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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
A Study on Commemoration Characteristics of Vietnam War Memorials in the United States of America
Lee, Sang-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~15
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.001
The purpose of this study was to analyze the commemoration characteristics of Vietnam War Memorials(VWM) in the United States(VWMUS). Through site survey and internet research, the researcher selected 87 VWMUS except monuments simply with markers, and analyzed 5 analysis items: design concepts, spatial characteristics, landscape details, sculptures, and interpretive texts and symbols. The results are as follows: 1. The analysis revealed that the main concepts of VWMUS were to cherish victims of the Vietnam War(85 sites (97.7%)), show veteran`s dedication for country(85 sites(97.7%)), and publicize the contribution of groups by troop, regional, and membership(84 sites(96.6%)). 2. Most VWMUS were located in memorial parks and plazas. 59 memorials(67.8%) were designed to pursue the completion of each memorial assuming the form of symmetry and circles. On the other hand, 12 memorials(13.8%) were typed memorial walls and 11 memorials(12.6%) were formed by spatial sequence including various landscape details and grading. 3. Stone walls were mainly used to cherish victims of the War at 65 memorials(74.7%), and also, Flags like the Stars and Stripes, POW MIA flags, and state flags were hoisted to symbolize memorial`s identity at all memorials. Additionally, Benches, monuments, markers, posts and columns, ponds and channels, Helicopters were partially introduced some memorials. 4. Sculptures were used 21 memorials(24.1%) which were smaller in numbers than other War Memorial in the U.S.A., for black stonewall were used for the main element of VWMUS. Except for a few sculptures that aimed to represent the Vietnam War symbolically and narratively, 16 memorials(18.4%) were formed to realistically express the image of wounded soldiers and their hardship in the Vietnam War. 5. KIA, MIA, Veteran`s name were written and their images depicted on walls, Also, the symbolic phrase, `ALL GAVE SOME, SOME GAVE ALL` and `DUTY, HONOR, COUNTRY` were written on the memorials walls, and the POW MIA symbols were printed on the flags and engraved on walls. 6. In the United States of America, Democratic patriotism was considered a main ideological value in VWMUS by engraving KIA MIA`s names on the walls, hoisting flags Stars and Stripes and POW MIA, and writing symbolic phrases `ALL GAVE SOME, SOME GAVE ALL` and `DUTY, HONOR, COUNTRY`. On the contrary, in Vietnam, nationalism, patriotism, and socialism were emphasized as main ideologies through raising war victory and resistance to foreign power as well as writing the symbolic phrase `TO-QUOC-GUI-CONG` meaning `our country remember your achievement` on memorial towers. Further study will be required to comparatively analyze VWM in order to understand national characteristics in Korea, Australia, U.S.A, and Vietnam.
A Study on the Planning Methods of Community Greenway in Nam-Gu, Incheon
Park, Suk-Hyeon ; Han, Bong-Ho ; Choi, Jin-Woo ; Choi, Tae-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 16~28
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.016
This study is suggested to enlarge the green area and to connect and improve the present green areas by deriving the lines of community greenway using living areas and community spaces close to the life of residence in Nam-gu. The purpose of this paper is to suggest the method of establishing greenway for the formation of community in which the residence can grow the community spirit and love their living space much more. Land-use status, green coverage ratio, and impermeability paving ratio are investigated. The community facilities are classified. The highest is educational facility, which is 7.7%, the green facility is 1.9% and the total area of community facilities which is 21.4%. The total area of Nam-gu is divided into 31 zones in total according to the administrative districts, the mail roads and reserved land of railroad and urban development. The total 20 lines of community greenway lines are chosen and the total length of lines is 18.2km. Finally, the characteristics of community greenway lines are analysed, the characteristics of community greenway lines are overall estimated according to the land-use, the street environment and the community facility. The classification system of community greenway is established on the basis on the function and purpose of greenway, the present status of land-use and the type of community facility. Based on the field investigation, the 6 greenway types are suggested considering the interconnection. The method of establishment of community greenway is suggested according to the principle of function and purpose, the principle of land-use and the principle of use of the facilities. Furthermore, the planting methods suitable to each greenway type are suggested in the building planting case of wall planting, roof planting, veranda planting, etc., and in the complex planting of parks, schools, roads, parking lots and other small areas.
A Study on the Micro Discourse about Urban Parks in Blogs - In the Case of the Seoul Forest -
Lee, Jaei ; Sung, Jong-Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 29~39
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.029
This study has attempted to determine the micro-discourse from blogs as personal media that reflect citizens` actual opinions of the Seoul Forest without intervention of experts. Furthermore, a qualitative research method discourse analysis was selected to analyze the micro-discourse regarding the Seoul Forest in a time series. The extracted samples of blogs by year were intended to identify the comment section of the process of change and the discursive structure. The results are as follows; first, from the beginning of the development of the Seoul Forest to the present, it is divided into four chronological periods along with individuals` micro-discourse with social changes. During the beginning of the development of the Seoul Forest, the social discourse was formed, and in the next period, the micro-discourse was developed with a more emotional and complex discourse. In the formative period, four or five years later, the discourse reflected the civic consciousness of development more than ever, showing the diversity of participation in the program at the Seoul Forest. In the growth period, as the users` experiences had been accumulated, the users started writing about the role of the Seoul Forest in their own words. This can also be called place discourse. From the individuals` micro-discourse, this study shows the discourse structure of how individuals think about the Seoul Forest in each period. Unlike the experts, the micro-discourse contains specific daily interactions, experiences, and the stories of individuals who actually use the parks. It also shows how users reproduce and understand the space. In this respect, this is the most significant finding of this study. Based on this research, this study has demonstrated that the emotional description of a place that actually functions as a discourse about city parks, and confirms that blogs could be used as a space to form discourse and as a research tool to read the trends. In accordance with these results, this study has described not only the discourse of experts, but also how the discourse of individuals` comments can be an important part of the discourse of modern urban parks.
A Methodology to Develop a Curriculum based on National Competency Standards - Focused on Methodology for Gap Analysis -
Byeon, Jae-Sang ; Ahn, Seong-Ro ; Shin, Sang-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 40~53
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.040
To train the manpower to meet the requirements of the industrial field, the introduction of the National Qualification Frameworks(hereinafter referred to as NQF) was determined in 2001 by National Competency Standards(hereinafter referred to as NCS) centrally of the Office for Government Policy Coordination. Also, for landscape architecture in the construction field, the "NCS -Landscape Architecture" pilot was developed in 2008 to be test operated for 3 years starting in 2009. Especially, as the `realization of a competence-based society, not by educational background` was adopted as one of the major government projects in the Park Geun-Hye government(inaugurated in 2013) the NCS system was constructed on a nationwide scale as a detailed method for practicing this. However, in the case of the NCS developed by the nation, the ideal job performing abilities are specified, therefore there are weaknesses of not being able to reflect the actual operational problem differences in the student level between universities, problems of securing equipment and professors, and problems in the number of current curricula. For soft landing to practical curriculum, the process of clearly analyzing the gap between the current curriculum and the NCS must be preceded. Gap analysis is the initial stage methodology to reorganize the existing curriculum into NCS based curriculum, and based on the ability unit elements and performance standards for each NCS ability unit, the discrepancy between the existing curriculum within the department or the level of coincidence used a Likert scale of 1 to 5 to fill in and analyze. Thus, the universities wishing to operate NCS in the future measuring the level of coincidence and the gap between the current university curriculum and NCS can secure the basic tool to verify the applicability of NCS and the effectiveness of further development and operation. The advantages of reorganizing the curriculum through gap analysis are, first, that the government financial support project can be connected to provide quantitative index of the NCS adoption rate for each qualitative department, and, second, an objective standard is provided on the insufficiency or sufficiency when reorganizing to NCS based curriculum. In other words, when introducing in the subdivisions of the relevant NCS, the insufficient ability units and the ability unit elements can be extracted, and the supplementary matters for each ability unit element per existing subject can be extracted at the same time. There is an advantage providing directions for detailed class program and basic subject opening. The Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Employment and Labor must gather people from the industry to actively develop and supply the NCS standard a practical level to systematically reflect the requirements of the industrial field the educational training and qualification, and the universities wishing to apply NCS must reorganize the curriculum connecting work and qualification based on NCS. To enable this, the universities must consider the relevant industrial prospect and the relation between the faculty resources within the university and the local industry to clearly select the NCS subdivision to be applied. Afterwards, gap analysis must be used for the NCS based curriculum reorganization to establish the direction of the reorganization more objectively and rationally in order to participate in the process evaluation type qualification system efficiently.
The Effect of Environmental Perception in Neighborhood Park on User`s Recognition of Health Improvement - Focusing on 8 Neighborhood Parks in Changwon City -
Park, Young-Eun ; Lee, Woo-Sung ; Jung, Sung-Gwan ; Park, Kyung-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 54~68
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.054
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of environmental perception in neighborhood parks on user`s recognition of health improvement. This study used objective field survey data and subjective user survey data at 8 neighborhood parks in Changwon City. According to the results, the perceptions of distance and street environment from home to park were evaluated highly but the perception of water spaces and various attractions within the parks were rated lowly in most of parks. As a result of factor analysis, 23 environmental perception variables were classified into 6 factors such as scenery, comfort, accessibility, activity, convenience and amenity. For the result of regression analysis between environmental perceptions and user`s recognition of health improvement based on 6 factors, the recognition of physical health improvement was significantly influenced from environmental perception factors in 4 parks among 8 parks. `Accessibility` and `activity` were analyzed as the meaningful factors in 3 parks. Also, recognition of mental health improvement was significantly influenced from environmental perception factors in 5 parks among 8 parks and especially `accessibility` was showed as the significant factor in 4 parks. The findings from this study can contribute to improve the physical environments of the present parks and can be a basic data for new park development.
A Study on the Roles and Ideological Development of Welfare Characteristics in Parks
Han, So-Young ; Cho, Han-Sol ; Zoh, Kyung-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 69~81
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.069
Under the premise that parks have been a performing field of welfare ideology that benefits the citizen from the past, the present study began with a basic question on what substance a park has and how it has worked. Therefore, this study tried to find out the theoretic background that can explain the roles of a park as an instrument for welfare, of which topic is currently being discussed, and examine how the ideology in the debate regarding welfare characteristics of parks are differentiated from those of social welfare. In addition, this study divided the process of development of parks defined by Galen Cranz in an attempt to view how welfare benefits offered by parks have changed in their development and looked into the roles and types of welfare functions that parks provided to the citizens under a certain social situation by period. Furthermore, the characteristics and development of the ideology underlying a welfare park were examined by function and element in its progression. The results of this study are as follows. The functions that parks have performed so far can be classified into three categories. First, they have a remedial function. Parks have given direct services to `the socially disadvantaged` such as relief, fostering, and rehabilitation. Second, parks have played a preventive function. They aim to reinforce the functions of individual, family, group, and community. Third, they have exerted a developmental function. They function to promote change of society in a way for it to contribute to social development. Looking into the roles and functions of parks from the perspective of their beneficiary class and benefits, the following were discovered. First, the beneficiaries of welfare characteristics in parks have expanded to the general public from the poor class, and the benefits of parks have spread into the public including the underprivileged in a real sense. Second, the significance of welfare characteristics in parks has also changed from literal benefits to caring for basic human rights. Third, the purpose of welfare characteristics in parks has changed from providing minimal conditions to optimal conditions. At its beginning, the ideology of welfare in parks remained ideal, confining itself to their idealistic characteristics; but as time went on, they created several social benefits in response to various social demands, developing into a field where welfare ideology manifests and is realized in an active manner. Furthermore, it was witnessed that the parks and welfare of the present times are standing at the point of contact for participation and universal well-being. The present study reconsidered the meaning and value of parks from perspective of them as a provider of welfare benefits as well as examined how the welfare ideology of parks is connected to practice. By doing so, this study discovered the various roles, values, and ideology that parks should bear in the future. Therefore, this study is expected to be a good example for future research related to the topic.
Analyses on Sound Effects for Soundscape Design of Healing Garden at Psychiatric Hospitals - Focused Psychological and Physiological Effects -
Ahn, Deug-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 82~95
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.082
This study is intended to obtain a guideline for creating a therapeutic garden soundscape in a psychiatric hospital by analyzing the psychological and physiological effects of auditory components on mental patients. The subjects were 27 inpatients at a psychiatric institute located in Jeollabuk-do. They were recommended by their doctors and had been diagnosed with mild cases of schizophrenia. The survey was carried out in October 2011. With regard to the study, the subjects listened to single sounds(the sound of flowing water, birdsong, wind chimes and music) and 4 sounds composed of some of these, and then Electroencephalography(EEG) and psychological effects were measured. The moving water sound was perceived as pleasing and revitalizing and the birdsong as sonorous and delightful. When designing a healing garden in a psychiatric hospital, the vitality of sound should be considered. In comparison to other single sounds, water sounds were highly preferred and had greater effects on psychological vitality. Music sounds had a significant effect on enhancing tranquility while water sounds affected on both psychological vitality and tranquillity. When comparing single sounds with combined sounds, single sounds such as running water for vitality and music for tranquility had a greater psychological effect than combined sounds. In terms of combined sound preferences, the combination of water and bird sounds had higher preference rates. Generally, combined sounds including water tended to have higher preference rates. The physiological effects of single sounds showed that music had a greater therapeutic effect than natural sounds such as water sounds and birdsong in promoting tranquility. As for combined sounds adopted to enhance physiological tranquility, it is most appropriate to combine music and birdsong or music and water sounds. However, a single music sound is more effective than combined sounds. Overall, analyses of both psychological and physiological reactions showed music and water sounds to be most calming while water sounds promoted the greatest vitality.
Periodic Characteristics and Implications of Programs and Policies for Brownfield Management in the U.S.A.
Kim, Eujin Julia ; Miller, Patrick ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 96~107
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.096
Brownfield sites are beginning to be considered as potentially useful areas for landscape design and planning, with post-industrial areas such as water treatment facilities and military training bases being converted into useful landscapes such as parks and recreation areas. These redevelopments bring broad benefits through revitalizing communities and increasing property values, thus, increasing the demand for comprehensive management and planning policies. This study examines changes in U.S. brownfield policies and programs and, identifies their periodic characteristics over the thirty years since the Superfund program was introduced in 1980. A descriptive and interpretive approach was utilized, focusing specifically on a time sequential analysis of the data gathered from the overview of the Environmental Protection Agency`s web-based documents and related literature. The primary changes in and characteristics of programs and policies were analyzed and divided into three periods : environmental protection, remediation and reuse, and comprehensive planning. Four major features were identified: relaxation and readjustment of regulation, diversification of support programs, a mix of top-down and bottom-up approaches, and database system building. The study examines how common brownfield problems such as site identification difficulties and assessment and remediation cost have been dealt with in the regulatory context and has implications for future policies and programs for effective brownfield planning and management in Korea.
The Policy of Park Asset Transfers in England: A Move toward Community Ownership and Park Management
Kim, Yeun-Kum ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 108~119
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.108
Recently, the ways in which individual communities own and manage parks have been both discussed and realized in America and England. Some benefits of these asset transfers are that local governments can reduce the financial cost of management as well as improve the service of the parks. In addition, communities can develop these parks as unique assets. Ultimately, this is a new understanding of parks as community commons. This study examines the policy of park asset transfers to communities in England. These transfers, which involve reallocating land and building management and/or ownership from the public sector to a community group, are part of a policy agenda known as "Big Society", which aims to create a "small government" within a "big society". The agenda is pursued by both the English Conservative and Unionist Party governments. Eight case studies of community park asset transfers in England were examined in this study, under three categories-transfer process, partnership among stakeholders, and financial structure-and synthesized along three issues-financial contribution, level of public transparency, and closeness of the relationship between park and community. In some cases, new community groups were created specifically to receive park assets, while in other communities, existing groups became the park trustees. For most parks, community groups raise park maintenance funding through diverse methods; however, these groups are often not entirely financially independent from local government. Thus, many park trustees have already created, or are planning to create, other assets from which parks can benefit. Second, some efforts for public transparency include trusts that are registered as charities, of which their public nature is admitted officially. These trusts resolve important decisions through boards of trustees, in an effort to promote income-generating business while not excluding users. Ultimately, a close relationship between park and community empowers the community to participate in managing and maintaining the park; in turn, the park`s capacities are improved. Current struggles include the many limits involved in communities accepting ownership and management of a park, and a lack of local government experience regarding public-private management and maintenance of a public asset. This study, however, details interesting policy implications for Korean community involvement as well as diverse financial methods to facilitate park management.
Public Park Awareness along with Community Garden Cultivation Participation within an Urban Park
Nam Koong, Hee ; Kim, Seul-Yea ; Kang, Eun-Jee ; Kim, Yong-Geun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 120~131
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.120
This research aimed at understanding recognition of the park`s community garden, public evaluation of it, and user awareness of the public enhancement plan. This was based on the problem that arose in the park community garden as public awareness research along with community garden cultivation participation within the urban park. In order to compare recognition differences along with community garden cultivation participation, the researcher conducted an analysis by dividing research participants into a cultivation participant group and non-participant group. As a result first, the cultivation participant group positively recognized the necessity of the community garden compared to the non-participant group. However, they recognized the community garden as a space for private profit, which threatened the public aspect of the park. Second, as a result of evaluating community garden publicness, the non-participant group which was alienated from community garden use, had a negative opinion about the community garden. Third, as a result of researching awareness of the community garden distribution method and consumption to promote publicness of the community garden, the cultivation participant group recognized the community garden as a space for private profit. Therefore, it is necessary for both groups to be aware of the public value of the community garden among the park users for sustainable management and operation. The significance of this research is the direction in the aspect of users to form, manage and operate the community garden in the urban park without damaging publicness of the park or conflicting between the function of the park and the function of the community garden. Henceforth, the researcher expects that this research can be utilized to maintain publicness of the park in respect of formation of the community garden in the park and management and operation.
Evaluation of Street Tree Rootage by Transplanting Methods - Photochemical Response Analysis of Different Cultivation for Sorbus alnifolia -
Yoo, Sung Young ; Park, So Hyun ; Park, Chung In ; Kim, Tae Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 132~138
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.132
Trees, cultivated in containers, are appropriate in soil deformation such as road sites with cutting and filling. This study tested the effectiveness of trees produced in containers for early rootage in street tree transplantation. For the study, Korean Mountain Ashes(Sorbus alnifolia) were used for experimental groups. The groups were categorized into three categories: trees cultivated in containers with mulching treatment(group A), trees cultivated outdoors with mulching treatment (group B), and trees cultivated in containers with weeding treatment(group C). Each group consisted of ten trees of the same size and transplanted to the experimental site. In order to compare each group`s rootage, the study was carried out with the chlorophyll fluorescence method by the analysis of photochemical reaction. As a result of the study, group B had the lowest the maximum fluorescence amount(P). The amount of fluorescence increased by OJ transition of the process, and appeared to reduce the photosystem II electron transport efficiency. In photosystem II, electron transfer energy flux through photosystem I(RE1o/RC, RE1o/CS) was also reduced by more than 20% in group B. These results may imply that transplantation of container-cultivated trees with mulching treatment provides the most rapid rootage among the groups. The weeding treatment is also more effective than mulching treatment for rapid rootage of street trees.
Issues of Learner-Centered Studio Classes in Landscape Architectural Education
Kim, Ah-Yeon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 139~156
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.1.139
The knowledge-based society of the 21st century requires a new kind of professional. Studio education has been the core pedagogical method to bridge the practical world and higher education in the field of landscape architecture. However, it is questioned whether studio classes have truly been performed from the learners` perspectives to solidify the competencies to meet the demands of the changing society. This study tries to draw key issues related to studio pedagogy in order to make a foundation for the improvement of studio classes in landscape architectural education. Five issues regarding landscape architectural studio education have been suggested through the literature review of three categories: the core competencies required for the future professionals, the pedagogical paradigm shift, and the changes along the evolution of landscape professions and curricula. The first issue is suggested as to approach the competencies from the holistic and systematic approach to define landscape architectural professionals for the 21st century. Second, studio classes should be redefined in the context of an entire curriculum, and, as a consequence, the linkage among the individual courses is found to be important. Third, design studio classes need to be restructured to have differentiated pedagogical objectives for the development of the learning phase. Fourth, it becomes crucial to research the pedagogical methodology and the reflective actions of instructors. Finally, it is required to think about what it means to be practical in the context of studio classes and the enhancement of educational infrastructure for the studio classes is to be important.