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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Dec 2010
Volume 38, Issue 5_2 - Dec 2010
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Oct 2010
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Aug 2010
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Apr 2010
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
An Evaluation Model on Supply Factors of Urban Park
Chang, Byung-Moon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~11
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate supply factors of urban parks to answer the research question: What are the causal effects of supply factors of urban parks on visitor satisfaction? After reviewing the literature and the Korean park planning process, we constructed a conceptual framework and have formulated the hypothesis of this research. We had obtained data through a questionnaire, which surveyed 452 visitors at 8 urban parks in Daegu Metropolitan City in 2008, based on a stratified sampling method. After the elimination of 96 unsuitable samples, we have analyzed the data using descriptive statistical methods, Pearson's correlation analysis and a path analysis method. We have found that: 1) While the direct and indirect effect of accessibility(ACC) on visitor satisfaction(VS) turned out to be 0.184 and 0.220, respectively, the indirect effect of information(IFM) and promotion(PRM) on VS turned out to be 0.101 and 0.177, respectively. 2) While the direct and indirect effect of service(SVR) on VS turned out to be 0.130 and 0.236, respectively, the direct effect of ACC turned out to be 0.698. 3) While the direct effect of ACC, SVR and attraction(ATT) on VS turned out to be 0.184, 0.130 and 0.698, respectively, composing 67.96% of causal effect, the indirect effect of ACC, IFM, PRM and SVR on VS turned out to be 0.220, 0.101, 0.177 and 0.236, respectively, composing 42.04% of causal effect. 4) The magnitude of causal effect of supply factors on VS turned out to be ATT(39.98%), ACC(23.14%), SVR(20.96%), PRM(10.14%) and IFM(5.78%) in order, and 5) the causal effect of external supply factors of ACC, IFM and PRM compose 39.06% of the causal effect while that of the internal supply factors of SVR and ATT is 69.94%. The research results suggest that: 1) Planning for park marketing strategy and remedial directions for existing urban parks, in order to increase visitor satisfaction, be focused on IFM and PRM, especially. 2) The research approach and path analysis method adopted by this research be valid and highly useful for planning and evaluation of other recreation areas. It is recommended that: 1) Structural Equation Model on supply factors of urban parks be established in the future. 2) Evaluation of supply factors by type of urban park be performed.
A Study on Design Characteristics of Korean War Memorials in the United States
Lee, Sang-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 12~24
The purpose of this study was to analyze design characteristics of Korean War Memorials(KWM) in the United States(KWMUS). Through site survey and internet searching, the researcher selected 25 KWMUS and analyzed four analysis categories: design concept, spatial form, landscape details, and sculptures. The results are as follows: 1. The analysis revealed that main concepts of KWMUS were to cherish victims of the Korean War, show membership/locality/patriotism, express feelings and the meaning of war, and explain the Korean War realistically and symbolically. 2. Most KWMUS in memorial parks and plazas were designed to pursue the completion of each memorial assuming the form of typical and symmetrical circles and squares. Also, spatial order including spatial sequence was seen in some of KWMUS. 3. Stone walls, stone monument, flags, emblems and paving were used as main landscape details. The map of the Korean peninsula and Taegeuk were often introduced to symbolize Korea and the Korean War, and the symbolic phrase, 'Forgotten War' or 'Freedom is Not Free' were written on the stone to keep the Korean War in the minds of Americans. 4. Sculptures were used as important media to represent the Korean War in a variety of ways. Most of them were formed realistically, except for a few sculptures that aimed to represent the Korean War symbolically and narratively. In particular, the sculptures in Washington D.C. KWVM and Minnesota KWM were remarkable as symbolic media of war memorials in contemporary society. Further study will be required to analyze comparatively KWM in Korea and the U.S. and to understand characteristics of KWM in the point of design style.
A Study on the Selection of Evaluation Indicators of Amenities
Lee, Jae-Joon ; Choi, Seok-Hwan ; Kim, Sun-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 25~38
This study aims to, first, classify the approach system of utilizing national and local amenities into three groups: evaluation of the level of the amenity, evaluation of the value of amenity resources, and utilization of amenity resources. Secondly, the study aims to derive an evaluation index which is required according to the approach system. As for a strategy of utilizing amenities, the self-diagnosis based on the evaluation of the level of local amenities is required. In this study, three sectors, ten items and 43 detailed items have been derived though specialists, FGIs(Focus Group Interview), and the cases within and outside of the country. In the survey with specialists, a unit-space key index which can be used in accordance with the unit-space characteristics(such as urban and rural area, fishing villages, mountain villages, and littoral areas), environmental area, important index and optional index have been derived. As for the evaluation index which is needed for the development of typical local amenities resources, 14 detailed evaluation indexes from three sectors have been derived. These have been classified again into six key indexes, six important indexes and two optional indexes. In the evaluation index of amenity resources, natural and environmental value-such as ecological value of preservation, uniqueness of aesthetic landscape and ecological value of restoration-historic and cultural value of preservation and individuality of the resources, and aesthetic and cultural values are derived as being important. As for utilization of amenity resources, 15 items from three sectors-such as reservation, restoration, intentional use, and industrial use-have been derived. Also, through a survey with specialists, key indexes and important indexes were derived by unit-space. As a result, in urban areas, seven items-including creative development of space, aesthetic landscape control and development of cultural contents-have been derived as key indexes; in rural areas, mountain villages, fishing villages and littoral areas, eight items-including brand of region, brand of the products, and brand of tourism resources-have been derived. In environmental areas, six items-including reservation of natural resources, historic and cultural heritage, and restoration of ecosystem-have been derived. Indexes derived from this study can be utilized in order to establish a strategy for amenity plans and an implementation strategy, but can be readjusted, allowing for various regional characteristics. It is, thus, advisable that local governments selectively utilize indexes according to regional characteristics or newly develop them for the maximum utilization of regional amenities.
Study on Operating Strategy for Recreation Forests through Comparing the Level of User Satisfaction according to Clusters
Gang, Kee-Rae ; Lee, Kee-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 39~48
Recreation forests are in the spotlight as the place for personality development, mind and body comfort, companionship, and environment education in forests and valleys. Visitors to recreation forests have been on the increase along with booming in recreation forest building since 1988. Recreation forests are being categorized according to some features such as regional and environmental condition. Recreation forests, however, have not met the expectations of some visitors who want to take a rest with calmness due to the influence of the 5-day-work-week system, increasing interest in rest, leisure, and well-being, and users converge during weekends, summer, and the tourist season. In order to improve visitors' satisfaction efficiently, this study surveyed the level of satisfaction in each cluster based on the precedent study which had classified 85 national or public recreation forests in Korea into clusters. Questionnaires were distributed properly to each cluster and, of the 1,132 questionnaires collected, 1,015 were valid and used for analysis. Reliability of questionnaires and statistical validity of the model were verified. As a result, there are meaningful differences in the ranking of independent variables which affect the level of satisfaction according to clusters. Variables in rest and fatigue recovery have the strongest influence on the level of satisfaction in the clusters of potential factor, internal activation factor, and mixed potential capacity factor. In the use performance and visiting condition factor cluster, appropriateness of visit cost is most influential and, in the education cluster, connectivity with tourist attractions around it is most affective. These results can provide priority in services and maintenance of recreation forests for improving the level of satisfaction and differentiate the distribution of resources according to clusters.
A Study on the Landscape-Oriented Persuasive Language from Naming the Apartment Brand in Korea - Focus on the Analysis of Category and Lexeme -
Rho, Jae-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 49~63
This study was intended to analyze and interpret the pattern of naming the domestic apartment brand from a semiologic viewpoint in a bid to review the meaning and value of apartment brand, while on the other hand, evaluating the characteristics of persuasive message pursued by current apartment brand in 2010, and consequently, the conclusion of the study is outlined as follows. 1. As a result of analyzing the coinage of branding naming, the words such as combination, joint and blending pattern tended to dominate, which seemed to attempt to represent the variety of values of the housing culture. Brand ideation tends to stress the character symbolism and polysemic message using syllepsis, and the experimental attempt to revive the traditional dwelling concept in a modern sense in a way of combining the archaic word with the Chinese character was found as well. 2. As a result of analyzing the frequency of verbal identity and lexeme of domestic apartments, those frequently used are in order of ville, nature, beauty(美), park, hi, green, palace(宮), nobility and center(tra), which are the lexemes representing the landscape, view, nature and dignity. 3. As a result of identifying the pattern of lexeme using analysis frame based on existing researches such as apartment brand positioning, the most important external core concepts controlling the direction and value of apartment brand are 'environment-orientated' and 'emotion-orientated', and internally, 'function-oriented'. Given the persuasive language expressing the 'environment-oriented' feature and the priority of brand lexeme are garden, park, view and the nature, a landscape-oriented persuasive message is seen to be surging in brand naming. 4. An emotion-oriented persuasive language such as dignity axis having major lexeme represented by palace, nobility, class and a pride axis having major semantic elements represented by human, I and you are used as major value concepts and persuasive language that lead domestic apartment brands to differentiation and upgradation. 5. Among the lexemes focusing on view from environment-oriented standpoint, hi, hill, tower, view, mark, heights are the trend pursued by high-rise apartment aiming at the view such as residential-commercial apartment, and thus the persuasive language focusing on high-rise concept is expected to become the element dominating the trend of apartment brand for the time being.
A Study on Surveying and Improving Management of Protected Areas in Korea
Cho, Yong-Hyeon ; Lee, Yong-Kwahng ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 64~73
This research intends to suggest the ways to improve protected area management in Korea. To this end, the current protected areas appointed in the nation and their management has been examined, and the problems of management have been identified by means of a field research of protected areas and a survey. In addition, a scheme for an integrated management system has been suggested for management improvement, and a management plan guide, as well as after-evaluation guide, has been suggested. The outcome of the research is as follows. First, the protected area management plan is needed since the protected area in our nation is not managed in a proper way after being appointed as such. Second, when making a management plan, a management organization should make a management plan that can attract voluntary participation from stake-holders by means of efficient communications with them. Third, to maintain the management plan in a consistent and systematic way, related policy, law, and institutions should be (re)formulated. Fourth, an organization responsible only for management of protected areas should be established in consideration of management inefficiency due to the overlapped appointment of managing the protected area. Fifth, the management plan guide and after-evaluation guide can be used for effective protected area management. The results of this study are expected to be helpful for creating a management improvement scheme to address the problems related to the protected areas in our nation. But, it is required to review the guides for the management plan and after-evaluation, and consistent and systemic support from the government in such areas as legislation and policy are also in great need.
Landscape Design for Daechon Soul Island Resort Complex
Kwon, Jin-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 74~83
This study is a development plan of a resort in a regional center that aims to generate tourism consumptions that have ripple effects on the regional economy by developing abandoned mine complexes in Daechon. Thanks to economic growth, the public awareness of tourism has changed. Hence, want for tourism influences development and advancement of recreational spaces, combining with various cultural contents. Development associated with environmental issues caused by modernization has become a major issue. At this point, to rediscover and specialize industrial complexes of bygone days as tourism resources signifies regeneration of regional resources. This study aims to find a solution for appropriate tourism development as part of the measures to revitalize the regional economy in underdeveloped areas and to improve the polluted environment. The result of the study is summarized as follows: First, in regional development alongside the development of a resort complex, it is important to construct environmental similarities. Minimizing differences in landscape structures is especially necessary because it will cause tourism resources in a regional center to be naturally linked to regional activities. These will then be recognized as attractions in the neighborhood. Therefore, it is desirable to reflect a spatial structure for environmental convergence, and, at the same time, to fulfill operation purposes by space through differentiation of movement lines. Second, in utilization of existing environmental resources, it is desirable to express localities and to develop differentiated elements. Facilities should not be homogenized, attaching importance to trends. Therefore, in establishing a development plan, it is important to have an attitude to accept existing roles and functions in a transformative manner. Third, recreational facilities in resort spaces generally have the problems of being uniformly planned as part of a development project and being limited to landscape facilities. Introduction of specialized facilities that can be reconciled with the regional environment and that can be open influences the landscape structure of the entire region and brings ripple effects as key facilities for activation of tourism.
Landscape Urbanism in Special West Chelsea District Rezoning and High Line Open Space Redevelopment Project
Yoon, Hee-Yeun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 84~97
Landscape urbanism emerges as an alternative to the urban design theories of the past century, emphasizing landscape as an organizing principle, integrating the medium of different elements of the urban environment. However, ongoing criticism of the theory's lack of consideration for physical urban morphology has not supported the integrity of the theory. Large parks, which many proponents of the theory have referred to, possess valuable and interesting points in their design and management. This also shows the limitation of not being able to show the close physical relationship between open space and the city. In this study, the High Line project was analyzed to verify it as founded on landscape urbanism, providing that landscape urbanism drives the urban morphology on a small scale rather than a large one. This paper concludes that landscape urbanism should include small parks as one kind of study model with the small grained interaction between open spaces and the cities under this category to broaden and deepen the perspective. Also, the effort to analyze quantified and physical consequences of the theory through close observation should be followed to extract the design strategies to be applied to future projects.
Study on Enchanted Image and Scenic Value of Jeju Bangseonmun
Rho, Jae-Hyun ; Shin, Sang-Sup ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 98~106
Bangseonmun(訪仙門) is the attractive spots where Shinseon(神仙: Taoist hermit) ideas that makes Mt. Younju(瀛洲山) or the current Mt. Halla mystique has still remained and situated at Hancheon(漢川) Valley. Bangseonmun, which is known as 'Landscape Setting Here(
)' of Youngguchunhwa(瀛丘春花), which is one of ten famous spots in Youngjusipkyung(瀛洲十景), and Deulreonggui refer to 'the gate to the place where Shinseon is living.' It is described as the path to Mt. Youngju for Shinseon and the boundary between the mundane world and the world beyond the mundane. The old scholars at Mt. Halla entered the gate and met Shinseon, carving the word or picture of Bangseonmun, Whanseonmun, Wuseondae or Deungyounggu so as to structure the enchanting image on Bangseonmun. It is the poetic expression of the taste for the arts, breaking from the troublesome mundane world and riding the white deer to become the Shinseon, the desire for the ideal world in Taoism, and the identity of four famous scenic spots of Bangseonmun. Besides its enchanting meaning and the locational value of Bangseonmun, geological features of the valley and river and ecological value prove its unique value as a natural scenic beauty. Not to mention the locational identity and enchanting meaning of the poets carved in Meeaegak of Bangseonmun and the scenic view of 'Youngguchunhwa' as the subject of 10 famous scenes of Youngju, it is the place for communing with nature with the natural beauty of Bangseonmun Valley. As the cultural place for being together with Jeju people, it simultaneously shows the typical model as a scenic spot in our living. Viewing the scenic value and standard from the aspect of the Cultural Properties Protection Law, Bangseonmun Valley in Jeju must be the typical place and space that meet the requirements to become scenic sites.
A Study on the Transition of Jidang in Changdeok-Place - Based on the Donggwoldo -
Kang, Kee-Rae ; Lee, Kee-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 107~118
Palaces of a country can be representative aggregate of the culture and arts of the country. Palaces were used not only as a living place to protect kings and royal families and to live cultural lives, but also a political place to govern the country. Kings in Choseon founded the country on the Sung Confucianism, their philosophical background. They built Bangji and Wondo as constant reminders of their philosophy. Bangji is the most apparent characteristic in the palace gardens of the Choseon Dynasty. Finding out the original form of Jidang, restoring the original and passing it on to future generations can be passing on the spiritual culture of our ancestors. This study is done to find out or locate well preserved Jidang, transformed Jidang and lost Jidang in Changdeokgung, which is the best conserved palace of Choseon. This study is composed of Jidang which has been kept in its original state, transformed Jidang, locating lost Jidang and Jidnang which has been unearthed. The total number of Donggwoldo's Jidangs is 17; those that are kept in their original state, 4; transformed Jidangs, 5; Jidangs that were lost and have been located, 8; and newly appeared Jidangs, 2. From the results, opinions on restoration are presented. This study can be a small drop in the thin stream of tradition passing onto future generations in this world where knowledge and information are transported momentarily and the classification of culture and border is mixed, yielding vagueness.
Landscape Plants and Planting Characteristics of Three-Treasure Temples
You, Ju-Han ; Hong, Kwang-Pyo ; Lee, Dong-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 119~128
The purpose of this study was to find a basic theory about Korean traditional planting pattern by analyzing a characteristic of planting and planted species in Haein, Tongdo and Songkwang Temples. The results are as follows. The planted species in three-treasure temples were 129 taxa; 57 families, 96 genera, 110 species, 12 varieties and 7 forma. The species related in Buddhism were Viburnum sargentii for. sterile, Hydrangea macrophylla for. otaksa and Musa basjoo. They are related in plant form and Buddhist ceremony. The results of forms were 34.1% in trees, 33.3% in shrubs, 3.9% in vine and 28.7% in herbage. The results of leaf fall were 56 taxa in broad-leaved deciduous trees, 27 taxa in broad-leaved evergreen trees and 14 taxa in needle-leaved evergreen trees. The native species were 32 taxa in Haein Temple, 27 taxa in Tongdo Temple and 44 taxa in Songkwang Temple. And the exotic species were 20 taxa, 28 taxa and 44 taxain the Haein, Tongdo and Songkwang Temples, respectively. In the results of analyzing the characteristics of planting, in the case of Haein Temple, Abies holophylla was linearly planted in Yiljumun, and Magnolia denudata was single planted in plant stairs of Haetalmun. In the case of plant stairs of Jeokmukdang, Cephalotaxus koreana was planted at regular intervals. In the case of Tongdo Temple, Celtis sinensis, Zelkova serrata and so forth were planted in Yiljumun, and Phyllostachys nigra was planted in form of screen planting in Youngsanjeon. The form of Hwanghwagak was a planting of symmetry in the center of a building, and the one of Daekwangmyyeongjeon was a mixed planting. The regular planting pattern was not shown in Yiljumun of Songkwang Temple. In the case of Dosungdang, Corunus officinalis was linearly planted in the west. In the case of Gwaneumjeon, Juniperus chinensis var. globosa and Camellia japonica were planted in symmetry. The old aged trees were planted in front of specimens planted in front of Daewoongbojeon.
Comparison of Thatch Accumulation in Warm-Season and Cool-Season Turfgrasses under USGA and Mono-layer Soil Systems
Kim, Kyoung-Nam ; Kim, Byoung-Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 129~136
This study was initiated to investigate thatch accumulation in several turfgrasses grown under two soil systems. The 45 centimeter deep USGA system was constructed with rootzone, intermediate and drainage layers. The mono-layer system, however, was made with only a 30cm rootzone layer. Turfgrasses used in the study were comprised of 3 varieties from Korean lawngrass of Warm-Season Grass(WSG) and 3 blends and 3 mixtures from Cool-Season Grass(CSG). A total of 9 turfgrass treatments were replicated three times in RCBD in both systems. Cultural practices for the research plot followed a typical maintenance program for highly managed turf. Treatment differences for thatch accumulation were observed among the turfgrasses in both soil systems. Thatch under the USGA system was 9% greater than under the mono-layer system due to its more favorable conditions for turf growth. Higher thatch depth was found with Korean lawngrass, 34~87% in the USGA system and 16~75% in the mono-layer system when compared with CSG. Among WSG, the Joongji variety was the highest in thatch layer under both the USGA and mono-layer systems. Kentucky bluegrass(KB) was the greatest among CSG, since it is a rhizomatous-type in growth habit, resulting in faster production of organic matter over bunch-type of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. Proper depth in the thatch layer was known to be beneficial by enhancing the resiliency and wear tolerance of the turf in athletic fields. Thus, KB was considered to be a very excellent turfgrass in terms of turf quality, environmental performance, physical properties and soccer player safety. However, disadvantages such as poor water-holding properties, more inclined to injury from environmental stresses and severe diseases and insect injury were also expected where thatch was excessively accumulated. Therefore, these results demonstrate that more frequent measures for controlling thatch such as vertical mowing, topdressing or coring should be employed for soccer fields with Korean lawngrass and KB over other turfgrasses.