Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 41, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
The Characteristic of Laws on the Kind of Urban Green Spaces and the Legal Requirements for the Green Spaces of Urban Habitat in China
Shin, Ick-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2013.41.3.001
This study investigated Chinese Laws on the kind of urban green spaces and the legal requirements for the green spaces of urban habitat and analyzed the specificities of them intending to provide basic data to suggest bringing in or not the relevant Chinese Laws to Korea. This study can be summarized as follows: First, the concept of Chinese urban green spaces(g.s.) classified by 5 kinds(park g.s., production g.s., protection g.s., attachment g.s., the others g.s.) placed the park and green spaces in the same category unlike the Korean urban green spaces that only distinguishes between park and green spaces. The Chinese Urban Park is classified by 4 kinds(composite park, community park, special park, linear park) at the 'Standard for urban green spaces classification' which is below in rank of the legal system. Second, in case of calculation for green spaces ratio of urban green spaces in China, the green rooftop landscaping area should not be included as a green spaces area except the rooftop of a basement or semi basement building to which residents have easy access. The green spaces requirements and compulsory secure ratio by 3 habitat kinds(habitat, small habit, minimum habitat) of when to act as a residential plan is regulated. Third, the green spaces system is obligated to establish at habitat green spaces plan and is specified to conserve and improve existing trees and green spaces. The green spaces ratio on reconstruction for old habitat is relaxed to be lower than for new habitat and a gradient of green spaces is peculiarly clarified. The details and requirements for establishment and the minimum area intending for each classes of the central green spaces(habitat park, children park, minimum habitat's green spaces) are regulated. Especially at a garden style of minimum habitat's green spaces, intervals between the south and north houses and a compulsory security for green spaces area classifying into two groups(closing type green spaces and open type green spaces) by a middle-rise or high-rise building are clarified. System of calculation for green spaces area is presented at a special regulation. Fourth, a general index(area/person) of public green spaces within habitat to achieve by 3 habitat kinds is determined, in this case, the index on reconstruction for a deterioration zone can be relaxed to be lower to the extent of a specified quantity. A location and scale, minimum width and minimum area per place of public green spaces are regulated. A space plot principle including adjacent to a road, greening area ratio against total area, security of open space and the shadow line boundary of sunshine are also regulated to intend for public green spaces. Fifth, the minimum horizontal distance between the underground cables and the surrounding greening trees are regulated as the considerable items for green spaces when setting up the underground cables. The principle to establish green spaces within public service facilities is regulated according to the kind of service contents. It shall be examined in order to import or not the special regulations that only exist in Chinese Laws but not in Korean Laws. The result of this study will contribute to gain the domestic landscape architect's' sympathy of the research related to Chinese urban green spaces laws requiring immediate attention and will be a good chance to advance into the internationalization of Korean Landscape Architectural Laws.
Comparison of Changes Over Time between In and Outside the Regional Resident's Cognition for Image of Daegu City - Focused on Representative Image and Environmental Image -
Eom, Boong-Hoon ; Kim, Geum-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 12~21
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2013.41.3.012
This paper deals with a comparative analysis of changes in cognition of city image of Daegu City, focusing on image of representative and environmental conditions. Two-questionnaire surveys were conducted to compare the change of image cognition between the last decades. Major results are: Firstly, the most frequent representative images of Daegu City were hot weather, Palgong Mountain, textile industry, etc. and representative places were Palgong Mountain, Dongsung-ro Street, E world(Woobang Land), etc. Compared to the results of year 2000, the frequency of apple, and textile industry were remarkably decreased. Secondly, mean scores of image rating for environmental conditions were comparatively high in human environment such as women, and kindness. By individual variables, accessibility to Daegu City, women, living environment such as shopping, showed higher mean scores. Generally, mean scores of 2011 survey were higher than that of 2000. Thirdly, major factors affecting city image were human environment, living environment, natural environment, and transportation environment, respectively. These results can be used as a basic data for strategies to improve higher brand image of Daegu City.
An Analysis of Thermal Comforts for Pedestrians by WBGT Measurement on the Urban Street Greens
Ahn, Tong-Mahn ; Lee, Jae-Won ; Kim, Bo-Ram ; Yoon, Ho-Seon ; Son, Seung-Woo ; Choi, Yoo ; Lee, Na-Rae ; Lee, Ji-Young ; Kim, Hae-Ryung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 22~30
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2013.41.3.022
This study aims to measure the thermal comfort effects of urban street trees. As the usual dry bulb air temperature does not indicate properly how the average pedestrian feels the heat of a typical summer day under the strong sunshine, we adopted the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature(WBGT). WBGT involves black globe temperature to measure the direct radiation of sun beams on our bodies, for example our heads. We measured temperatures on very sunny and hot summer days, August 3, 4, and 7, 2012, on the urban streets of Seoul, Korea. Wet bulb, globe, and dry bulb temperatures were measured under direct sunlight from 1 O'clock to 5 O'clock pm. Globe and dry bulb temperatures were measured under street tree shades nearby during the same hours. Then the WBGTs were calculated with the formulae, one for sunny outdoor spaces, and the other for shaded outdoor spaces or indoor. The results are compared with the Korean Standards Association(KS A ISO 7243). The major findings were: 1) On very sunny and hot summer days in Seoul, street tree shades lower the WBGT about 1 to 4 degrees, 2) during the hours of 3 and 4 O'clock in the afternoon, the WBGT under the tree shades are about 3 to 4 degrees lower compared to those under sunshines(approx. 29 to 32 degrees respectively), 3) This difference makes a major thermal comfort for urban pedestrians because senior citizens or weak persons are recommended to move indoor, and even healthy people are recommended stop outdoor sports and take rests in the shades when WBGT is about 32. On the other hand, if the WBGT is around 29, or 3 degrees lower, slower walking, light works or sports are allowable, 4) On site questionnaire survey confirms the thermal comforts under the tree shades, and we even could not get survey subjects on the sunny parts of the sidewalks, 5) We strongly recommend change of guidelines for urban street trees from "one row of street trees on 6m~8m intervals" to "street trees to make continuous shades".
Analysis of Deterioration Status on the Trails in the Gyeongju National Park - Focused on Mt. Toham, Mt. Nam, Mt. Danseok and Mt. Gumi District -
Mun, Sung-Ju ; You, Ju-Han ; Hong, Kwang-Pyo ; Heo, Sang-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 31~42
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2013.41.3.031
This study was carried out to systematically maintain and manage the trails by assessing the types of deterioration and naturalness of trails located in Mt. Toham, Mt. Nam, Mt. Danseok and in the Mt. Gumi district of the Gyeongju National Park. The route length of Mt. Toham was 2.7km, 2.3km of Mt. Nam, 1.0km of Mt. Danseok and 2.7km of Mt. Gumi district. The numbers of measuring points in Mt. Toham were 37 units, 29 units of Mt. Nam, 16 units of Mt. Danseok and 40 units of Mt. Gumi district. In characteristics of physical environments, Mt. Danseok was the widest and Mt. Gumi was the narrowest in the width of trail. In the bared width of trail, Mt. Danseok was the widest and Mt. Gumi was the narrowest. In depth of erosion, Mt. Danseok was the deepest and Mt. Gumi was the shallowest. Mt. Danseok was the steepest and Mt. Nam was the gentlest in the longitudinal slope. In the results of analysing the types of deterioration, Mt. Toham were 10 types, 14 types of Mt. Nam, 11 types of Mt. Danseok and 9 types of Mt. Gumi district. The times of appearance of deterioration types in Mt. Toham were 69 times, 87 times of Mt. Nam, 67 times of Mt. Danseok and 71 times of Mt. Gumi district. The most common type was the exposure of root in 4 districts of Gyeongju National Park. In the results of assessing the naturalness, Mt. Toham was 2.1 score(II degree), 2.6 score(II degree) of Mt. Nam, 2.9 score(III degree) of Mt. Danseok and 2.0 score(II degree) of Mt. Gumi district. The average naturalness was 2.4 score and II degree.
A Study on the Construction Methods and the Distribution of Proper Spatial Function for Restoring Urban Streams into Close-to-Nature Streams - A Case Study of Hongjecheon(Stream) in Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul -
Jung, Tae-Jun ; Lee, Kyong-Jae ; Han, Bong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 43~55
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2013.41.3.043
The purpose of this study is to propose a plan that properly organizes urban close-to-nature streams by evaluating the city park functions, ecological functions and landscape functions required for urban stream and setting up space function suitable for the space. The site of this study is Hongjecheon located in Seodaemun gu of Seoul City, whose length of channel spans 6.12km in total. The plan for the construction of close-to-nature streams had been established from late 2003, and the construction was completed. Evaluation Categories and indications were deduced from 4 stages. First, based on theoretical examination, we made a list of stream and park evaluation categories and added Category about Characteristic of urban streams. Next, we set Final Evaluation Categories and indications through the process of goal-relevance, indication verification, merging similar category. Final Evaluation Categories were deduced such as usage demand, usability(city park functions), biodiversity, inhabitation potential, rarity(ecological functions), historical cultural elements, and landscape Quality(landscape functions). As a result of allotting space functions, zones 1 through 4, got high grades at usage demand, was classified as a civic resort district; zones 5 through 6, close to major green area and remained original landscape, as ecological conservation and restoration district; zones 7 through 8, get high grades at usage demand and usability, as environmentally-friendly use district; and zones 9 through 10, many historical cultural elements and view points, and high green possession rate, as stream scenic district. In addition, detail space function and construction plan for each zones were proposed. As a result of this study, proposed space function assignment considering natural characteristics, humanities and social characteristics and landscape characteristics and is expected to be utilized at reasonable spatial planning considering various functions required for urban stream.
A Study on the Status of Multi-functional Vacant Ground at the Palace Rear Garden during the Era of King Kojong
Jung, Woo-Jin ; Kwon, Oh-Man ; Sim, Woo-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 56~71
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2013.41.3.056
This study was carried out to investigate the construction background of multi-functional vacant grounds in the rear gardens of Kyeongbok Palace and Kyeongun Palace, by understanding the building history of multi-functional vacant ground during the Joseon Dynasty with a special reference to the places formed in the period of King Kojong. The multi-functional vacant grounds in the Palace were the important element from the political aspect of Joseon Dynasty, and became an infrastructure of a state - run organization. The vacant space between Kwangyeonlu(廣延樓) and Haeonjeong, the whole region of Yeolmujeong(閱武亭), Seochongdae(瑞蔥臺), and Chundangdae(春塘臺) were investigated as the multi-functional places, where the events were held for the royal family in the Changdeok Palace after the establishment of the Joseon Dynasty. Various events such as the archery competition, official examination and military training were held at the places. After the inauguration of King Kojong, Kyeongmudae(京武臺) was made in the process of the reconstruction of the Kyeongbok Palace. The Kyeonghee Palace was used as the off-palace rear garden after the year that King Kojong returned to the Kyeongun Palace. The characteristics of two spaces were to apply the space organization of the Changdeok Palace into the rear garden outside of Sinmumun(神武門), Kyeongmudae at Kyeongbok Palace and the pedestrian overpass was established to connect the spaces efficiently in Kyeonghee Palace. Especially, the multi-functional vacant ground in the rear garden during the period of King Kojong functioned as the place to show off the internal and external independence of a nation and to show the authority and dignity of King at the point of time that accelerated the plundering Joseon Dynasty by Japanese imperialism powers, beyond the meaning of national event space that had existed before, such as official examination or archery test. In addition, the fact that the multi-functional vacant ground used as training place for military exercise where many people were mobilized was considered to reflect the contemporary situation.
An Interpretation of a Social Implication on the Transition of the Urban Park in Daegu
Lee, Jung-Youn ; Jung, Tae-Yeol ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 72~82
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2013.41.3.072
This study was done for analyzing processes on the planning and opening of chronological urban parks in Daegu City since the 1960s, and for interpreting the social meaning on changes of the urban parks with regards to historical circumstances during that period. In the 1960s, urban parks, which were recognized as one of urban planning facilities, were only designated for creating rather than created, although nationally several laws including urban planning act and park act were newly legislated. Rapid urbanization and increasing population in the 1970s led to create many urban parks. However, the policy for increasing parks had been not successful because of the lack of enough funds. In the 1980s, multi-purpose urban parks including stable area as well as active facilities were created for getting several attractions to urban residents. During this period, urban parks were recognized on an aesthetic perspective through vegetating plans on the city-beautiful movement for hosting consecutive international games. The citizen participation in urban parks and the increasing concern about urban environment were started in the 1990s, and the people living in an urban area were interested in the quantitative expansion and qualified renovation of the urban parks as well. Finally, modernistic urban parks were first introduced in the late period of Chosun Dynasty, however their substantial introduction was done in the 1960s. Through this study, the concept of an urban park as a public resting place for citizen in Daegu was thought to be mostly established in the 1990s as we have investigated on the social meaning derived from the periodical changes of urban parks.
An Analysis on the Problems of Design Competition Process of Landscape Architecture by the Delphi Analysis Method
Lee, Joo-Hee ; Cho, Se-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 41, issue 3, 2013, Pages 83~93
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2013.41.3.083
This study has been performed to analyze and consider the problems after 30 years in terms of landscape design competition process in Korea, so that it can provide the basic data, which can improve the future landscape design competition. We have used Delphi Investigation to carry out a survey that targets professionals and identifies problems. The results are summarized as follows. Firstly, the results of the analysis of Landscape Design Competition for institution theory and case studies showed that there is an issue from four perspectives which are 'method of design competition', 'guidelines for design competition', 'winner selection process', and 'design changes after winning' Secondly, the process by professional Delphi performed expert analysis, and agree with expert opinion. As a result, we derived the problems of a landscape design competition system with the 12 items. Third, in the 'design competition style', two items, the 'design competition style' and 'problem of design public offering period' had become a problem. Fourth, the 'Guidelines for design competition', 'non-hierarchical excess of the amount of instructions', 'directive determined the guidelines', and the 'provision of confusion' three items had also become a problem. Fifth, 'sex expert committee review selection process winning work', 'Problems of participation', 'examination scoring system experts lack', and 'non-landscaping' had become a problem. Sixth, 'The design of the original order' as much as possible 'design changes after the winning work' Four 'order to Comments to reduce the creativity of the design of the climate', 'original extension', 'contractor feedback of excess without the promise of frequent personnel changes', design period of the person in charge is reflected in excess item has become a problem. I considered that a continuous research on the improvement of the problems of the landscape design competition system based on the results must be performed.