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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
The Image of Changgyeongwon and Culture of Pleasure Grounds during the Japanese Colonial Period
Kim, Jeoung-Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1~15
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.001
Changgyeongwon emerged as pleasure grounds following the creation of a museum, zoo and botanical garden in Changgyeonggung Palace during the Japanese colonial period. Pleasure grounds offer space for entertainment and have maintained the image of a paradise apart from reality. This study examined the creation process of pleasure grounds within a royal palace and the following spatial changes. By analyzing the image of Changgyeongwon as an artificial paradise, this study explored its landscape and cultural aspects. Literature reviews on the intention and process showed that the Changgyeongwon pleasure grounds were created as a `royal garden` for the amusement of Sunjong, as well as `public pleasure grounds` in the process of colonization. It was one of the first public spaces open to everyone who could afford the entrance fee. The layout of Changgyeongwon was studied by a comparison and analyzation of modern plans and photographs. It was composed of the central museum zone, northern botanical garden zone, and southern zoological garden zone. A conservatory and greenhouse to exhibit and maintain tropical plants were intensively built in the botanical garden zone while an aviary was created on the zoo pond. In the vicinity of the aviary a vivarium was constructed. Museum exhibition facilities included a main building as well as existing buildings, and a western flower garden was created between the buildings. Space for children including a playground and horse-riding course were created in the 1930`s. The paradisiacal image and pleasure grounds culture of Changgyeongwon were studied as follows. Firstly, it shows that Changgyeongwon`s paradisiacal image where rare animals and exotic plants were open to the public was promoted by the zoo and botanical garden. This led to the creation of new popular leisure activities such as flower appreciation and animal watching. Secondly, Changgyeongwon offered an urban leisure space, symbolizing the `non-urban nature within the city` where the urban residents could escape from the daily routine. Thirdly, Changgyeongwon was known for its `fantastic night landscape` by its night opening during the cherry blossom season. This cherry blossom viewing at night sadly degenerated by various shows and drinking, and as a result, an image of a deviant paradise was given to Changgyeongwon. Changgyeongwon contributed to creating a new space with its diverse facilities, and the public embraced the urban culture through experiences of pleasure and entertainment.
Effects and Improvement of Carbon Reduction by Greenspace Establishment in Riparian Zones
Jo, Hyun-Kil ; Park, Hye-Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 16~24
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.016
This study quantified storage and annual uptake of carbon for riparian greenspaces established in watersheds of four major rivers in South Korea and explored desirable strategies to improve carbon reduction effects of riparian greenspaces. Greenspace structure and planting technique in the 40 study sites sampled were represented by single-layered planting of small trees in low density, with stem diameter at breast height of
and planting density of
on average. Storage and annual uptake of carbon per unit area by planted trees averaged
, respectively, increasing as planting density got higher. Mean organic matter and carbon storage in soils were
, respectively. Planted trees and soils per ha stored the amount of carbon emitted from gasoline consumption of about 61 kL, and the trees per ha annually offset carbon emissions from gasoline use of about 3 kL. These carbon reduction effects are associated with tree growth over five years to fewer than 10 years after planting, and predicted to become much greater as the planted trees grow. This study simulated changes in annual carbon uptake by tree growth over future 30 years for typical planting models selected as different from the planting technique in the study sites. The simulation revealed that cumulative annual carbon uptake for a multilayered and grouped ecological planting model with both larger tree size and higher planting density was approximately 1.9 times greater 10 years after planting and 1.5 times greater 30 years after than that in the study sites. Strategies to improve carbon reduction effects of riparian greenspaces suggest multilayered and grouped planting mixed with relatively large trees, middle/high density planting of native species mixed with fast-growing trees, and securing the soil environment favorable for normal growth of planting tree species. The research findings are expected to be useful as practical guidelines to improve the role of a carbon uptake source, in addition to water quality conservation and wildlife inhabitation, in implementing riparian greenspace projects under the beginning stage.
A Study on the Life Cycle Analysis of Domestic Tourist Areas
Kim, Jung Jae ; Lee, Kyung Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 25~40
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.025
Korean tourist areas are designated/managed in accordance with the Tourism Promotion Act. Since Taejongdae was designated as a tourist area in 1969, a total of 230 tourist areas have been designated/built/operated. It has been 46 years since the first tourist area was designated. According to the Tourism Area Life Cycle by Butler, it is estimated that the flow of the life cycle will be reflected in ups and downs over time. Thus, this study aimed to provide basic data for suggesting the direction of changes and development of the future tourist areas after analyzing the life cycle stage of domestic tourist areas, by applying the Tourism Area Life Cycle by Butler. The research method was based on the tourist areas by year, the number of visitors, and data of the target to derive the change transition curve, obtained by dividing the life cycle stages of the tourist areas based on the visitor rate of change. In the analysis results, more than 1/3 of domestic tourist areas are reaching the stagnation/decline stage, and tourist areas such as hot springs and seaside/beach resources show a particularly high ratio of stagnation/decline. The tourist areas that already have reached the stagnation/decline stage will need to analyze the causes for the decline, seek for resolution measures, and introduce new innovative elements. Even though the results of this study are not sufficient to be used as an absolute standard to decide the life cycle stage of domestic tourist areas, it is considered to be adequate for phenomenologically understanding the life cycle stage of Korean tourist areas. Based on this study, the causes for the stagnation/decline of tourist areas can be revealed while it can be also used as basic research to establish revitalization measures for tourist areas by introducing new innovation.
A Critical Reconsideration on the Function and Meaning of Follies in Gwangju - Focused on the First Gwangju Follies -
Han, Sung-Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 41~51
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.041
The purpose of the Follies that were constructed for the Gwangju-Biennale were for urban regeneration, to activate the empty old-town areas, and to strengthen the tradition and sense of place of the city. However, the ten Follies constructed around the wall of the old castle reveal many problems including that of leaving Follies alone instead of actively using them, damage to shop-keepers nearby, and pedestrian inconvenience, which is different from the original purposes. This study is meant to help understand the source of the negative phenomena, and to offer plans that will be conductive to the role of urban regeneration through activating the Follies and the spaces around them. As results of the investigation, there was no context giving uniformity among the various Follies. Also, the study showed that the insufficience of designers` understanding of the circumference near the Follies and lack of a consensus between the citizens and designers in the process of making the Follies. The crucial solution for solving these problems, and bringing to life the original purpose of creating the Follies was derived as applying "human activity" to the Follies. This study suggested `street performance` as an effective device for application to human activity. While a Folly has no fixed function, the development of space program categories based on the applied characteristics of each Folly, and the simulation thereof showed effective potential for attracting people and activating those stagnated spaces. Recently, Gwangju city depicted the second Follies in applications such as reading roon, toilet, and movable food cart, which have clear purpose and different characteristics from the first ones. However, the first Follies will not be moved or demolished. As they are located around the National Asia Culture Center, some of them are supposed to be used to view the center. Consequently, a counterplan for the continuous and efficient use of those Follies is needed. Gwangju has a plan for the installation of 100 Follies throughout the city and it is expected that this study will be a meaningful guide line for improved Follies in the future.
Use Behaviour and Personal Distance of the Bench Users in Urban Parks - Focused on Yeouido Park -
Yun, Hee Jeong ; Kim, Hyun Ju ; Shin, Sang Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 52~61
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.052
Personal distance is one of the basic and important concepts in the field of Environmental Psychology in influencing personal space, visible or invisible territoriality and psychological carrying capacity of contemporary urban dwellers. This study aims to analyze the bench users` behaviour and personal distances in urban parks for the first time in Korea, one of the representative landscape spaces in urban areas. For these purposes, this study has adopted a blind observation and pictorial analysis for bench users in Yeouido Park in Seoul. The main results of this study show that the average interpersonal distance between female and male(intimate relationship) is 47.5cm, the distance between female and female is 53.2cm, and the distance between male and male is 70.3cm. These results mostly support the previous western study results, but the interpersonal space and territoriality of Koreans in urban parks may be smaller than that for western societies.
Cafeteria Users` Preference for an Indoor Green-wall in a University Dining Hall
Kim, Hae-Ryung ; Ahn, Tong-Mahn ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 62~72
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.062
The objective of this research is to investigate the different aspects in which users positively identify with indoor green walls and the influences that it has on usage behaviors. Under the hypothesis that public space users prefer locations with green walls, the effect on their behavior was observed. After installing indoor green walls, behavioral observations and questionnaires were carried out to analyze green wall preferences. The observation experiment was carried out for a total of 8 days in order to see what influences the preferences for of indoor green walls had on usage behaviors and compare a control group with an experimental group that experienced a green wall. The usage time data were put into an SPSS statistics program and used to run an independent sample t-test. The questionnaire was carried out for two days from March 1st to 2nd 2014 after the observation was completed, and was done by 224 users of the two areas. The results from the experiment are as follows. First, comparisons between the total usage time of seats adjoined to partitions in both the green walled area and the partitioned area showed that there was no preference for indoor green walls. Second, the results appeared to show a higher percentage of women users in the green walled area, compared to the original partitioned area. Third, it showed that partitions and plants did not have any influence on seat choices. Fourth, the questionnaire showed preferences for indoor green walls. Out of the 94 people who sat in the partitioned area, 11.7% answered that they wanted to sit in the green walled area, they couldn`t due to the lack of available seats. Furthermore, out of the 130 people who sat in the green walled area, 24.6% said they chose the seat because of their preference for the green wall. Although 64.3% of users of the two areas said that they would choose the green walled area if under the same circumstances, the behavior observation did not reflect this.
The Gradient Variation of Thermal Environments on the Park Woodland Edge in Summer - A Study of Hadongsongrim and Hamyangsangrim -
Ryu, Nam-Hyong ; Lee, Chun-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 73~85
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.073
This study investigated the extent and magnitude of the woodland edge effects on users` thermal environments according to distance from woodland border. A series of experiments to measure air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, MRT and UTCI were conducted over six days between July 31 and August 5, 2015, which corresponded with extremely hot weather, at the south-facing edge of Hadongsongrim(pure Pinus densiflora stands, tree age:
, tree height:
, canopy closure: 75%, N
, elevation 7~10m) and east-facing edge of Hamyangsangrim (Quercus serrata-Carpinus tschonoskii community, tree age: 102~125yr/58~123yr, tree height: tree layer
, herbaceous layer coverage ratio 60%, canopy closure: 96%, N
, elevation 170~180m) in rural villages of Hadong and Hamyang, Korea. The minus result value of depth means woodland`s outside. The depth of edge influence(DEI) on the maximum air temperature, minimum relative humidity and wind speed at maximum air temperature time during the daytime(10:00~17:00) were detected to be
, respectively, in the mature evergreen conifer woodland of Hadongsongrim. These were detected to be
, respectively, in the deciduous broadleaf woodland of Hamyansangrim. The DEI on the maximum 10 minutes average MRT, UTCI from the three-dimensional environment absorbed by the human-biometeorological reference person during the daytime(10:00~17:00) were detected to be
, respectively, in the relatively sparse woodland of Hadongsongrim. These were detected to be
, respectively, in the dense and closed woodland of Hadongsongrim. Edge effects on the thermal environments of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, MRT and UTCI in the sparse woodland of Hadongsongrim were less pronounced than those recorded in densed and closed woodland of Hamyansangrim. The gradient variation was less steep for maximum 10 minutes average UTCI with at least
(Hamyansangrim) being required to stabilize the UTCI at mature woodlands. Therefore it is suggested that the woodlands buffer widths based on the UTCI values should be 3.5~7.6 m(Hamyansangrim) and 4.3~8.9(Hadongsongrim) m on each side of mature woodlands for users` thermal comfort environments. The woodland edge structure should be multi-layered canopies and closed edge for the buffer effect of woodland edge on woodland users` thermal comfort.
Design Strategies for Ecological Restoration Using System Dynamics - Focused on 2015 Miryang-si Jayeon Madang Development Project -
Ham, Eun-Kyung ; Song, Ki-Hwan ; Chon, Jinhyung ; Cho, Dong-Gil ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 86~97
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.086
"The Jayeon Madang Development Project("JMDP")" is a project being promoted by the Ministry of Environment to create a cultural space and a natural rest area within the city. Abuksan, located at Abuksan in Gyeongsangnam-do Miryang-si Naeil-dong, has suffered a substantial amount of environmental degradation over time, so the need for ecological restoration made it a natural choice for the location of the JMDP`s site. The purpose of this study is to examine ecological restoration design strategies used in Abuksan as part of the JMDP using system dynamics. The national archery center, hole, and arable land sites are key restoration areas in Abuksan that have faced with ecological problems. In this study, we identified the status of each site, determined key strategies being implemented, and designed based on the strategies implemented up to this point for solving problems associated with each sites through the use of causal loop diagrams. The results of the causal loop diagram analysis are as follows. The national archery center site was designed around strategies including planting green manure crops and introducing hugelkultur to reduce soil acidification and green network degradation. The hole site was designed as a constructed wetland based on the emergence of hygropreference vegetation, hydrated by rainwater collected at the bottom of hole, ecological and cultural benefits of such an environment. The arable land site restoration design was built around planting native vegetation on one part of the arable land site after soil quality improved and around restoration of grassland and a dry wetland on the other part of the site to reduce soil acidification, erosion, and green network degradation. This study is a significant attempt to apply principles of system dynamics to ecological restoration by providing the design strategies using comprehension of some problems in the ecosystem feedback loops, which has not been used before in general design processes for ecological restoration.
The Effect of Neighborhood Environmental Perception on Park Use for Health Improvement - The Case of Suseong-gu in Daegu City -
Lee, Woo-Sung ; Jung, Sung-Gwan ; Park, Young-Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 98~108
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.098
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of neighborhood environmental perception on park use for health. The study area is focused on neighborhood parks in Suseong-gu, Daegu city. The analysis results are based on questionnaires of 303 respondents. According to the results, park use for health improvement was significantly associated with the perceptions of accessibility to a marketplace, availability of public transit, accessibility to the park, enough sidewalks, number of crosswalks, and athletic population. The probability of park use increased by 2.326 times as the satisfaction of accessibility to the park increased. Also, greater athletic population, fewer crosswalks, and more sidewalks lead to increase of park use by 1.701, 1.617, and 1.642 times, respectively. Therefore, it is important to increase the available neighborhood parks around residences and to develop exercise programs that people can use continuously in order to vitalize park use for health improvement. Also, it is necessary to improve the convenience of walking such as development of pedestrian streets or malls between residences and parks.
Studies on the Management Plan in Urban Ecological Protected Area of Seoul - A Case Study of the Baeksil Valley Ecological Scenery and Conservation Area -
Park, Seok-Cheol ; Han, Bong-Ho ; Kwak, Jeong-In ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 109~126
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.109
This study is for constructing detailed data to secure biological diversity and maintain a healthy ecosystem in Backsasil Valley Ecological and Scenery Conservation Area, and for preparing an ecological management plan fit for the protected area. The period for this study was from April 2010 to May 2013. Recently, the increase of visitors to Baeksasil Valley, as well as the plantation and dissemination of introduced vegetable species, become factors accelerating ecological disturbance. Major research contents included the reviews of the management system of the protected areas, the necessity of ecological management at the basin level, establishing the system of a management plan, research and analysis of environment ecology, analysis of threatening factors, goal-setting, management strategies, and a plan through SWOT analysis. Survey items were the natural environment, major components of ecosystem, and human-use. The goals of ecological management were basin zone management for amphibians, conservation and restoration of forest vegetation for conservation habitat of Dryocopus martius, conservation habitat of Zelkova serrta for nature landscape, and management of users for environment protection. The conservation management plan at a basin zone level contains the management of point and non-point pollution sources in the upstream, securing growing conditions for native plants, securing safe habitats for amphibians, and securing of habitats for major wild birds. Also, restoration of natural forests, management of native plants and introduced vegetable species, and restoration of degraded forest paths are suggested for the restoration plans.
Restorative Effects of Natural Landscape on University Students` Stress Reduction and Cognitive Enhancement
Yi, Young Kyoung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 127~137
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.127
Recent research has shown that university students experience severe stress and depleted directed attention due to study, social relationships, and economic dependency. Based on the stress reduction theory and the attention restoration theory, this study aims to investigate the effects of natural landscape on university students` stress and cognitive performance through a wide array of measurements including GSR(galvanic skin responsse), IBI(interbeat interval), ZIPERS(Zucherman Inventory of Personal Reactions), and mental arithmetic test. The restorative effects of natural landscape were compared with those of urban landscape. 128 university students participated in the study, and the data of 120 students was analyzed. The results showed that natural landscape was more restorative in relieving psychological stress and in enhancing cognitive performance than urban landscape, which evidenced the restorative effects of natural landscape. Therefore, it could be proposed that natural landscaping of the university campus contributes to students` stress reduction and cognitive enhancement. But such effects were not found in the two physiological measures(both GSR and IBI). Moreover, it was analyzed that urban landscape had a more beneficial effect than natural landscape for IBI, which might resulted from the participants` characteristics and the study landscape. Specifically, the young age span of the participants(average 23.8 years old) and the very natural setting of the university where they were enrolled might lead to the conflicting results in physiological measures. Also, the urban landscape used in the study had a sense of "scope", which is one of the Kaplan and Kaplan`s restorative characteristics. Based on this opinion, it was suggested that future study should investigate the impact of the landscape type and contents as well as the participants` characteristics on the restorative effects of natural landscape.
The Study on Aspects of Representing Tradition in the Winners of Landscape Competitions of Land Development Projects through the Comparative Analysis between the Original Designs and the Constructions
Kim, Hyun-Hee ; So, Hyun-Su ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 138~149
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.138
In order to search for the reasonable planning directions for representing traditional landscape, this study conducted the comparative analysis of the designs on the panels and their constructions from both winners of "The Landscape Design Competitions for City Infrastructure of Minlak(2) District in Uijeongbu" and "The Design Competition for Dongtan(2) District Land Development Phase 1". The representing targets and views, the composition and placement of representing space, the design of representing facilities and landscape planting were examined based on the text, master plans, elevations and cross sections, diagrams, images, and perspective drawings proposed from the competition panels. Then, the landscape constructions were reviewed. The results are as follows: First, the types of the representing targets and views are the agricultural landscape, as the local landscape of target area, which are divided into the life space of a traditional village, the traditional water space, and the traditional culture. Second, as to the composition and placement of representing space, the traditional theme spaces are formulated considering the surrounding land use and the local cultural heritage. However, some spaces were changed to the exercise space or convenient facility spaces required in a neighborhood park. Third, in the case of the representing facilities, a round island in the square pond, a traditional pavilion and Hwagye(terraced flower bed) were made without the facilities designed creatively. Fourth, the application of traditional planting techniques was focused on planting trees in the village forest on an island in the square pond and on Hwagye. Fifth, the traditional representing work has gradually advanced with the selection of subject and experimental facility designs based on the professional references. Sixth, the choice of the realizable subject, the expertise for information analysis and the creative design of the traditional facility are required in the future.
Characteristic Analysis of the Changes of Landscape Architecture Construction Costs in Time-series - Focused on the Cases of Works of Public Institution`s at Capital Area -
Park, Sang-Jin ; Cho, Se-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 43, issue 6, 2015, Pages 150~159
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2015.43.6.150
This study was conducted for the purpose of presenting basic data for calculating a more reasonable landscaping project cost in the future through the construction cost calculation ratio of scenic planting and facilities and their time series trend analysis targeting `J` corporation, a representative Korean public institution that creates apartment complexes. This study targeted scenic planting and the facility construction costs of 37 apartment complexes in the capital area from 2004 to 2012, using statistical analysis methods such as technical analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis to analyze the characteristics of the time series change. The conclusion was drawn as follows. First, breaking down the cost of overall landscaping projects to scenic planting and facility construction, the ratio of the average cost of scenic planting to that of facility construction showed 56.1% to 43.9% from 2004 to 2012. Second, the costs of planting construction and facility construction both showed a fluctuation range of about
, implying relatively steady costs considering the inflation rate. Third, the landscape construction cost for each type of construction resulted in a fluctuation range from minimum
(exercise facility) to maximum
(packing facility), reflecting that among the landscaping projects, the facility construction costs tended to show relatively large fluctuations in accordance with the change of time series. Fourth, the comprehensive indication of the ratio of landscaping project costs by time series and landscaping construction type implies that the regional characteristics and positional condition of the apartment complexes were not reflected sufficiently. Fifth, the high level of correlation of landscaping construction types and landscaping construction elements imply that the entire construction costs were controlled through partial adjustment of cost components within the overall frame of construction cost. These results reveal the problems of standardized landscaping cost irrespective of user satisfaction or environmental traits such as the conditions of the apartment complexes.