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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Dec 2009
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Oct 2009
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Aug 2009
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Apr 2009
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
An Analysis of Satisfaction with School Forest Using Triangular Fuzzy Number
Lee, Seul-Gi ; Jang, Jung-Sun ; Jung, Sung-Gwan ; You, Ju-Han ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 1~10
Wooded areas that are a part of school campuses are one type of urban forest. Most schools located in an urban environment make an excellent setting for a forest in terms of location and area. These kinds of wooded spaces also make the city greener and healthier. As a place where students spend a great deal of time, schools can also be a venue for environmental education. The creation of wooded areas in schools currently has focused on the end result only; by ignoring student needs and participation, these areas have not had a significant influence on student environmental education. Previous studies based on questionnaire survey are significant in that they have quantified subjective qualitative data via Likert Scale. There has been, however, a problem in quantifying the more ambiguous subjective data. Therefore, this paper has attempted to investigate those factors that have an influence on student satisfaction with the wooded areas of their school campus using Fuzzy Theory with elementary school students in Gyeongsangbuk-do. A change was observed in terms of the ranking of arithmetic mean values of 'school peculiarity' and 'emotion evolution' and center of gravity, which has adopted Fuzzy Theory, proving that Fuzzy Theory could rationally objectify qualitative data such as human thoughts. In terms of the influential factors on the satisfaction with school forests(regression coefficient), 'school uniqueness(0.159)' was the highest, followed by 'many trees(0.142),' 'importance of nature(0.136)' and 'emotion evolution(0.130).' This paper may therefore be useful as basic data for objective questionnaire surveys and the development of school forests.
Preference and Service Satisfaction of Campsite Visitors - Focus on Wolaksan.Sokrisan National Park -
Ryu, Jae-Seung ; Kim, Ha-Jong ; Kim, Jin-Seon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 11~20
The purpose of this study is to analyze visitor preferences and the degree of service satisfaction for campsites and investigate factors that influence visitor satisfaction so that the study may provide proper data needed to build and operate campsites. The results are as follows. 1. It was found that men use campsites more frequently than women. Campsites are most often used by those in their thirties, the highest percentage out of all the age groups. Relaxation proved to be the main purpose for using campsites. It was also found that usually 2 to 4 people use a campsite at a time, the highest percentage as well. 2. The factor-analysis of 13 items related to campsite satisfaction can be divided into facilities, psychological factors, the surrounding-environment and access. 3. It was found that the satisfaction of lavatories has the most influence in the facilities factor. The satisfaction on the intention to revisit has the most influence in the psychological factor. The landscape element has the most influence in regards to the surrounding-environment and the guidance and sign system has the most influence in the access factor. 4. It was found that the factors that most influence overall satisfaction are facilities factor, psychological factors and the surrounding environment, in that order.
Difference in the Sense of Community in Open-Structure Central Squares in Apartment Complexes
Kang, Yon-Ju ; Park, Jong-Wan ; Im, Seung-Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 21~32
As an alternative for restoring a sense of community which has been broken up due to urban residence redevelopment, this study focuses on structural characteristics according to physical location of central squares in apartment complexes. Central squares do not simply function as inner-aiming and self-completed spaces for the residents, but their role can be expanded to a core location which encourages neighbors to communicate and interact with each other. The suppositions for this study are as follows. Structural characteristics according to the physical locations of the central squares in apartment complexes affect apartment residents' openness toward their neighbors and non-residents' accessibility to the square. At the same time, it influences the sense of community. In addition, psychological distance which is represented as psychological openness and accessibility forms a reciprocal relationship with the sense of community. For the study, we first categorized central squares as either open-structure or closed-structure based on how accessible it is from outside the apartment complex. According to these types of central squares, Sillim Prugio, Banghak Deasang Town Hyundai, Gwanak Prugio and Banghak Samsung Raemian 1 which have similar conditions and different structures were selected as sites of the study. Then each apartment complex was classified by apartment residents and non-residents so that eight groups were prepared for the survey. The results of the questionnaire survey especially regarding measuring the sense of community, psychological openness and accessibility indicated that the suppositions were right. Hence, the sense of community, psychological openness and accessibility are high in a central square with an open-structure while high standards of psychological openness and accessibility guarantee a positive sense of community. This study is meaningful in that it verifies that the physical location of central squares is reciprocally related to psychological openness, accessibility and a sense of community. At the same time, this study may serve as theoretical grounds for the planning and construction of practical central squares.
A Human Resources Study of the Landscape Architecture Industry in Korea
Byeon, Jae-Sang ; Shin, Sang-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 33~45
In the industry of landscape architecture, in which the core of production is manpower, the management of manpower is of utmost importance. The industry of landscape architecture, however, is highly sensitive to economic shifts and policy changes; this sensitivity renders the management of manpower-maintaining the balance between supply and demand-often times difficult. Currently, this vicious circle appears to persist in the sense that the industry suffers from a lack of skilled employees, and a new body of skilled laborers from the paucity of jobs. This study, in analyzing current manpower management as well as the prospective supply and demand in the field, looks forward to the stability of the supply and demand in landscape architecture in the nation. According to this study, the number of new skilled laborers-those who have a higher credential than that of "landscape architect-engineer"-is expected to increase by 10% per year. The number of new skilled laborers being 1,137 in 2008, it can be inferred that there will be a new group of 1,251 skilled laborers in the field in 2009. Meanwhile, estimating that the number of current skilled laborers in the field of landscape architecture is 14,783, the demand for new skilled laborers remains approximately 540. The supply of 1,251 skilled laborers outnumbers the demand of 540 by nearly 230%. Hence, the educational institutions of landscape architecture must be prepared to deal with this imbalance between the excessive supply and the lesser demand of skilled laborers. The issue of the excessive supply of manpower is particularly critical, because it may well undermine the competitiveness of the industry as a whole: compared to other related industries such as architecture and civil engineering, for instance. With the customary validation of long work experience no longer in effect, the need for an engineer's license will keep on increasing. It is time that educational institutions took this issue into full account and helped their students to be better qualified and more competent.
An Application of Satellite Image Analysis to Visualize the Effects of Urban Green Areas on Temperature
Yoon, Min-Ho ; Ahn, Tong-Mahn ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 46~53
Urbanization brings several changes to the natural environment. Its consequences can have a direct effect on climatic features, as in the Urban Heat Island Effect. One factor that directly affects the urban climate is the green area. In urban areas, vegetation is suppressed in order to accommodate manmade buildings and streets. In this paper we analyze the effect of green areas on the urban temperature in Seoul. The period selected for analysis was July 30th, 2007. The ground temperature was measured using Landsat TM satellite imagery. Land cover was calculated in terms of city area, water, bare soil, wet lands, grass lands, forest, and farmland. We extracted the surface temperature using the Linear Regression Model. Then, we did a regression analysis between air temperature at the Automatic Weather Station and surface temperature. Finally, we calculated the temperature decrease area and the population benefits from the green areas. Consequently, we determined that a green area with a radius of 500m will have a temperature reduction area of
, in terms of urban area. This is 11.12% of Seoul's metropolitan area and 18.09% of the Seoul urban area. We can assume that about 1,892,000 people would be affected by this green area's temperature reduction. Also, we randomly chose 50 places to analysis a cross section of temperature reduction area. Temperature differences between the boundaries of green and urban areas are an average of
. The highest temperature difference is
, and the lowest temperature difference is
. This study has demonstrated that we can understand how green areas truly affect air temperature.
Impacts of Three-dimensional Land Cover on Urban Air Temperatures
Jo, Hyun-Kil ; Ahn, Tae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 54~60
The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of three-dimensional land cover on changing urban air temperatures and to explore some strategies of urban landscaping towards mitigation of heat build-up. This study located study spaces within a diameter of 300m around 24 Automatic Weather Stations(AWS) in Seoul, and collected data of diverse variables which could affect summer energy budgets and air temperatures. The study also selected reflecting study objectives 6 smaller-scale spaces with a diameter of 30m in Chuncheon, and measured summer air temperatures and three-dimensional land cover to compare their relationships with results from Seoul's AWS. Linear regression models derived from data of Seoul's AWS revealed that vegetation volume, greenspace area, building volume, building area, population density, and pavement area contributed to a statistically significant change in summer air temperatures. Of these variables, vegetation and building volume indicated the highest accountability for total variability of changes in the air temperatures. Multiple regression models derived from combinations of the significant variables also showed that both vegetation and building volume generated a model with the best fitness. Based on this multiple regression model, a 10% increase of vegetation volume decreased the air temperatures by approximately 0.14%, while a 10% increase of building volume raised them by 0.26%. Relationships between Chuncheon's summer air temperatures and land cover distribution for the smaller-scale spaces also disclosed that the air temperatures were negatively correlated to vegetation volume and greenspace area, while they were positively correlated to hardscape area. Similarly to the case of Seoul's AWS, the air temperatures for the smaller-scale spaces decreased by 0.32% (
) as vegetation volume increased by 10%, based on the most appropriate linear model. Thus, urban landscaping for the reduction of summer air temperatures requires strategies to improve vegetation volume and simultaneously to decrease building volume. For Seoul's AWS, the impact of building volume on changing the air temperatures was about 2 times greater than that of vegetation volume. Wall and rooftop greening for shading and evapotranspiration is suggested to control atmospheric heating by three-dimensional building surfaces, enlarging vegetation volume through multilayered plantings on soil surfaces.
Curved Screen Display Immersion Simulation System for Landscape Evaluation
Chang, Jong-Hyun ; Kim, Choong-Sik ; Lee, In-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 61~68
The objective of this study was to examine the possibility of utilizing the immersion stereoscopic image with a curved-screen-display as a tool for evaluating the landscape. The curved-screen-display ensures the continuity of the image and can be simultaneously evaluated by many people. Fifty-meter-wide Gangnamdaero Boulevard in Seoul was selected for this study, and the simulation was done using computer graphics. With the computer simulation, a questionnaire on landscape preferences was conducted according to different visual environments (immersion, non-immersion) and different projection types(stereoscopic or plane image). In the results of this study, the landscape preference was largely dependent on the immersion environment. Using the immersion-type simulation, the observer can easily evaluate the preference with higher judgment power. The stereoscope or plane projection type does not have any significant result in terms of its judgment power. This result implies that it is very important to strengthen the sense of immersion by expanding the screen into an angled view in which the observer can become immersed while making and projecting the simulation to evaluate the landscape. As a landscape evaluation tool for examining the efficiency and usefulness of immersion simulation, this study has limitations in that it controls many factors in street landscape that adversely affect judgment. Accordingly, a detailed comparison and verification of the stereoscopic image in various environments, including street width and building height ratio, must be conducted.
Evaluating Objective Landscape of Rural Region Using Additive Integration Index Calculation Model - Focused on Seondong Region, Gochang-Gun, Jeollabuk-Do, Korea -
Ban, Yong-Un ; Lee, Yong-Hoon ; Na, Sang-Il ; Youn, Joong-Shuk ; Baek, Jong-In ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 69~81
This study was intended to evaluate the objective landscape of rural region using an additive integration index method in the Seondong region of Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea. This study consisted of the following three steps. First, this study developed an additive integration index calculation model for landscape assessment based on indicators and weight to each space type in accordance with three landscape fields which were developed by the expert Delphi method. Second, this study used NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and permeable area rate, which were available from high resolution satellite image, to calculate the green naturality degree, area rate, and building coverage respectively. Third, this study has calculated the landscape assessment index of rural regions using an additive integration index method made of assessment data and weight for each indicator. This study has found the following results: 1) landscape level was very poor in all 6 types of space, marking grade five; 2) while the highest level of natural landscape and mixed landscape was grade two, that of artificial landscape was grade five; 3) based on objective landscape, grade five showed the highest frequency, and grade one, two, three, and four followed in that order.
A Study on Rural Landscape Planning Based on Rural Village Landscape - A Case Study on Yacksan at Wando -
Kim, Seong-Hak ; Yang, Byoung-E ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 82~90
The aim of this study is to identify the spatial foundation units required to execute a rural village landscape plan. Though there have been various previous studies on spatial foundation units for rural space and landscape elements, they are limited in clarifying the landscape identity of a rural village unit in creating a feasible a rural village landscape plan. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the natural spatial features of a rural village and then establish a landscape identity for each space by exploring the landscape elements for each rural village unit set as the basic unit. Accordingly, the basic spatial unit was analyzed through a 1:5000 scale mapping by applying geomancy theory to the spatial landscape unit in a naturally generated rural village. The spatial limitations for a rural village landscape were set based on the analysis. Afterwards, a field study on the feasibility of whether or not setting a space as the basic unit for landscape could have a sense of identity as a single landscape unit for verification was processed, and the spatial limitations for the landscape were adjusted. Moreover, landscape elements were investigated by classifying landscape resources based on rural amenity resources which have been diversely researched in terms of the set spatial boundaries, and the sense of identity for each landscape foundation unit was looked into. While the numerous preceding studies focused on exploring the rural landscape value and findingout the sense of identity on landscape elements, it is high time for feasible and applicable studies in conducting region-specific landscape plans. In particular, similar outcomes from all landscape plans, even those with the same purpose established in various regions, is not a desirable outcome. Therefore, a basic framework is needed to discover the landscape identity generated by each plan in a rural area space. In this sense, this study is significant in that itcan be utilized to establish spatial identity of each region and landscape features of each rural village, and come up with realistic alternatives in landscape plans for each region by exploring the landscape identity in each specific space divided per watershed in a single zone.
A Study on the Traditionary Famous Scenaries of Jeju-island through T'amna-Sipkyung and T'amna-Sullyokto
Rho, Jae-Hyun ; Shin, Byung-Chul ; Han, Sang-Yub ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 91~104
This paper attempts to look at the identity of the traditional famous sceneries of Jeju Island by investigating the relationship between 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung(瀛州十二景)', which are the representative beautiful scenes of Jeju Island, and two paintings 'T'amna-Sipkyungtdo(耽羅十景圖)' and 'T'amna-Sullyokto(耽羅巡歷圖)' by a grasp of the contents and meanings of these two paintings. The following are the results of the study. In the 'T'amna-Sipkyung', which is the origin of today's 12 beautiful sceneries of Jeju Island, Baekrokdam and Youngsil are both symbolic places and the backdrops against which Jeju's myths were formed. Jocheonjin, Seogwijin and Myoungwoljin, located near the seashores, are strategic footholds in protecting the territory of the island and connotatively contain its culture and history. Seongsan Ilchulbong, Sanbangsan, Chwibyeongdam and Cheonjeyeon Pokpo are not only the quintessentially beautiful scenes of Jeju but also belong to 'YeoungJu-Sipikyung'. And 'T'amna-Sullyokto', which describes the Jeju horses and tangerines that were presented to the king as tribute, offers scenic elements with a strong political tone and is related to the five scene of 'T'amna-Sullyokto', showing that 'defense' and 'tribute' are motives in choosing the sceneries of people's daily lives here. Jeju's daily scenes in particular have been continuously transmitted: 'Idyllic lives with the background of a tangerine orchard' are shown in 'Kowon Panggo' and 'Kyullim P'ungak', and Jeju horses grazing on pastures or being ridden in hunting trips are presented in 'Sanjang Kuma' and 'Kyorae Taeryop'. Besides Baekrokdam and Youngsil, which do not belong to Sunyeok(巡歷) corridor of minister Lee Hyoungsang, 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung', directly related to 'T'amna-Sipkyung', has six beautiful sceneries: Seongsan of Seongsan Ilchulbong, Baekrokdam of Baekrokmanseol, Younggok of Youngsilgiam, Sanbang of Sanbanggulsa Chwibyeongdam of Yongyeonyabeom and Seogwiso of Seojinnoseong. The image of 'Gosumokma', the tenth landscape of 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung', was expressed as it is, through 'Udojeomma' and 'Sanjangguma'. The ten beautiful sceneries of 'T'amna-Sipkyung' were also especially described in 'T'amna-Sullyokto', besides Baekrokdam and Youngsil, which do not belong to Sunyeok corridor. As the places and landscapes emphasized on 'T'amna-Sipkyungto' and 'T'amna-Sullyokto' in common have been transmitted by the politicians and ancestors of Jeju Island, they have become established as today's 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung', passing through correction processes. When considering this process of development, 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung' are worthy of heritage and traditional landscapes accomplished in a long difficult period based on investigation into beautiful Jeju Island and the love of the island people for their home.
Response of the Growth and Root Development of Shade Landscape Plants by Slit Ventilation Treatment into Indoor Container
Ju, Jin-Hee ; Han, Jung-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 105~112
This study has attempted to facilitate various new technologies related to indoor containers and develop a desirable planting environment after investigating the growth (including root growth) of shade-tolerant landscape plants under slit processing, a natural indoor ventilation system. The following results were found: In terms of the shoot growth of Fatsia japonica in a slit container, no distinctive difference was observed in comparison with the control group. However, growth was good when the container 250mm tall or taller. Therefore, it was verified that optical soil depth is more important than slit processing in shoot growth of Fatsia japonica. In Fatsia japonica root length was observed as follows: Control 2(250mm) > Slit 2(250mm) > Control 1(195mm) > Slit 3(360mm) > Control 3(360mm) > Slit 1(195mm). The largest growth was observed in Control 2(250mm), which had no slit processing. In term of root width, this was lower than the initial value in all groups, which means that the root grew vertically, not horizontally. In terms of plant height of Ophiopogon japonicus, a gradual increase was observed in the control group that had no slit processing. No significant growth was detected in the slit system, however. In terms of shoot number, slit containers were generally higher than the control group. In terms of fresh and dry weights, on the contrary, slit containers were mostly lower than the control group. In Ophiopogon japonicus, root length was observed as follows: Slit 2(250mm) > Slit 1(195mm) > Control 2(250mm) > Control 3(360mm) > Slit 3(360mm) > Control 1(195mm). In Ardisia japonica, slit containers were mostly greater than control group in terms of plant height. The greatest plant height was observed at Slit 2(250mm) instead of Slit 1(195mm) and Slit 3(360mm). Except for plant height and shoot number, however, no significant shoot and root growth was observed. Root length was observed as follows: Slit 2(250mm) > Slit 3(360mm) > Control 3(360mm) > Slit 1(195mm) > Control 2(250mm) > Control 1(195mm). Therefore, root length in slit containers was mostly greater than in the control group. The width of root, however, declined in general.
Light Conditions for Suitable Growth of Urban Interior Plants - In Case of Green House within Kyobo Building, Seoul -
Lee, Kyong-Jae ; Choi, Jin-Woo ; Pae, Ho-Bong ; Kang, Hyun-Kyoung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 37, issue 3, 2009, Pages 113~124
This study has attempted to calculate the intensity of illumination for the optimal growth environment of indoor plants after analyzing both damage to plant species and growth conditions as impacted by light conditions for the Kyobo Life Insurance greenhouse. The optical intensity of illumination has been estimated after investigating the problems of growth conditions based on an analysis of illumination by light condition, dead tree replacement cycle(weeks) and rate of damage of plant species. According to the investigation of illumination, the lowest difference was observed between the shaded spot in the south(531lux) and the sunny spot(602lux) while the largest difference(nearly 500lux) was detected between the shaded spot in the central area(210lux) and the sunny spot(782lux). According to an analysis of dead trees from 1990 to 2004, in terms of dead tree replacement cycle, Viburnum awabuki was the highest(161weeks), followed by Phyllostachys spp.(84weeks), Camellia japonica and Ternstroemia japonica(40weeks). Regardless of plant species, damage rate of plant were lower in the shaded spot and higher in the sunny spot. According to correlation and regression analyses with the intensity of illumination as an independent variable and the damage rate of plant species as a dependent variable, the damage rate of plant species increased as the intensity of illumination decreased. A dramatic decline in the rate of damage was observed at
. At 700lux, it reached the lowest level.