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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Dec 2010
Volume 38, Issue 5_2 - Dec 2010
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Oct 2010
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Aug 2010
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Apr 2010
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
The Influence of Landscape Pavements on the WBGT of Outdoor Spaces without Ventilation or Shade at Summer Midday
Lee, Chun-Seok ; Ryu, Nam-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 1~8
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of landscaping pavements on WBGT(Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature) of outdoor spaces that lack ventilation and shade at summer midday. The relative humidity(RH), dry-bulb temperature(DT) and globe temperature(GT) were recorded every minute from June to October 2009 at a height of 1.2m above ten experimental beds with different pavements, by a measuring system consisting of an electric humidity sensor(GHM-15), resistance temperature detector(RTD, Pt-100), standard black globe(
) and data acquisition systems(National Instrument's Labview and Compact FieldPoint). Additionally, the surface dry-bulb temperatures also were recorded and compared. The area of each experimental bed was 1.5m(W)
2.0m(L) and ten different kinds of pavement were used including grass, grass+cubic stone, grass+porous brick, brick, stone panels, cubic stone, interlocking blocks, clay brick, naked soil, gravel and concrete. To prevent interference from ventilation, a 1.5m height cubic steel frame was established around each bed and each vertical side of the frame was covered with transparent polyethylene film. Based on the records of the hottest period from noon to 3 PM on 26 days with a peak dry-bulb temperature over
at natural condition, the wet-bulb temperature(WT) and WBGT were calculated and compared. The major findings were as follows: 1. The average surface DT was
, which is
higher than that of the natural condition. The surface DT of the pavements with grass were higher than those of concrete and interlocking block. The peak DT of the surface almost every pavement rose to above
during the hottest time. 2. The averages of DT, WT and GT were
, and the peak values rose to
, respectively. In spite of slight differences that resulted according to pavements, no coherent differentiating factor could be found. 3. The average WBGT of grass was the highest at
while the others were similar in the range of around
. Meanwhile, the peak WBGT was highest with stone panel at
. Though there were some differences according to pavements, and while grass seemed to be worst in terms of WBGT, it seems difficult to say ablolutely that grass was the worst because the measurement was conducted without ventilation and shade during summer daytime hours only, which had temperatures that rose to a dangerous degree(above
WBGT), withering the grass during the hottest period. The average WBGT resulted also showed that the thermal environment of the pavement without ventilation and shade were at an intolerable level for humans regardless of the pavement type. In summary, the results of this study show that ventilation and shade are more important factor than pavement type in terms of outdoor thermal comfort in summer daylight hours.
Students’ Perception of Landscape Design Studio Education
Kim, Ah-Yeon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 9~24
This study investigates how students perceive landscape design studio classes and provides basic data to set guidelines for future student-oriented pedagogical strategies in landscape architectural design education. This study is based on the premise that the current dominant educational method, which is based on positivism, should shift to a constructivist approach, which allows students to question objective and absolute truths and restructure knowledge based on their own experiences. Unlike lecture-oriented classes, studio education relies heavily on the perceptions, attitudes, and capabilities of individual students because the nature of the class asks each student to find solutions to given project problems in creative and visual ways. Therefore, it is important to understand the psychological state of students during these classes in order to set alternative criteria for design studio education. This study contains three parts. The first part reviews theoretical discourses to understand the demands for a student-oriented educational paradigm shift and the nature of the design studio at many levels. The second part analyzes how students perceive design studio classes in terms of their satisfaction and stress levels and how studio classes affect their decision making regarding future careers. The stress levels accompanying the design process are also investigated, based on a survey of undergraduate students who are enrolled in the landscape architecture programs of four universities in Korea. According to the findings, design studio classes play a specific role in students' decision making about their future careers. Almost half of students turn out to be dissatisfied with their design education, and half of students suffer from high stress levels caused by studio classes, especially in the early phases of the design process. The findings suggest that instructors should give more attention to discovering ways to help students initiate the design process and bridge ideas and forms, provide clear guidelines for evaluation of students' abilities, and develop a more holistic approach in design studio classes that is based on individual problem-solving processes.
Comparative Study on Monetary Estimates of the Preservation Value of Recreational Forests through Contingent Valuation Methods
Kang, Kee-Rae ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 25~36
The generally known important functions of forests include air purification and the health benefits that humans can receive when relaxing and enjoying recreation in the forests. In recent years, people have appreciated the value of the natural environment but it is not easy to answer the question how much monetary value a natural environment has. Because environmental property is public property, which is not traded on the market, market prices cannot be established, so it is not easy to assess the currency value. Methods for estimating environmental property value have been studied by economists. The representative method for measuring environmental property value is a contingent valuation method, or CVM. Various methods have been researched and attempted along with the development and fusion of mathematics, statistics, and economics. Representative methods of CVM are single-bound and double-bound logit and probit methods. This study has been carried out to compare four estimates. Estimates are as follows: the lowest estimate is derived from a single-bound logit WTPmedian while the highest estimate is from double-bound probit WTPmean. While there are some preceding studies on price estimation and methods of measurement through CVM, they offer only partial comparisons. This study suggests four analytic methods and prices through 1,123 questionnaires. The results can be used for the subsequent comparison of estimate prices and the methods of measurement
Urban Parks in Seoul as Place Representation - Focusing on Monumentality, Symbolism & Place Memory -
Han, So-Young ; Zoh, Kyung-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 37~52
The main purpose of this study is to examine how place representation is related to the formation of urban parks in Seoul, which began at the end of the 19th century. In order to grasp place representation, the hypothesis of this study is that most urban parks are undertaken with the idea of monumentality and symbolism or memories of the place itself. Diverse ways of representation through physical or non-physical aspects of symbolism, monumentality, and place memory are summarized as follows. First, in the case of the physical aspects of representation in the parks, monumentality and symbolism are expressed mostly through monuments or statues. In the case that the intention of the park is commemorative, celebrative elements are more actively utilized. In other cases, symbolic sculptures or statues, which are randomly designated by the government, are so often used regardless of the overarching concept of the urban park. In addition, in the case of place memory, monumentality or symbolism are commonly represented through bronze statues or partial remnants of the past. Recently, however, the site in itself has been constructed to coordinate the memories of a certain place into the configuration of the park. Secondly, in relation to the non-physical representation elements, many urban parks tend to reveal monumentality or symbolism through the names they are given. Recently, this tendency has significantly dropped, but some places of parksare frequently denominated in consideration of place memory. In the case of events held in parks, parks which were constructed in the beginning of the park movement, such as Tapgol Park, hold certain events to commemorate certain causes that took place in those days. On the other hand, the main purpose of recently-constructed urban parks relating to place memory is to encourage citizens to participate in events in a variety of ways.
An Analysis of the Comparison between the Image of the Landmarks in Daejeon
Byeon, Jae-Sang ; Kim, Dae-Soo ; Lee, Jung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 53~63
It constitutes a very important preliminary step to analyze how city image is assessed in order to determine the direction towards a desirable city image in planning on an urban landscape for future city image. This study aims to quantify the recognition and evaluation of a city image on the part of citizens, using multidimensional scaling and correspondence analysis. Furthermore, this study hopes to contribute to the quantified policy-making for improving city image by understanding how professionals and civil servants in the related field tend to recognize such image. The results from the study are as follow: 1. The image of Daejon City tends to be assessed strongly in the light of its history, dynamics, and size. While the City is recognized as new and changing in general, the civil servants consider the city as modest, and the professionals as mediocre. Therefore, the City should strive to conceive its own unique identity, which would lessen the current image of modest and mediocre. 2. Gap river, Dunsan New Town, and the Daeduk Reseach Complex turn out to be the symbolic representative venues of Daejon City, inspiring the city’s image. In contrast, Yoosung Springs, the original town, and the Expo Park do not fit the image of the City. The need to renovate these places presents itself. 3. As for the questions using “like” and “not-like”, citizens and professionals show the tendency of not liking the city’s image, whereas civil servants like it. It follows that the City needs to highlight its “modern and high-technological” image, illuminated by Dunsan New Town and Daeduk Reseach Complex. 4. An image positioning drawn from a correspondence analysis shows that the City of Daejeon can be classified as an administrative and horizontal city. As opposed to the prior simplistic analyses of city image, this study attempts to diagnose it accurately, so as to help with the gearing towards city images in the future.
A Study on the Environmental Characteristics of the Pedestrian District in Freiburg, Germany - Focusing on Identity as a Historical City as related to the Waterscape and Paving Environments -
Hong, Youn-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 64~74
Freiburg, as the German Capital of the Environment, is well known to Koreans, and relationships with Korean cities are deeply extended. This study attempts to grasp the features of the historical and cultural environment in Freiburg's old town center pedestrian district through the investigation of the historical value of environmental elements and the way they are transmitted along with the components of city identity. Through the literature studies confirms that. The main canal in Freiburg, called Gewerbeknale, is valued both for its existence during the city construction period and for being an infrastructure to supply water to the Bachle(small urban canal) and Brunnen(fountain). In spite of a recipient environment in the middle of the 19th century, the traditional mosaic pavement has a new value as an mediator between citizens and the environment through the adaptations that have occurred in the city. This study has verified the dialectical repetition of crisis and conquest through the historical succession of environmental elements. The historical continuance of environmental elements has a strong influence on the acquisition of sameness and Individuality in city identity factors. The result of this study recommends the historical value of environmental elements that have survived in the urban environment, and verifies the necessity of a concrete strategy for preservation and related practical efforts.
A Study on the Location of Urban Parks for Green-Network Revitalization - Based on Downtown of Busan -
Kim, Sung-Hwan ; Lee, Gyu-Hong ; Park, Sung-Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 75~93
Seen topographically, Busan is a city that is coastal and hilly. In the city, most parks have been formed around mountain areas that are not so useful. They also are unbalanced in location among different regions of the city. The purpose of this study is to find how to manage urban parks towards green network promotion. For the purpose, this researcher first analyzed physical and environmental characteristics of urban parks located within the main living spheres of Busan. Then, the researcher examined interactive relations between those parks and downtown areas surrounding them to classify types of the parks. In association, the researcher classified the entire of the city into inland and coastal regions. And the researcher examined mountainous and hilly urban parks that were 150 to 300 meters above sea level in the former region and 100 to 150 meters above sea level in the latter. Findings of the study can be summarized as follows. The above examination found that parks of Busan feature physically penetrating and overlapping with downtown areas of the city. How well the green zones of Busan in form of urban park are inter-connective and influential to each other heavily depends on shapes and functions that the downtown areas of the city have. In this study, urban parks of Busan were grouped according to their types and then analyzed. Based on results of the analysis, the researcher tried to find how to increase the utility of another urban parks that are expected to be formed and how to promote so-called the green network that integrates greens. Considering findings of the study, the researcher would make the following suggestions. In case of forming an urban park in a gently sloped green zone which is easily accessible and noticeable, it's important that the park should include a stream to which another green zone is converged or, if the park is located near a costal area, contribute to promote urban functions and openness. While, in a high-altitude green zone, it's more effective to form so-called the green way that consists of some limited usable site of the zone and greens behind it and then form a hub of regional community at the intersection between the main road and main gate to the urban park, contributing to the green network promotion.
Investigation of Original Landscaping in the Vicinity of Yongyun and Hwahongmun in Suwon Hwaseong
Rho, Jae-Hyun ; Choi, Jong-Hee ; Shin, Sang-Sup ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 94~108
The purpose of this study is to provide data for the restoration of 'Yongyun(龍淵)' and 'Hwahongmun(華虹門)' through an investigation of the vicinity of their original landscapes at the time of construction of Hwaseong in Suwon and through tracing the transformative process of the environments of this vicinity. The results are as follows; As identified by 'Yongyunjung(龍淵亭)' and 'Yongdugak(龍頭閣)', other names of Yongyun, 'Banghwasuryujung(訪花隨柳亭)', which was built on 'Yongduam', is a facility whose place identity is highlighted with a sense of unity with Yongyun. The south lakefront of Yongyun, bordering Banghwasuryujung, has boundaries that make the best use of the natural geographical features of Yongduam while the current circumference of Yongyun is comparatively shorter than its original state. The size of 'Joongdo(中島)', however, seems to be an example of apparent over-design complement and reorganize 'Joongdo', which had been restored larger than its original state at the time of restoration in the 1970s. The depth of 'Yongyun' was created to be lower than the actual depth, without consideration for its initial depth, as soil was accumulated through continuous flooding after it was created. It is assumed that the original drains which were installed about 10m inside the lake were created facing the stream. As regards the planting environment, a circular planting of willows was made in the outskirts of 'Yongyun', except the 'Yongduam' which is a pure forest, and a mix of 'Pinus densiflora', shrubbery and deciduous broad leaf trees was planted in 'Joongdo'. Of the plants growing in the area of this study, plant species introduced to Korea after Hwaseong was constructed are found, most of which provide interest and attraction. The old pine trees growing in a group once grew in the castle areas of the vicinity even in the 1920s, the period of Japanese occupation, but they disappeared from the area in the aftermath of subsequent urban development and the Korean War. Although restored to the site, the number and space taken up by these trees are insignificant compared to those of the original environment. On the basis of these results, the following is considered necessary for the true restoration of the vicinity of 'Yongyun' and 'Hwahongmun': First, the grounds of 'Yongyun' should be dredged deeply enough to expose the bedrock and should be recreated in the rough outline of a half moon by extension to the southwest toward 'Yongduam' and 'Hwahongmun', and the size of 'Joongdo' should be significantly reduced. Secondly, considering that most plant species, except the pine trees and wild trees in 'Yongduam', are non-native plants introduced in order to provide such attractions such as the appreciation of scenic areas, they should be replaced with native species, mainly with the pine trees which were utilized during the construction of Hwaseong. The weeping willows planted in the 'middle-island' should be relocated to the outskirts of 'Yongyun', and replaced with pine trees as the major trees and maple trees or deciduous broadleaf trees to fill in the gaps. Thirdly, exotic species such as the 'Pinus rigida' planted in a group around 'Banghwasuryujung' and 'Bugammun' and 'Pinus strobus' planted in the vicinity of Hwahongmun' should be removed.
Practical Strategies for Urban Regeneration through an Application of Landscape Urbanism
Cho, Se-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 109~118
This study aims to propose practical strategies for the new urban ideal of regeneration. A book review highlights the emergence of new trends of urbanization in knowledge-information industrial society beyond the new town Ideal of the industrial society. The meaning of ‘landscape’ in landscape urbanism represents not the visual and decorative pictures, but the dynamic process in the context of changes and evolutions. Also, knowledge-information industrial society and landscape have a meaning in the same context of flow and process with changes of velocity. Finally, these key words convey a meaning with the new urban trends of urbanization in knowledge-information industrial society in the context of value-oriented characteristics of dynamics and process. Urban regeneration is emerging as the new urban ideal in the knowledge-information industrial society, beyond the new town ideal of industrial society. It is in the same context as landscape urbanism with respect to green infrastructure buildings and designs for the transformation of urban surfaces covered with concrete and asphalt into the ecological surface, and of the ecological surfaces into the cultural surface that could be communicated with human beings. This research revealed the six strategies for urban regeneration as follows. The First, the strategies for the transformation of urban surfaces into ecological surfaces, the second, the strategies for the transformation of ecological surfaces into cultural surfaces, the third, the introduction of mixed and convergence land use, the forth, the transformation of former sites(e.g. military and factory) into urban parks, the fifth, the introduction of waterfront park zones that have the function of ecological and park-oriented mixed land use and, the sixth, the building and design of green infrastructure in the residential and commercial complex in CBD. These strategies call for the reforms of development laws and regulations to restrict building coverage ratio, building heights, and the introduction of park-oriented mixed zoning regulations. Another method for implementating the above listed strategies was the introduction of a strategic planning system instead of the traditional master plan system. This system uses a value planning approach and brand making by imagery. It is able to construct the meaning of an image and its creativeness directly.
Landscape Design of Gyeong-In Ara Waterway
An, Byung-Chul ; Shin, Hyun-Don ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 119~129
This study concerns the design strategy for the waterside of Gyeong-In Ara Waterway, Korea’s first constructed canal. This design focused on the creation of a new paradigm for waterway landscapes the major factors of which were geographical advantage, value of landscape and efficient approach. As the major space plan for the waterfront formed through the Gyeong-In Ara waterway from the Yellow Sea to the Han River, eight good views of the waterfront zone were designed by utilizing the waterway as a scenery viewpoint and, by constructing two traffic lanes for the scenic parkway connecting Incheon and the Gimpo terminal, both a linear greenway as well as various waterfront facilities were also designed. A boardwalk and bike path connecting the major theme parks were planned, and a waterfront pocket park was then organized based on the bike path. In this study, the result of the new waterfront result from the Gyeong-In Ara waterway was planned to have an identity as a new waterside culture space in order to achieve multiple functions including environmental, cultural, leisure, and tourism as well as management programs based on a variety of applied culture content and story-telling.