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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Dec 2010
Volume 38, Issue 5_2 - Dec 2010
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Oct 2010
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Aug 2010
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Apr 2010
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
A Design Model on Outdoor Space of Elementary School based on Participatory Approach - Case Study on Seoul Don-Am Elementary School -
Hue, Youn-Sun ; Im, Seung-Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 1~11
The outdoor space of an elementary school is the most familiar and most educational area for children. A paradigm shift in education has demanded a new role and direction for these outdoor spaces. The construction of children-friendly spaces, however, lags behind. The child-participatory design process is very meaningful at a time when many outdoor spaces have difficulties in reflecting the varied and specific demands of children. This study realized the necessity for a design that includes a child-participatory design process in construction the outdoor spaces of elementary schools. Through reference study and a theoretical approach of related laws, this study established a child-participatory design process model and applied it to Seoul Don-Am Elementary School. The design process included playing games and providing interesting tools to increase the participation of children in suggesting and presenting their opinions more freely. The design process of this study is described in five steps(eliciting interest in and recognition of the target space, Understanding children's expectations and the expressing thereof, Establishing factors for planning, Visualizing and arranging spaces, and Decision-making and building a final design plan). This process was applied to the planning and design of an outdoor space for Seoul Don-Am Elementary School. In this study, it is clear that the design of the participators and experts have a different purpose. Thus, the process of the design has more meaning than the final product. In addition, it is expected that an improvement in both tangible and intangible designs will be seen. Using a participatory design process, this study successfully improved the facilities and arrangement planning of an outdoor space. At the same time, it also enhanced the interest and participation of children in the process of creating the kind of school they desire. The significance of this study is that it has suggested an effective model to reflect the demands of children, the true users of the outdoor space, and the results were actually applied to elementary school outdoor planning and designing. This study enhanced the awareness of school members in the process of building the school's outdoor space.
An Evaluation of Human Thermal Comfort and Improvement of Thermal Environment by Spatial Structure
Lee, Jung-A ; Jung, Dae-Young ; Chon, Jin-Hyung ; Lee, Sang-Moon ; Song, Young-Bae ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 12~20
The purpose of this study is to evaluate human thermal comfort by spatial structure and to explore solutions to improve the thermal environment of a small urban space. The study site was Korea University campus. Thermal conditions were measured to evaluate the quality of the thermal environment in each type of space within the study site. Micrometeorology measurements, analysis of space characteristics for using fish-eye lens photography, and thermal comfort modeling through the use of collected meteorological data, such as temperature and humidity, were performed. Results showed that the level of thermal comfort for humans differs depending on the types of space within the study site. Thermal comfort is better in open spaces than enclosed in the aspect of radiative mean temperature, Predicted Mean Vote(PMV), and Physiologically Equivalent Temperature(PET). This fact is probably due to shadows or buildings or trees that may block solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to consider the spatial arrangements of buildings and trees to enhance openness and ventilation in the space. Paving materials and exterior building materials should also be selected to lower the radiant temperature. Given these results, a quantitative evaluation on human thermal comfort could propose a way to plan user comfortable small urban spaces. Study methods used and results provided in the study can promote a better way for urban space planning direction to improve environmental quality.
An Evaluation on Management Types by Characteristics of Urban Parks
Kim, Hyo-Jung ; Kang, Eun-Jee ; Cho, Joong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 21~30
The purpose of this study was to suggest customized management methods tailored to the characteristics of each type of park. Related literature was reviewed to determine the types of and management methods for urban parks to discuss the possibility of the involvement of citizens in park management and committing park management to the private sector. As a result of analyzing the literature, it has been found that each park should be managed separately according to its type in light of its characteristics and the strengths and weaknesses of each management method. For this reason, this must be a very important element for preventing damaging behavior at tourist destinations. First, natural mountainous parks are ordinary parks that do not require any professional management knowledge or skills. Accordingly, these parks should be managed by the districts in which they are located. Second, eco-oriented parks ask for specialized management. As domestic cases show, it will be advisable to commit the management of these parks to specialized, highly-experienced private organizations. Third, facilities-centered parks are large in size in response to the diverse needs of citizens, and it seems that a combination of different methods is better than merely sticking to any particular method.
A Suitability Analysis of Public Owned Land Build Small Park - The Case of Busan Megalopolis -
Kim, Yeong-Ha ; Yeo, Un-Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 31~41
This research aims to present a methodological approach for repurposing small pockets of national/public lands, which can be constructed as parks, through an investigation of the present status of these areas of national/public lands that are scattered around Busan Megalopolis as well as the suitability of their construction. In order to attain this, this study looked at the present status of these small areas of national/public lands by utilizing a national land, city land list (lot number), land registration map and satellite image of Busan Megalopolis, and evaluating their suitability as parks through GIS analysis and classification. As a result, these small areas of lands with the potential to be turned into parks include 516 spots(
). Geographically, 39% of these areas are located on flat land and are the most scattered. 260 places met the requirements for optimal placement for conversion, while convenience included 305 places, and availability 267 places. The most optimal of the places meeting such standards include 61 spots. The characteristics of these areas of national/public lands include being below
, with flatlands and open areas above a 5' grade occupy the highest ratio, accounting for 25.4% of the land studied. These results have offered a methodology for a GIS DB, which can visualize the data for a positive utilization be yond the simple level of the maintenance/preservation of national/public lands and provide basic data for the utilization and management of these types of areas in the future.
Tendencies in Question Development on the Professional Landscape Architect Qualification Examination - Centered on Recognition of Test-Takers for Sample Questions from Previous Professional Landscape Architect Tests -
Kang, Hyun-Goo ; Kim, Hak-Beom ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 42~52
This research analyzed the overall issues pertaining to the questions that appear in the professional landscape architect screening system to assess 1he recognition of test-takers when it comes to the test questions in terms of the question objectivity, appropriateness, difficulty level and so forth The purpose of this is to present a set of recommendations so that the screening system can he improved and the professional landscape architect screening system consolidate its position. This in turn can help the professional landscape architect qualification process consolidate its position and improve the status of the landscape area in the industrial field. The research of this study was conducted for the all-round development of Landscape Architecture. The research method was divided into two stages, and a group of experts was leveraged to study subjects that are tested and subjects allocated. A survey was conducted of candidates and certification holders to assess the questions that appear in the test in terms of their level, objectivity, difficulty level, tendency of questions and so forth. Firstly, the study demonstrated that the subjects tested in the professional landscape architect test are different from the testing subjects that are suggested in the enforcement ordinance of the National Technical Professional Law. In addition, o1her problems include the overvaluation of a subject for testing, a lack of objectivity in testing, and difficulty level adjustment of questions. One main reason for many of these kinds of problems is that the questions appeared without thorough review and there is a lack of management concerning the members of the commtittee that develops the question. Accordingly, to make up for these problems, a viable screening system such as the reorganization of subjects that are tested, assigning suitable subjects, securing of question objectivity, and difficulty level of developed questions are necessary.
The Cognition of Design Concepts for Urban Parks - The Cases of Seoul Forest, Yeouido Park, and Seonyudo Park -
Joo, Shin-Ha ; Kim, Young-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 53~63
The purposes of this study are to classify the characteristics of parks by park use patterns and the understanding of design concepts and to analyze the difference of cognition of design concept between designers and park users. The literature studies and surveys were performed to analyze park use patterns and understanding of design concepts for Seoul Forest Park, Yeouido Park and Seonyudo Park. Several statistical methods have been used such as descriptive analysis and importance-performance analysis. The results of this research are as follows. As the results of an analysis of park use patterns, Seonyudo Park may he qualified as an urban landmark park, while Yeouido Park can he classified as a neighborhood park. Seoul Forest Park bas characteristics of both. Second, the higher frequency of visits generally leads higher preference. Third, the overall cognition of the design concepts of parks shows 3.51 on average, which is comparatively high. The functional concepts are better transmitted to the users compared to abstract concepts. The cognition of the design concepts of each park are evaluated in the higher order of Seonyudo Park, Seoul Forest Park and Yeouido Park. Fourth, the cognition levels of detailed design concepts for each place are lower than the overall design concepts. On the other hand, levels of satisfaction are increased after the design concepts are noticed. It would he necessary make the effort to give information about the design concept of each space. The results of this study are limited in that it covers only three parks in Seoul, and did not consider seasonal variables. Nevertheless, this study may he significant in that it dealt with the cognition of design concepts for urban parks, focusing on the difference between designers and visitors.
Effects of Educational Programs Utilizing Forests on Maladjusted Behavior of Mentally Retarded Students
Park, Kyoung-Lee ; Sim, Woo-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 64~79
Students with intellectual disabilities typically have great difficulties communicating their needs and wants and may get frustrated, anxious or show signs of aggressive behaviour. They are often unable to understand the concept of relationships with other people as well. This lack of social communication and interaction leads to poor motivation which increases other areas of difficulty in their lives. Therefore, to teach students with intellectual disabilities, it is essential to find special teaching methods to support their positive behavior. This paper proposes that special educational curriculum for students with intellectual impairments utilize natural environments(forests) and materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Educational Programs Utilizing Forests on maladjusted behavior of students with mental retardation and to examine the positive effects of such planning practices. The subjects were middle school students who attended a special school for mentally-retarded students. They were divided into two separate groups- an experimental group and a control group. All subjects received the pre and post test using the same method. This program was applied to the formal educational process of middle school from March 1st to October 30th, 2009. In this experiment the results indicate that the effect of using a natural environment(forest) and the materials within a formal educational curriculum was positive as a type of horticultural therapy and that it supports positive behavior strategies in students with intellectual impairments. The usage of various natural materials including plants and flowers within the natural environments provide students with increased opportunities to participate. Teaching methods including natural materials help teachers engage with their students more easily during routine activities as their interest is already stimulated. This project will help students with intellectual impairments to build skills which enable effective participation and increase independence throughout their lives. This should be embedded into both routine and planned activities of the classroom Also, it offers a needed interior plan for the treatment space through an analysis of psychological factors of how the environment affects students.
A Study on Drainage Facilities in Mountainous Urban Neighborhood Parks - The Cases of Baebongsan Park and Ogeum Park in Seoul -
Lee, Sang-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 80~92
The purpose of this study was to analyze drainage facilities in mountainous urban neigbborhood parks--Baebongsan Park and Ogeum Park--in Seoul. Based on an analysis of existing drainage facilities, the volume of storm water runoff (VSW), the runoff rate of open channels(ROC), and the detention capacity of open charmels(DCOC) by each drainage watershed, the coefficient of runoff rate(CROC) as evaluated to be relevant between VSW and ROC and the coefficient of the detention capacity of open channe1s(CDCOC) as evaluated with DCOC compared to VSW were estimated and analyzed by parks and by watersheds. The results are as follows: 1. The total drainage area of Baebongsan Park was 34.13ha including surface runoff area(15.05ha; 44.09%), open channel area(l4.60ha; 42.78%), and natural waterway area(4.48ha; 13.13%). The total drainage area of Ogeum Park was 20.39ha including open channel area (10.14ha; 49.73%), ridge-side gutter area(7.17ha; 35.16%), surface runoff area (2.52ha; 12.36%), and natural waterway area (0.56ha; 2.75%). In Baebongsan Park, the portion of surface runoff was comparatively higher while the portion of artificial drainage area was higber in Ogeum Park. 2. In Baebongsan Park drainage districts were largely divided: VSW was
). Comparatively, tbe VSW in Ogeum Park, including smaller drainage districts, was
). 3. The ROC of Baebmgsan Park was
) and the CROC was 5.26, while in Ogeum Park, the ROC was
) and tbe CROC was 8.87 higher than that of Baebongsan Because the size and slope of the open channel in Baebongsan Park was higher, the average ROC was larger, while tbe CROC of Ogeum Park was higher than that of Baebongsan Park, for the VSW in Ogeum Park was comparatively lower. 4. The DCOC in Baebongsan Park was
and the average of CDCOC was 179.83. That of Ogeum Park was
and the average of the CDCOC was 339.69, meaning that the DCOC of Ogeum Park was so much higber that drainage facilities in Ogeum Park were built intensively. This study was focused m the capacity of the drainage facilities in mountainous urban neighborhood parks by using the CROC to evaluate relevance between VSW and ROC and the CDCOC to evaluate the DCOC as compared with VSW. The devised methodology and coefficient for evaluating drainage facilities in mountainous urban neighborhood parks may he universally applicable through additional study. Further study m sustainable urban drainage systems for retaining rainwater in a reservoir and for enhancing ecological value is required in the near future.
An Analysis of Coherence and Resilience Depending on Materials Mixing Ratio in Elastic Landscape Pavement
Park, Won-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 93~101
The demand for elastic pavement, providing comfort for pedestrians is expected to increase continuously but the lack of a standard for materials mixing ratio, that is, the optimal mixing ratio between ERDM chip and polyurethane binder, is still in a trial and error stage. This study aimed at recommending an optimal mixing ratio for elastic landscape pavement through a coherence and resilience test depending on ratio. The test result is outlined as follows. In a tensile strength test, samples B and C indicated a close positive relationship between the binder mixing ratio and tensile strength, indicating that the higher the mixing ratio the higher the tensile strength. In a hardness test, none of samples A, B or C indicated a statistical interrelationship between the binder mixing ratio and hardness. That is, the hardness of the elastic pavement material remained unchanged, irrespective of the binder mixing ratio. In a resilience lest, Samples A and B indicated a close negative interrelation between mixing ratio and resilience, indicating that the higher the mixing ratio, the lower the resilience. Upon analyzing the optimal mixing ratio based on test results, an increase in tensile strength began to slow at a 20% mixing ratio, while resilience began to reduce rapidly at 22%, Thus the optimal range for a mixing ration appeared to be 20~22%. The outcome of this study could to provide guidance for improving the elasticity and stability of elastic pavement.
A Study of Architectural and Design Elements of Secondary Shirines in Traditional Buddhist Temples in Korea
Cho, Jeong-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 102~112
The purpose of this study is to identify the architectural design elements of secondary shrines in traditional Buddhist temples in Korea. For this study, a survey of six kinds of secondary shrines (Myemgbujem, Yeongsanjeon, Eungjinjem, Yaksajeoun, Gwaneumjeon, Mireukjeon), according to specified design elements(building sizes, roof styles, Gongpo, Dancheong, shape of Datjip), was conducted. The results of this study are summarized as follows; Myeongbujem is built in every temples(25 examples), most having simila1ities in sizes and architectural elements(roof, Gongpo structure, Dancheong, Datjip). The majority of Yemgsanjeon(l4 examples) and Eungjinjem shrines(l5 examples) are mostly 3-Gan sized buildings, having a Matbaejibung and Ikkmg structural system. Gwaneumjeon, on the other hands, has 1he most elaborate architectural elements. Among 12 cases, 8 buildings have Paljakjibung, 9 buildings have Silk-Dancheong in innerspace, and Datjip are included in six buildings. Yaksajeon shrines are small in mnnber, but most of these shrines have a Dapo structure, and, despite of their size, are designated as cultural properties.
Research on Shumi-sen, Built by Baekjae Nohjagong - Excavation of Japanese Stone God Ruins, Centered on Mt. Sumeru Stone -
Lee, Kyu-Wan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 113~121
Shumi-sen(須彌山), built by Nohjagong(路子工) in the southern garden of the Palace Garden during the Asuka Period, is understood as being Sumeru based on an Indian perspective of the theory of the origin of universe. It is also viewed as Mt. Myogoh from a Chinese Buddhist worldview. It is thought to be a type of assembled stone structure with Poong-ryoon (風輪)-Su-ryoon(水輪)-Geum-ryoon(金輪)-Ji-ryoon(地輪) carved into each of the 4 stone pieces. These building shapes are thought to have been utilized as stone for exterior construction as opposed to those structures built during the Shilla Period of China and Korea. Aside from Nohjagong's record of Shumi-sen, most of the records from Japan's period of the time suggest that Shumi-sen was an important element that played a role in the scenery of the seasonal outdoor gardens. It is also thought, from the sentences and expressions surrounding the records, that a combination of the seasonal sceneries was utilized centered on Shumi-sen, and that they were all used during festival events. From a perspective of analysis and interpretation dependent on the limited literature and on observation, it cannot be verified whether the Mt. Sumeru Stone(須彌山石) excavated from the Stone God Ruins is the same Shumi-sen that Nohjagong built along with Okyo(吳橋), but it is thought that the 'Shumi-sen type stone structure' that was later built repeatedly as part of the palace garden facilities is identical to the Shumi-sen built at the Imperial Palace's southern garden, or at least a re-built structure based on the Shumi-sen that Nohjagong built with stones and ponds used to create the foundation. Thus, Shumi-sen that Nohjagong supposedly built along with Okyo is suspected to be a figurative rock arrangement and, at the same time, a miniaturized scenic rock arrangement(縮景樹石) that maximized the shape of Buddhism's Shumi-sen. On the other hand, the surface pattern on Mt. Sumeru Stone is very similar to the multi -layers of mountainous pattern icons expressed in the patterns of the Great Golden Incense Burner(百濟金銅大香爐) or Mountain-Water Scenery Sculptural Brick(山水山景紋?) that were built during the Baekjae pcriod aod the rear side of Hwalsuk-jebul Basal Byungipsang(滑石諸佛菩薩竝立像); it is suspected that similar patterns would have been used if patterns were made on Shumi-sen that Nohjagong built. Also in consideration of the physical theory of MI. Sumeru Stone, the Siphon theory of using a pressure difference in water level was applied to the fountain facilities of Mt. Sumeru Stone that seemed to have been built from the practical rock arrangement perspective for the purpose of feasts, etc.
The Influence of Details on the Sense of Place in Islamic Gardens - Focusing on 'the Courtyard of the Lions' -
Yoon, Mi-Bang ; Kim, Han-Bai ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 38, issue 5, 2010, Pages 122~133
Humans desire the achievement a of sense of unity between themselves and place to create an identity of place as a realization of his or her sense of belonging. Humans develop ideas from their culture and environment to be expressed physically within the landscape through symbols. Symbols are formed within a place through the structure of the space and, more visually, through the details. The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure of space and the details of 'the Courtyard of the lions' in the Alhambra and to study how the details influence the formation of the identity of place. This paper also compares the structure and details in terms of the meaning of symbols, design languages, cultural, social and historical background and the experience of the place. The structure of the space in 'the Courtyard of the Lions' represents Paradise in the Islamic religion a common theme in the composition of traditional Islamic gardens. The design languages expressed within the structure are order, balance, accent and enclosure; the inherit meanings of the structure are religion, the natural environment and way of life. The details tell of the ideology of Paradise, royalty, nature, and praise of God, while their design languages include physical and visual continuity, accent, variation, the feeling of movement, rhythm, and depth perception. The details also express the historical background of the Dynasty of Nasrid and the style of Mudejar. The name 'the Courtyard of the Lions' was taken from the detail of the lim figures, details within the landscape which are important in building an identity of place. This study demonstrates that the details at 'the Courtyard of the lions' achieved a sense of unity between man and place. In conclusion, details have immense influence in building of the identity of place.