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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
The Haptic Perception Aspect shown in Landscape Architecture before Modernism - Focused on Historical Development Process -
Kim, Jin-Seob ; Kim, Jin-Seon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 1~14
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.001
In the West, of the body`s five senses sight is considered the most important but Ocular-centralistic thinking contains many issues. Privileging the subject and inhibiting interaction with the other senses, Ocular-centrism limits the experience of the world to the visual area. However, experiences can be understood as `touching` various forms and are related to touch. With the heightened interest in the multi-sensuous side of the body contrary to Ocular-centrism, the intervention of the body in the external space has become an important issue in modern landscape architecture. This study explores the possibility of the haptic perception system that causes the active experience of a subject. Haptic perception plays a catalytic role leading an active experience of the subject and the subject experiences a sense of place through such haptic perception. By revealing what was known through the sense of touch through the concurrency and interaction of the various senses, haptic perception draws active participation The haptic perception system has been studied in various fields but has not been studied in the field of landscape architecture. Thus, this study discusses the aspect of haptic perception limited to landscape architecture shown before modernism. In a discussion on haptic perception, the concept of haptic perception is clarified through previous study reviews and literature and the characteristics of haptic perception are derived. Then, the problems of the Ocular-centrism system and the need for haptic perception are discussed. In the historical development process of haptic perception, the change process of the scopic regime is examined chronologically and the ways in which Ocular-centralistic thinking and anti-Ocular-centralistic thinking have been projected on the architecture and landscape architecture of each age are studied via literature and cases studies. The impact of the scopic regime on the landscape architecture field in the historical change process is examined.
An Analysis of the Image and Visual Preference of a Light Rail Pier according to Aesthetic Styles
Jung, Sung-Gwan ; Kang, Dong-Hyun ; Shin, Jae-Yun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 15~26
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.015
The Daegu Metropolitan Transit Corporation Advisory Committee has chosen 5 styles of bridge-pier designs, including coating, graphic, planting, billboard and safety-facility style, based on the results of landscape simulations from a previous study. This study was conducted to investigate citizen`s preferences and emotional images for each style of bridge-pier design, by aiming at the pilot urban landscape improvement section from Daebong Bridge in Suseong Gu to the crossroads near Dongseong Elementary School in Daegu Metropolitan City. The questionnaire was drawn up regarding the urban landscape improvement plans applied to the research area, and the questions were about citizens` perception of bridge-pier structures generated by constructing a light rail transit, important factors to consider when designing bridge piers, preferences for each style of bridge-pier design and emotional impact. 60.4% of the survey participants were found to perceive bridge-pier structures as unattractive, so it was necessary to improve them aesthetically. Regarding visual factors of bridge-pier designs, color was most important at 5.81, followed by form at 5.57. Regarding aesthetic component factors, harmony was most important at 6.07, followed by amenity at 6.00. In the survey participants` preference for each bridge-pier design, the graphic style was preferred most at 4.14, followed by the planting style. In emotional adjectives used for each bridge-pier design, the coating style, the safety-facility style and the non-treatment style showed similar results, and all of these styles were evaluated as artificial, lifeless and desolate. The graphic style and the billboard style showed different tendencies, depending on visual factors and aesthetic component factors applied to the graphic design used for these two bridge-pier styles. Since natural materials were used for the planting style, however, it showed high preference for such emotional images as natural and lively. The emotional adjective `amiable` was found to affect citizens` preferences for each bridge-pier aesthetic improvement plan most, and it was also analyzed to have an effect on all the styles of bridge-pier designs. To improve the landscape of a light rail transit being constructed inside the urban area, this study quantitatively extracted citizens` preferences and emotional adjective for every style of bridge-pier design applied to the pilot urban landscape improvement section, and it is expected that the results of this study will be used as basic data to improve the landscape of bridge piers.
Analyzing the Design Competition Entries for the Hoehyeon Section of Namsan from a Perspective of the Historic Urban Landscape
Seo, Young-Ai ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 27~36
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.027
This study analyzed the characteristics of the entries at the design competition for the Hoehyeon section of Namsan from a perspective of the Historic Urban Landscape and made suggestions from them. Hoehyeon, located at the foot of Namsan, is the most changing site in the park and Seoul City Wall. Recent excavation of the old city walls of the Joseon Era has uncovered evidence of the Japanese occupation period, making it a site where park facilities in modern and contemporary history coexist. The frame analysis has been made by the concept of the Historic Urban Landscape, the methods of approach, specialists` discussion and the guidelines of the competition. The entries were analyzed by classification of the understanding of the spatiality and cultural diversity, the recognition of the periodic layers of time, and the design implementation, the preservation, the park plan, and the future management plan. From a perspective of an Historic Urban Landscape, this study has found that each entry placed priority on the objects for preservation and suggested creative involvement and comprehensive designs for the preservation and the park plan through the understanding of the spatiality and cultural diversity and the reflection of the periodic layers of time in the designs. This study provided two implications. Firstly, there was a possibility for new recognition and the methods of approach for preservation and development. Secondly, the basic plan for the Historic Landscape should be established through research and mapping for the preservation and management of objects in Seoul having valuable historic variability. Further study for resident participation and the process by network from public to private should be taken. This study looks forward to the consideration of the direction for the design plans of places with historic and cultural value.
A Study on Air Temperature Reduction Effect and the Functional Improvement of Street Green Areas in Seoul, Korea
Jung, Hee-Eun ; Han, Bong-Ho ; Kwak, Jeong-In ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 37~49
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.037
The goal of this research is to examine air temperature changes according to tree type, plantation type, roadside green area structure, and green volume of street green area within a city. The plantation type that could be analyzed for comparison by tree type with over 3 species was 1 rows of tree+shrubs. The results of analysis of average air temperature difference between pedestrian and car streets vis-a-vis 1 row of tree+shrub in high air temperature areas were: Pinus densiflora,
; Zelkova serrata,
; Ginkgo biloba,
; Platanus occidentalis,
. This standard large wide canopy species was analyzed by the roadside to provide shade to have a significant impact on air temperature reduction. In terms of analysis of the relationship between plantation type of roadside trees and air temperature, the average air temperature difference for 1 row of tree type was
; for 2 rows of trees it was
. In terms of analysis of the relationship between the roadside green area structure and air temperature, for tree type, average air temperature
: for tree+shrub type, average air temperature
; for tree+mid-size tree+shrub type, average air temperature
. That is, air temperature reduction was more effective in a multi-layer structure than a single layer structure. In the relationship analysis of green volume and air temperature reduction, the air temperature reduction effect was enlarged as there was a large amount of green volume. There was a relationship with the green volume of the road, the size of the tree and number of tree layers and a multi-layer structured form of planting. The canopy volume was large and there were a great number of rows of the tree layer and the plantation type of multi-layer structure, which is what is meant through a relationship with the green volume along the roadside. Green composition standards for air temperature reduction effects and functional improvement were proposed based on the result. For a pedestrian street width of 3m or less in the field being ideal, deciduous broadleaf trees in which the canopy volume is small and the structure of the tree+shrub type through the greatest 1m green bend were proposed. For a pedestrian street width of over 3m, deciduous broadleaf trees in which the canopy volume is large and is multi-layer planted with green bend over 1m, tree+mid-size tree+shrub type was proposed.
A Study on Reasons for Planting Abies holophylla by Imperial Japan in Korean Temples
Park, Chan-Woo ; Jeong, Mi-Ae ; Lee, Yeon-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 50~61
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.050
This study investigates how Abies holophylla was planted as a tree sacred to the gods by Japan during the late Chosun and Japanese colonial periods. This study surveyed the current conditions of old Abies holophylla geological information, year planted, and the relationship between Abies holophylla and traditional Japanese values. The reasons that Abies holophylla was considered a tree sacred to the gods are as follows. Firstly, trees are planted on the spaces between Iljumun and Numun in Buddhist temples of Korea in the same way as trees are planted on the roads for worship in traditional temples of Japan. Secondly, tree diameter at breast height ranged from 60cm to 100cm. This means that the Abies holophylla trees range in age from 70 years to 138 years, showing that the trees were planted at the period between the beginning of Japanese Buddhism(1877) and the Japanese Colonial Period (1945). Thirdly, conclusions regarding why the Abies holophylla were planted in Korean temples at the beginning of Japanese Buddhism will be drawn based on the records that Jingu-Kogo`s Conquest of Silla was taken care of the Suwataisha as a tree sacred to the gods in Japanese tradition. The reason for which Abies holophylla was planted in Korean temples should be evaluated through the remnants of Japan in the past. The issue of the old Abies holophylla in Korean temples should be investigated and further discussed in depth.
A Study on the Structure Style of Street Green Spaces on Port Island, Kobe, Japan
Kwak, Jeong-In ; Han, Bong-Ho ; Noh, Tai-Hwan ; Kwak, Nam-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 62~74
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.062
This study was carried out to provide examples of planting methods for the construction of street green spaces with abundant greenery by analyzing road type, surrounding land use and planting structures in street green spaces on Port Island, Kobe, Japan. Port Island_(total area: 826ha) is a marine cultural city located in Japan`s first artificial island with facilities of urban function and port facilities. The study site was designated at 11 plots of
on Port Island, and topography structure styles were divided into four types with mounding style, slope style, slope and flat style, flat style according to the adjacent roads width. The area adjacent to the middle roads with high levels of noise and pollution set up the mounding style, slope style, slope and flat style of multi-layer structures using topographic properties. The area adjacent to small roads focused on a green strip with shrubs on a flat style. Surrounding land-uses include a public institution, housing complex, and a commercial building. The planting concept was a buffer and landspace function in case of the middle road_(lane 4) while the small road_(lane 2) was a landspace function. Planting species were diverse with Liquidambe formosana, Cinnamomum camphora, Sapium sebiferum, Cedrela sinensis, Laeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus, Ginkgo biloba, Prunus serrulata var. spontanea, Zelkova serrata, Quercus glauca, Juniperus chinensis, Magnolia kobus, Rhododendron spp., Camellia japonica, Abelia mosanensis, etc. Planting density was 0.02~0.08(0.04) individual/
at the canopy layer, 0.02~0.08(0.04) individual/
at the understory layer. Ratio of green coverage was 40.0~173.7(93.0)% at the canopy layer, 2.1~79.8(34.9)% at the understory layer and 17.9~64.2(32.9)% at the shrub layer.
at the canopy layer,
at the understory layer and
at the shrub layer. The ratio of green coverage of street green space on Port Island was higher than that of Seoul, and particularly, the ratio of green coverage and
at the shrub layer differed, compared to the main street green space in Korea. The result of this study may be applicable to other coastal reclaimed cities in terms of setting methods for street greenery considering the topography structure, planting structure and planting function.
Analysis of User Perception Gap regarding User Management by the Characteristic of Districts in Gyeongju National Park
Lee, Seul Bee ; Son, Soo-Hang ; Kang, Eun-Jee ; Kim, Yong-Geun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 75~86
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.075
The survey was taken from July to August 2012 by users who visited Gyeongju National Park to compare the perceived gap of users regarding management policy by characteristic of Gyeongju National Park district type in this study. Gyeongju National Park users` characteristic, use pattern and perception regarding park management policy were created as survey items. First, district type was classified based on use pattern of the visitor and the key resources of 8 districts in Gyeongju National Park. Tohamsan District, which has many visitors for the purpose of scenery appreciation and recreation with Bulguksa and Seokguram Grotto, is classified as tourism type, Namsan and Daebon District, which bring in many visitors seeking to learn about historical culture and environmental education, could be classified as historical culture education types, and Hwarang, Seoak, Sogeum River, Gumisan District are places residents use for physical training, hiking and walking to improve health, thus classifying them as neighborhood park types. People perceived that the tourism type is where users for historical artifact tours are concentrated, thus consideration for plans that can improve visitors` satisfaction from a user limit policy is required, and a manager`s right to control use behavior must be reinforced in historical culture education types. On the other hand, users of neighborhood parks found the lowest necessity for most of the policy, and this showed that users of each of Gyeongju National Park`s districts felt differently about the need for policies. This result is expected to be utilized as a database for introducing policy that reflects the perception of users in each districts of Gyeongju National Park in the future.
Application Strategies of Eye-tracking Method in Nightscape Evaluation
Kang, Youngeun ; Kim, Mintai ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 87~97
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.087
There`s a trend towards vitalization of nightscape planning businesses nationally and locally as well for city image making and activation of regional economy, but there is still no systematic nightscape planning going on for lack of relevant researches and objective evaluations. This study aims to suggest the guideline for nightscape planning by conducting an eye tracking experiment and survey for recognizing the characteristics of a nightscape. Furthermore, the authors intended to verify the eye-tracking method as a tool for landscape evaluation. The research site was restricted in the campus of Virginia Tech, VA, and those were selected by experts` survey among various types of nightscape images. The variables for analyzing the characteristics of nightscape images selected were `preference`, `safety(fear)` and `clearness`. `Fixation duration`, `saccade duration`, `scan path length`, and `pupil size` were selected as the eye movement measurements. The results of this study are as follows: The first outcome found was that there were significant differences among the characteristics(preference, safety and clearness) of a nightscape by MANOVA, and these variables were correlated positively by Pearson`s correlation. Secondly, there were differences on fixation duration, saccade duration and scan path depending on the nightscape setting statistically. Also, the eye tracking measurement in an open setting was recorded lower than enclosed settings. In the result of a heat map, we found the meaning of the fixated areas on both viewing without intention and viewing intentionally. It turned out that the fixated areas were consistent with the areas the subjects felt preferred and clarity in all of the nightscape images, which means people usually focus on what they prefer and see clearly in a certain nightscape. Based on this result and previous studies, the authors could make a conclusion that eye tracking method can apply to evaluate nightscape settings in terms of analyzing the whole characteristics and finding specific points for the detailed analysis as well. Therefore, these results can contribute by suggesting nightscape planning, implication of the landscape evaluation, and implication of the eye tracking study.
Landuse oriented Water Balance Analysis Method by the Hydrological Model BAGLUVA based on Soil and Vegetation
Kwon, Kyung Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 98~111
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.098
Urban environmental problems such as flooding, depletion of ground water, pollution of urban streams and the heat island effect caused by urban development and climate change can be mitigated by the improvement of the urban water cycle. For the effective planning of water cycle management it is necessary to establish aerial Hydrotope Maps, with which we can estimate the status and change of the water allowance for any site. The structure of the German water balance model BAGLUVA, which is based on soil and vegetation, was analyzed and the input data and boundary condition of the model was compared with Korean data and research results. The BAGLUVA Model consists of 5 Input categories (climate, land use, topography, soil hydrology and irrigation). The structure and interconnection of these categories are analyzed and new concepts and implementation methods of topographic factor, maximum evapotranspiration ratio, effective rooting depth and Bagrov n parameter was compared and analyzed. The relation of real evapotranspiration (
)-maximum evapotranspiration (
) - precipitation (P) was via Bagrov n factor represented. The aerial and land use oriented Hydrotope Map can help us to investigate the water balance of small catchment areas and to set goals for volume of rainwater management and LID facilities effectively in the city. Further, this map is a useful tool for implementing water resource management within landscape and urban planning.
The Analysis of Korean Cities Biotope Type Characteristic using Cluster Analysis
Kim, Jin-Hyo ; Ra, Jung-Hwa ; Lee, Soon-Ju ; Kwon, Oh-Sung ; Cho, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 112~123
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.112
The purpose of this study is to analyze the biotope characteristics of Korean cities and set up biotope type structures for Korean cities based on biotope type classification, dominant biotope type, city`s human and nature environmental characteristics and cluster analysis. The findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, regarding the analysis of biotope type classification, cities showed differences in terms of the standard of biotope classification and classification hierarchy. Next, the analysis of dominant biotope types showed the type of forest represents the largest area in most cities. Moreover, a city`s characteristic analysis revealed large differences between cities. As a result of cluster analysis, cities were classified into five clusters overall. First, Cluster A showed a lower population level and urbanization level. Unlike other cities, Cluster A revealed that it has the largest percentage of agricultural areas. Cluster C showed very high levels in terms of population amount and urbanization conditions was named the `Large-sized metropolitan cities-center of forest biotope area` based on it`s characteristics. The findings of this study as summarized above are considered to play an important role in enabling detailed classification and preservation of biotope types fit for the characteristics of cities and minimizing the confusion caused by different biotope mapping methods when revising and complementing biotope maps.
The Change and Transformation of Namsan(Mt.) Parks in Early Modern Seoul
Park, Hee-Soung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 4, 2015, Pages 124~139
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.4.124
Unlike other mountains in Korea, Seoul Namsan(南山), which is one of the landmarks that represent the country`s capital city, is perceived as a city park. This article aims to study the process that Namsan became a park and the transformation of its place in Korean Emperor and Japanese colonial period. The serial changes in Namsan, in early modern era, mean that is associated with the colonial urbanization and the rule of space by Japan. The stages of Waeseongdae Park(倭城臺公園), Gyeongseong Park(京城公園) and Hanyang Park(漢陽公園) under the leadership of Japan, due to the extension of Japan`s power, Namsan has became the park. Here, the park has become a strategic tool of other`s occupying Hanseongbu(漢城府), a capital city. The process that Namsan became a park dose not mean making the space for recreation and rest, but is an excuse for using the land. Since then, Namsan`s parks barely fulfilled its original function as park as it was transformed into a shrine, Gyeongseong Jinjya(京城神社), for Japanese warriors or was incurred upon by Joseon Singung(朝鮮神宮), which was established as a facility to govern Korea, sometimes is gradually and sometimes is mercilessly. The fact, transplantation of Japanese culture and replacement as ruler space, is another aspect of occupying and govern place. In other words, while the process that Namsan became a park is the way of establishing Japanese force, the transformation of its place show a colonial rule as an aspect of space. Meanwhile, in spite of transformation to shrine, Namsan became accepted as a park for a long time, because of the forest of Namsan. Japan managed forest as a sacred place. It is also a result of the Japanese rule of space.