style' and apply it to cities with characteristic image.
A Study on Changes of Ready Constructed Record in Landscape Construction Industry
Lee, Sang-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 36, issue 2, 2008, Pages 99~112
The purpose of this study was to analyze on changes of ready constructed record(RCR) in landscape construction industry for 10 years from 1997 to 2006. For the study, according to the classification system of Korea construction industry, landscape construction industry were classified into landscape constructor as a general constructor, landscape planting constructor and landscape facilities constructor as special constructors. The results are as follows: 1. The RCR in landscape construction industry have increased for 10 years higher than other construction industry. Concretely the RCR ratio of landscape constructor has increased 0.9% in 1997 to 1.9% in 2006, the RCR ratio of landscape planting constructor 1.3% to 2.5%, and the RCR ratio of landscape facilities constructor 0.5% to 1.5%. Futhermore this increasing trend has been strengthened during the last a few years. 2. Differently from landscape constructor, the subcontract ratio of landscape planting constructor and landscape facilities constructor were higher, especially landscape facilities constructor was highest amount for 71.1% in the subcontract ratio. 3. The RCR of landscape construction industry in the metropolitan area including Seoul, Kyunggi, was higher than other region's, and the ratio of RCR of landscape constructor in this area was 53.5%, landscape planting constructor's 58.2%, and landscape facilities constructor 75.0%. 4. The yearly RCR per company and the RCR by project of landscape constructor and landscape planting constructor were stagnant. However, landscape facilities constructor's RCR showed an upward trend as years go by. This study was focused on the RCR of landscape construction industry, further study on the factors to affect the RCR of landscape construction industry and the RCR by project types is required in the near future.