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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
The Effect of UV-B Irradiation and Far-red Light Reduction on the Growth of Laurus nobilis in Indoor
Fujiwara, Keisuke ; Toda, Hiroto ; Choi, Dong-Su ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.001
The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of light quality on the growth and physiological activities of Laurus nobilis plants growing indoors, the L. nobilis seedlings were grown under four types of lighting for 180 days. The seedlings were grown under 4 different treatments((n=9 seedlings per treatment): control, control supplemental UV-B irradiated(+UV), FR reduced(-FR) and simultaneously supplemental UV-B irradiated and FR reduced(+UV-FR)). It was found that UV-B irradiation(+UV) reduced dry weight and leaf area, and increased leaf thickness and the amount of UV-absorbing compounds per unit leaf area. In contrast, a reduction in far-red(FR) light did not affect any of these parameters. Interestingly, however, the elongation growth and net photosynthetic rate of the L. nobilis seedlings grown under simultaneous UV-B irradiation and FR reduction(+UV-FR) were significantly decreased than the control treatment. From these results, it is concluded that the light quality has a large effect on the indoor growth of L. nobilis. This study can suggest basic information for managed in the L. nobilis in indoor using light quality.
Study on the Current Status Analysis of Urban Green Spaces in Seoul Focusing on Elementary School Surroundings - Remote Sensing Based Vegetation Classification -
Kim, Hyun-Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 8~18
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.008
Urban nature plays an important role not only in the improvement of the physical environment but also from the perspective of psychological and social function. In particular, schoolyards as well as the green spaces near school surroundings function as a primary space for urban children to experience nature in Korea, as they spend most of their time at school. In this study, the status of urban green spaces near school surroundings was examined. For the analysis, 185 elementary schools in Seoul were selected and the green spaces within a radius of 300m(defined as 'school zone' in this study) were analyzed using the Rapid Eye multispectral satellite image data. The mean green space ratio of school zone accounts to about 21% with a high variation from 74% to 0.7% and more than half of the school zone have a green space ratio of less than 20%. Schools with a high green space ratio in their school zone are mostly located near urban forests, so forest areas particularly contribute to increase the green space ratio. Furthermore, forest vegetation shows relatively higher vitality than other green spaces located in urbanized areas. In contrast, schools with a low green space ratio in their school zone are mostly situated in high-density residential areas and the green spaces show relatively low vegetation vitality. Except for the urban forest, the majority of urban green spaces in urbanized areas are landscape green facilities in apartment districts. The other types of urban open spaces such as environmentally shaped schoolyards or street parks account only for a very small proportion of school surroundings. Therefore, it is needed to establish countermeasures in the context of urban planning; e.g. to promote the school forest projects preferentially by selecting schools with a extremely low green space ratio in their school zone, to foster roof greening in near surroundings, and to connect schoolyards organically with nearby apartment landscape green facilities as an easily accessible urban open space.
Landscape Assessment and Improvement of the View Area by Selecting the Landscape Control Point
Kim, Jin-Hyo ; Lee, Hyun-Taek ; Ra, Jung-Hwa ; Cho, Hyun-Ju ; SaGong, Jung-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 19~32
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.019
The purpose of this study is to quantitatively measure the view target and the view area through the selection of landscape control point by selecting Jimyeong-dong Dong-gu and Yeongyeong-dong Buk-gu Daegu, which are planned as the large scale housing complex development area, as the target places. It is very meaningful that from the simulation based on this measurement, the improvement methods are attempted to be suggested at the project level. The results of this study are as follows. First, the total number of viewing targets derived from the literature analysis for the selection of the viewing targets was 24, and finally derived main viewing targets were 4 places. Second, the total number of selection criteria of the derived landscape control point was 15, and these were re-categorized as prospect, accessibility and publicness according to the common property. The preliminary LCPs were selected by measuring the publicness and accessibility, and because of the said measurement, a total of 43 preliminary LCPs were selected. The final LCPs were selected by estimating the prospect of the selected preliminary LCPs, and as a result of estimation, a total of 29 final LCPs were selected. Finally, the total number of evaluation indicators derived from literature analysis was 26. Because of the valuation by the landscape control point, it was found that the 2 view areas were the I grade, 3 areas were II grade and 3 areas were the V grade, the lowest grade among 29 view areas. From the analysis on problems for the improvement methods, 4 improvement-indicators including the diversity of land mosaic were selected for the view area-1 without considering the development project drawing. In addition, for the view area-2 with considering the development project drawing, the landscape as the scenery forests was well formed, and the arrangement of architectures for the security of view corridor was right angle arrangement, and their floor number was 10.
A Study on the Performance Standards for a Natural Type Landscaping Rocks by Utilizing GFRC(Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete)
Yoon, Bok-Mo ; Koo, Bon-Hak ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 33~42
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.033
This study aims to establish the performance standard for natural type landscape stone GFRC. The required performance such as material performance, structural safety performance, durability performance, and landscape performance were selected through an examination of domestic and overseas performance related references and examples, and through the questionnaires obtained from 40 experts, and the verified items and performance standards were proposed. Among the required performances, the material performance(glass fiber content, air-dried gravity), structural safety performance(flexural strength, compressive strength), durability performance(crack, corrosion resistance), and landscape performance(texture, efflorescence) were selected through the questionnaires obtained from the experts. In the case of material performance and structural safety performance with the corresponding standards that existed, final performance evaluation standard was proposed by conducting a test and comparing it with the existing standard sample, and in the case of durability performance and landscape performance on which standard does not existed, they were verified by measuring directly through field examination of formative landscape items such as artificial waterfall etc. In this study, performance standard for the material on natural type landscaping rocks GFRC and items which can be evaluated after construction such as material performance, structural safety performance, durability performance, landscape performance, and so forth were proposed, however, follow up study for pro-environmental and ecological performance standard which were recently gaining force would be required through a continuous monitoring for the construction samples afterwards.
Policy for Establishment of Green Infrastructure
Park, Jae-Chul ; Yang, Hong-Mo ; Jang, Byoung-Kwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 43~50
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.043
The Green Infrastructure Framework refers to an interconnected network formed by greenways that links gardens, parks, green spaces, streams, wetlands, agricultural lands, and green belts. Green infrastructure supports diverse functions to environment, provides various benefits to people, and helps in the community's health and viability. It can store stormwater runoff and abate its non-point source pollutants. Due to its advantages and profits, advanced countries in environment policies have adopted green infrastructure in planning and implementing urban and regional development. The Korean government and municipalities have focused upon grey infrastructure investment in the past, which causes occurrence of natural disasters such as draught, flood, and landslides, degradation of water and air quality, decline of biodiversity, and even inhibition of economic activities. In order to alleviate these problems, it is requested to formulate and implement policies for green infrastructure at the national government level. USA and Korean situation of green infrastructure were investigated; forty components of green infrastructure were drawn. Nine policies utilized in the USA cases were identified, which are applicable to Korea. Among them, five policies can be implemented in public sector and four in private one. The green infrastructure law needed in Korea was suggested. The amendments of laws regarding green infrastructure and alternatives expending it were proposed.
Network Planning on the Open Spaces in Geumho-dong, Seoul
Kang, Yon-Ju ; Pae, Jeong-Hann ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 51~62
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.051
Geumho-dong, Seoul, a redeveloped residential area, is located in the foothills of Mt. Eungbong. The geographical undulation, the composition of a large apartment complex, and the partial implementation of the redevelopment project have caused the severe physical and social disconnections in this area. In order to recover functioning in the disconnected community, this study pays attention to the regeneration of the open spaces as an everyday place and in the form a network system among those open spaces. Various types of the open spaces are classified into points or faces, 'bases' and linear 'paths' analyze the network status. More than half of the open space have connecting-distance of 500m or more. Furthermore, many areas are not even included in the service-area of the open spaces. Analysis of the connectivity and integration value using the axial map has carried out to check weak linkages and to choose the sections where additional bases are required. In addition, to improve the quality of the bases and the paths, a field investigation is conducted and problems are diagnosed. The network planning of the open spaces in Geumho-dong is established, ensuring the quality and quantity of bases and paths. The plan includes the construction of an additional major base in the central area and six secondary bases in other parts, and comes up with ways to improve the environment of underdeveloped secondary bases. In the neighborhood parks at Mt. Daehyun areas, the major path are added, and the environment of the paths is improved in certain areas. Because of the network planning, the connecting-distances between bases are reduced significantly, the connectivity and integration value of the area are increased, and the service areas of the open spaces cover the whole area properly. Although this study has some limitations such as the needs for the legal and institutional supports and difficulties of a quantitative indexing process, its significance lies in the suggestion of a more reasonable and practical plan for the overall network system by defining complex types of open spaces simply and clearly and by examining the organic relationships quantitatively and qualitatively.
A Comparative Study on the Spatial Sense of Interior and Exterior Spaces
Yoo, Mi-Kyoung ; Im, Seung-Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 63~72
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.063
In contemporary times, "environmental designers" need to consider both exterior and interior aspects because of the growing trend in dissolution between exterior and interior spaces. To quantify "spatial sense" which serves as the standard for environmental design, this study has asked 63 subjects to evaluate 15 interior and 14 exterior spaces. The "spaciousness (small-large)", "openness(closed-open)", "warmness(warm-cold)", "brightness(bright-dark)", "softness(soft-hard)", "spatial intimacy" and "frequency of visit" were adopted as variables of spatial sense. Through the analysis of these variables, this study could gain the difference between spatial sense for exterior and interior environments, quantify the spatial sense that physically and psychologically appropriates to human beings. The result of this study can be summarized as follows: Twice the amount of spaciousness was observed between the interior and exterior spaces. And the standard on intimate space is established with W/H ratio of 5.71 and high Window/Wall Area ratio in the interior and an area of 3,800m2 and a W/H ratio of 5.57 in exterior. The difference between the spatial sense in the interior and exterior space is mostly dependent on the psychological sense. The increase of physical size caused by the interior space to be perceived as cold, dark and hard psychologically, but exterior space to be perceived as warm, bright and soft. Psychological senses, especially softness, affect spatial intimacy to the greatest extent among the given variables. As the psychological senses for interior spaces were largely independent from the given space's size and perceptive senses, the size of the interior space, which exhibited spatial intimacy, could not be deduced. In comparison to this, due to the high dependency between the psychological senses for exterior spaces and the given space's size and perceptive senses. The study also showed that interior and exterior spaces have relatively different spatial sense and physical standards. Such research results are predicted to provide applicable standards for environmental designers for exterior and interior spaces in the future.
Cultural Landscape Analysis of Market Space in Chinatown - A Case Study of the 'Chung-Ang Market of Dairimdong' -
Chun, Hyun-Jin ; Lee, June ; Jiang, Long ; Kim, Sung-Kyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 73~87
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.073
Nowadays, the Korean society is full of multiculturalism as there are many foreign ethnic enclaves. Many Chinese quarters are built in various parts of Korea along with the increasing population of Chinese immigrant. Especially, the Chinese quarter has shown the sign of time and the cultural characteristic of the local residents. This research is to study the market space of Chinese ethnic enclaves in Dairimdong. This research method is the field study to use a participant observation. Below are the research results: Chinese merchants put a private object such as "tanzi" on a sidewalk and install large awning covered full of sidewalk. Sidewalk transform from an outdoor space into an internal space because of Chinese merchants. Passers-by move to use vehicle roads and transform not only the car's space but also the passers-by space. Urban planners originally classify space into three categories, which are building - sidewalk - vehicles road. However, after Chinese came to the market, Chinese classified space into new three categories which is building - space for both sidewalk and "tanzi" - space for both sidewalk and vehicles road. New classification of space is quite different from the previous. In addition, Chinese thinks that the Dairimdong's Market is a very comfortable place. Because Dairimdong Market have many Chinese physical facilities. Next, Chinese thinks that the Dairimdong Market is a very friendly place to buy Chinese products easily. This market has become a place of consumption for the Chinese. Eventually, Dairimdong's Market has changed because of Chinese immigrants. It is possible to make satisfactory planning and design proposal to build Chinese quarters in the future through the explanation of space and status by way of culture. There are many careless mistakes in previous subjective planning and design proposal of the designers. Thus, it should consider the problems created by their way of use in later planning and design.
A Study on the Changes of the Landscape Cognition in Yong-In City
Joo, Shin-Ha ; Kim, Gyung-In ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 88~99
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.088
This study was to analyze the changes made in the landscape cognition in Yong-in City for the past 10 years. For the analysis, the landscape plan in 2001, and the survey data collected for the new 2012-landscape plan were used. The questions on the survey covered the cognition of the current landscape status, the evaluation of landscape depending on the types of landscape, the understanding of each element on the landscape, the residents' cognition, etc. In the evaluation of the status on current landscape, Everland was ranked outstandingly high as a symbol and a representative place both in 2001 and 2012. The image of the overall city landscape was changed from the image of unique, diverse, grand-scale and well ordered in 2001, to the image of wide, disordered, common and realistic. As the evaluation of individual landscape types such as the view of the mountain, the surroundings of the tourist attractions, colors, etc, has improved overall. The image of the city has been evaluated to improve gradually, especially in the level of individual element. In the study of participating the willingness of residents, despite the interest in landscape has been continued, the attitude for the actual participation in the action plan or the restriction of property right has been changed into a negative side. For the direction of the landscape plan, the residents are more interested in the detailed subjects : such as the financial support, the night landscape plan, the improvement of the problems, etc. During the last 10 years, the changes on the landscape cognition in Yong-in City have changed more in detail and specifically, the cognitions on the local government and developers changed positively. However the reducion of the participants' willingness suggested a review on the policies and the projects of the landscape.
The Influence of Ventilation and Shade on the Mean Radiant Temperature of Summer Outdoor
Lee, Chun-Seok ; Ryu, Nam-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 100~108
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.100
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of shading and ventilation on Mean Radiant Temperature(MRT) of the outdoor space at a summer outdoor. The Wind Speed(WS), Air Temperature(AT) and Globe Temperature(GT) were recorded every minute from
of May to the
of September 2011 at a height of 1.2m above in four experimental plots with different shading and ventilating conditions, with a measuring system consisting of a vane type anemometer(Barini Design's BDTH), Resistance Temperature Detector(RTD, Pt-100), standard black globe(
150mm) and data acquisition systems(National Instrument's Labview and Compfile Techs' Moacon). To implement four different ventilating and shading conditions, three hexahedral steel frames, and one natural plot were established in the open grass field. Two of the steel frames had a dimension of
and every vertical side covered with transparent polyethylene film to prevent lateral ventilation(Ventilation Blocking Plot: VP), and an additional shading curtain was applied on the top side of a frame(Shading and Ventilation Blocking Plot: SVP). The third was
, only the top side of which was covered by the shading curtain without the lateral film(Shading Plot: SP). The last plot was natural condition without any kind of shading and wind blocking material(Natural Open Plot: NP). Based on the 13,262 records of 44 sunny days, the time serial difference of AT and GT for 24 hour were analyzed and compared, and statistical analysis was done based on the 7,172 records of daytime period from 7 A.M. to 8 P.M., while the relation between the MRT and solar radiation and wind speed was analyzed based on the records of the hottest period from 11 A.M. to 4 P.M.. The major findings were as follows: 1. The peak AT was
at VP and
at SP showing the difference about
, but the difference of average AT was very small within
. 2. The difference of the peak GT was
at VP and
at SP, while the gap of average GT between the two plots was
. Comparing all four plots including NP and SVP, it can be said that the shading decrease
GT while the wind blocking increase
GT. 3. According to the calculated MRT, the shading has a cooling effect in reducing a maximum of
MRT, while the wind blocking has heating effect of increasing average
MRT. In other words, the MRT of the shaded area with natural ventilation could be cooler than the wind blocking the sunny site to about
MRT maximum. 4. The regression and correlation tests showed that the shading is more important than the ventilation in reducing the MRT, while both of them do an important role in improving the outdoor thermal comfort. In summary, the results of this study showed that the shade is the first and the ventilation is the second important factor in terms of improving outdoor thermal comfort in summer daylight hours. Therefore, it can be apparently said that the more shade by the forest, shading trees etc., the more effective in conditioning the microclimate of an outdoor space reducing the useless or even harmful heat energy for human activities. Furthermore, the delicately designed wind corridor or outdoor ventilation system can improve even the thermal environment of urban area.
A Research on the Creative Behavior of Children's Plays in Sangsang Children's Park, Seoul City
Kang, Young-Jai ; Kim, Yo-Seob ; Cho, Se-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 109~118
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.109
The study is aimed to suggest a preliminary data on the improvement of children's recreational facility to enhance children's creativity at Sangsang Children Park Project(SCPP) in Seoul Metropolitan City being the case study. The book review, especially the field observation was implemented by the video recording methods for analyzing the children's play behavior with regard to the six sites of the SCPP that was constructed in March 2008 until May 2010. Because of the research, the first 21 patterns of the creative activities were shown. Second, the prime using rates of facilities were the combination of play facilities among other play facilities like swings, slides, trembling horse etc. However, more children's creative behaviors occurred on independent play facilities like swing, trembling horse, etc. than at combination play facilities. Third, children's creative behaviors diversely occurred at a moving or fluid facility like a swing, trembling horse and a spatial facility like sand field more than a fixed facility like combination play facility. Fourth, children's creative behavior could be divided and evaluated by five categories and elements of fluency: the flexibility, the creativity, the elaborateness, and the imagination. Nevertheless, it was assumed that the creative elements of the five categories were mixed together with each other instead of showing an individual characteristic. Fifth, based on this analysis, the research reached out to the conclusion that the combination play facility of imaginary children's park would be designed together with more fluid and spatial facilities to improve the children's creativity. Finally, It was proposed that the play facilities of imaginary children's park like drawing wall or board, spatial play facilities and handicraft facilities etc. would be introduced to improve sorts of creativeness on elaborateness and imagination shown less than the fluency, flexibility, and originality.
Effects of the Urban Farm Program on the Participants' Sense of Community
Park, Tae-Ho ; Lee, Insung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 119~128
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.119
This study investigated the effects of urban farm program on the participants' sense of community. Three public urban farms in Seoul were selected and surveyed. The results were as follows: First, the effects of the urban farm program on the sense of community were verified by a multifaceted analysis. There were significant differences in the interaction and sense of community between urban farms with and without regular programs. Program participants showed higher level of activity, interaction and sense of community compared to non-participants. Program participation was the most important factor in the path analysis. Second, the number of participating group, residential ownership and duration were important factors in the sense of community. This implies that urban farm programs should target house owners with long duration, in particular socially disadvantaged classes such as single-family and elderly household. Third, diverse cultural programs related to the regional society gained higher satisfaction than the simple agricultural educational programs.
Study on Redesign of Landscape Architect Certification Requirements by Utilizing NCS
Baek, Jeong-Hee ; Kim, Kyu-Seoub ; Lee, Jae-Keun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 129~139
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.129
Recent changes in landscape architectural field, such as keen attention on central and local government, checks of other related fields, circumstances both inside and outside the construction industry, assume hostile attitude towards qualification system in landscape architecture. By securing the original function of qualification meets the environmental changes and accords to the technical development, practicality and serviceability of qualification as well as credit rating and professional status can be enforced. Framework redesign on landscape architecture National Technical Qualifications(NTQ) is required in order to meet the demand in the industrial fields and to reflect the technical changes. National Competency Standards(NCS) was selected as a precedent study to enhance the practicality and serviceability of NTQ as well as to avoid duplication on qualified requirements. It would provide a model to redesign the framework of landscape architecture NTQ. In this study, questions in NCS and in landscape architecture certification are compared and analyzed to review the suitability of the present landscape architecture certification items. In conclusion, the creation of master landscape architect under the present system, and the subdivision of the technician's license level to planting technician and the facility are recommended. The ability units to be qualified for each level, which would be used for future NTQ standards and university curriculums in relevant fields, are also suggested in this study.
Estimation of Appropriate Infiltration Rate and the Effects of the Flowerbed Type Infiltration System
Han, Young-Hae ; Lee, Tae-Goo ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 140~147
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.140
This study developed a flowerbed type infiltration system that could control the amount of runoff discharge under a certain level estimated its proper design infiltration rate, and analyzed the effects of its implementation. Analyzing the performance of infiltration system is the one of the essential processes that should be under review to predict its effects after implementation when a rainwater infiltration system is included in a district-based plan. To estimate the unit design infiltration rate of this system, the runoff decrease effect was analyzed by varying the unit infiltration rate of the system applied to the parking lot adjacent to the Korea Institute of Construction Technology laboratory building by using a water balance analysis program. After varying the unit design infiltration to
to analyze the variation in the rate of runoff, 80% of the runoff was infiltrated at
, and the unit infiltration design rate at the time was 0.0416(m3/m2.hr). It was also found that the unit design infiltration rate obtained from a field infiltration test of the developed system was about
. Based on this study, it was possible that infiltration rate is estimated to consider the economic scale and environmental effect. It is significant to apply the spatial plan of rainwater infiltration system as green infrastructure.
The Improvement Effect of Pinus densiflora Forest Disturbed by Human Trampling in the Solbat Neighborhood Park, Gangbuk-gu, Seoul
Kwon, Ki-Young ; Han, Bong-Ho ; Park, Seok-Cheol ; Choi, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 148~159
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.148
The purpose of this study is to validate the effect of improvement such measures as fence installation or planting of bush and herbaceous plants taken from Pinus densiflora forest in Solbat Neighborhood Park in Seoul, which was damaged by stamping. The study was conducted in 2005 and 2010 in order to analyze changes in planting types, planting structure of Pinus densiflora forest, soil hardness, cross-sectional structure of soil, and physicochemical characteristics of soil. It was also measured by the growth of the branches and the diameter of Pinus densiflora, comparing before and after the improvement to study the effect of restoring Pinus densiflora forest damaged by stamping. When it comes to a change in planting type, Pinus densiflora forest without underlay was reduced from 48.5% in 2005 to 6.8% in 2010. Pinus densiflora forest with bush and herbaceous plants was increased dramatically from 7.4% to 46.8%. Regarding planting structure, in most area of the subject site, Pinus densiflora forest without under layer was transformed into the one with bush and herbaceous plants including Rhododendron mucronulatum, Rhododendron schippenbachii, Hemerocallis fulva, Aceriphyllum rossii, Hosta plantaginea growing in a wide area. The soil in the Solbat Neighborhood Park was very stiff with soil hardness of
in average. After the improvement efforts made in the Park in 2010, the soil hardness was mostly less than
, being in a good condition with little influence on the growth of plants. When it comes to the cross-sectional structure of soil, litter layer didn't exist in 2005 because of stamping and the organic matter layer was only 1.0cm thick, which provided an unfavorable condition for plant growth. However, after improvement, litter layer was formed up to 3.0cm and thickness of the organic matter layer also went up to 1.5~8.0cm in 2010 because the damage from stamping was reduced. Concerning the physicochemical characteristic of soil, in 2005 soil showed pH 5.76~6.70, organic matter content 7.15~10.55%, and available phosphorus 9.38~26.47mg/kg, having no big problems as a soil environment for growth of Pinus densiflora. 15 trees of Pinus densiflora were selected to see branch growth and it was found that the branches tended to grow better after improvement. 70 trees of Pinus densiflora from various grades of soil hardness also were selected to identify changes of diameter growth. In most cases, it was analyzed that Pinus densiflora grew better after improvement. After conducting this study, it was validated that such measures as fence installation or planting of bush and herbaceous plants to restore Pinus densiflora Forest damaged by stamping were effective in improving growth of Pinus densiflora.
Carbon Storage and Uptake by Deciduous Tree Species for Urban Landscape
Jo, Hyun-Kil ; Ahn, Tae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 40, issue 5, 2012, Pages 160~168
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2012.40.5.160
This study generated regression models to estimate the carbon storage and uptake from the urban deciduous landscape trees through a direct harvesting method, and established essential information to quantify carbon reduction from urban greenspace. Tree species for the study included Acer palmatum, Zelkova serrata, Prunus yedoensis, and Ginkgo biloba, which are usually planted as urban landscape trees. Tree individuals for each species were sampled reflecting various diameter sizes at a given interval. The study measured biomass for each part including the roots of sample trees to compute the total carbon storage per tree. Annual carbon uptake per tree was quantified by analyzing radial growth rates of stem samples at breast height. The study then derived a regression model easily applicable in estimating carbon storage and uptake per tree for the 4 species by using diameter at breast height(dbh) as an independent variable. All the regression models showed high fitness with
values of 0.94~0.99. Carbon storage and uptake per tree and their differences between diameter classes increased as the diameter sizes got larger. The carbon storage and uptake tended to be greatest with Zelkova serrata in the same diameter sizes, followed by Prunus yedoensis and Ginkgo biloba in order. A Zelkova serrata tree with 15cm in dbh stored about 54kg of carbon and annually sequestered 7 kg, based on a regression model for the species. The study has broken new grounds to overcome limitations of the past studies which substituted, due to a difficulty in direct cutting and root digging of urban landscape trees, coefficients from the forest trees such as biomass expansion factors, ratios of below ground/above ground biomass, and diameter growth rates. Study results can be useful as a tool or skill to evaluate carbon reduction by landscape trees in urban greenspace projects of the government.