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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
An Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Yong-in City
Park, Ji Young ; Kim, Jin-Oh ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.001
The purpose of this study is to analyze the change of environmental capacity in Yong-in City, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea through calculation of ecological footprint indices and analysis of their changes, and to suggest implications for urban development and planning. In this study, we analyzed ecological footprints of 1993, 2003, and 2013 to understand the patterns of land use changes and development in Yong-in City. We also compared the GIS land cover maps and ecological footprint indices to figure out land cover changes associated with resource consumption in Yong-in City. As a result, we found the following three lessons. First, the ecological footprint indices of Yong-in City are 3.20(gha) in 1993, 6.50(gha) in 2003, and 11.15(gha) in 2013. This implies that the ecological footprint of Yong-in City is much larger than 1.80(gha), the globally required ecological footprint per capita and 3.56(gha), the average ecological footprint of South Korea. Second, the forest ecological footprint of Yong-in City was calculated as the largest, followed by the ecological footprints of energy, food, and built environment. In particular, the forest ecological footprint was the most rapidly increased from 0.002(gha) in 1993 to 7.32(gha) in 2013, followed by energy ecological footprint from 0.87(gha) to 2.38(gha). This implies that the provision and consumption of timber are seriously unbalanced, and energy consumption is unsustainable because of the rapid increase of residential and commercial land development in the city. Third, our analysis of the rapid increase of forest ecological footprint indicates that the disturbed forest areas are concentrated in the increased built environment areas. We also observed that the increase of energy ecological footprint indices was caused largely by the increase of the commercial and road areas. This implies that Yong-in City should minimize forest disturbance and expand green areas for future in the city. In addition, this may provide a reasonable ground that the city should reduce the use of fossil fuels and facilitate the use of renewable energy.
Step-by-step Participatory Design Process through Construction of Public Discourse and Community Development - An Analysis of New York Governors Island Park and Public Spaces -
Choi, Hyeyoung ; Pae, Jeong-Hann ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 11~24
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.011
This study, which takes the New York Governors Island project as an example, is an in-depth analysis of the process of participatory design for transforming a space that had long been isolated from the public into a park and/or communal space. We found that the process of participatory design at each project phase consists of the following. First, in the preparatory phase, there was construction of public discourse: efforts to find a consensus to develop the space in a public-driven direction was led by various initiatives. Second, by opening the site to the public before the design phase and by consistently inviting a wide range of activities, a community was formed and its attachment to the site was established. Third, after the competition until the completion of the project master planning phase, substantial and active participatory design was enabled through social interaction of the community formed and developed over many years. Fourth, in the detail design and implementation phase, a traditional and passive way of participatory design such as public hearings was used, thereby preserving the expertise of professional designers. Public participation was reflected most in the master planning phase to create a broad framework of the park, while professionals designed the more specific aspects; this efficient and effective approach enabled both citizens and professionals to dutifully take part in developing the park. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. The mode of participatory design should be varied at each project phase, from construction of public discourse, to formation and development of the community, to participatory design for social interaction. Furthermore, it is effective to preserve the unique roles of citizens and design professionals. It is particularly important to extend the process of participatory design to include the construction of public discourse and community.
Critical Review about the Character of Communication among Participating Stakeholders in the Improving Alley Landscapes in Residential Neighborhoods Project
Kim, Yun-Geum ; Lee, Ai-Ran ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 25~36
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.025
This paper discusses the character of communication among participating stakeholders in the Improving Alley Landscapes in Residential Neighborhoods project. The participation of diverse stakeholders in conventional urban redevelopment is considered to delay and complicate the progress of a project. However, in urban regeneration, a field-oriented operating system and collaboration between diverse stakeholders is considered critical to building a sustainable community. A stakeholder is defined as "a person or organization that can influence decision-making or be influenced by it." This paper uses a case study to examine what types of stakeholders participate and what communicative processes and ideas are shared among them. Six neighborhoods were selected out of a total of 26 of Seoul`s 2014 Improving Alley Landscapes project. This research was developed through interviews and a review of the literature. The character of communication among stakeholders in the case study is as follows. Firstly, the administration initiated the project but did not show leadership. This was caused by a gap in understanding about the project between city and borough administrations, Further, the city administration lacked experience with projects that placed an emphasis on fieldwork. Tongjand and Banjang, at ancillary institutions, acted as spokespersons and helped people in the community to understand the administrative process. However, because they led communication and used personal relationships to ensure they communicated effectively, the communication process had limits from the perspective of democratic process. Diverse stakeholders expressed their opinions in the public sphere and communicated about them using diverse media. Finally, experts produced the output, facilitated communication, and mediated in conflicts. Because new experts acted as facilitators and mediators, there was a great deal of trial and error. This project has particular significance: Seoul`s city government deals with urban space rather than parks and green space, which are limited by boundaries; and whether "green" can be used for urban renovation was tested by several landscape architects, who sought to identify a new role in urban renovation, namely, the role of landscape and landscape architecture. However, the project has some limitations, including an insufficiently detailed project plan, a lack of common understanding among stakeholders, and a short timeframe. A number of stakeholders overcame these limitations to a certain degree. Officials of the Borough and the Dong managed the project and resolved civil complaints. Experts provided special information, and contributed to the design and construction of improvements.
Haptic Perception presented in Picturesque Gardens - With a Focus on Picturesque Garden in Eighteenth-Century England -
Kim, Jin-Seob ; Kim, Jin-Seon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 37~51
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.037
Modern optical mechanisms slanted toward Ocular-centrism have neglected diverse functions of vision, judged objects in abstract and binary perspectives, and organized spaces accordingly, there by neglecting the function of eyes groping objects. Recently, various experiences have been induced through communication with other senses by the complex perception beyond the binary perception system of vision. Haptic perception is dynamic vision that induces accompanying bodily experiences through interaction among the various senses; it recognizes the characteristics of material properties and various sensitive stimulations of human beings. This study elaborates on the major features of haptic perception by examining the theoretical background of this concept, which stimulates the active experience of the subject and determines how characteristics of haptic perception are displayed in picturesque gardens. In order to identify the major features of haptic perception, this study examines how Adolf Hildebrand`s theory of vision is developed, expanded, and reinterpreted by Alois Riegl, Wilhelm Worringer, Walter Benjamin, Maurice Merleau Ponty, and Gilles Deleuze in the histories of philosophy and aesthetics. Based thereon, the core differences in haptic perception models and visual perception models are analyzed, and the features of haptic perception are identified. Then, classical gardens are set for visual perception and picturesque gardens are set for haptic perception so that the features from haptic perception identified previously are projected onto the picturesque gardens. The research results drawn from this study regarding features of haptic perception presented in picturesque gardens are as follows. The core differences of haptic perception in contrast to visual perception can be summarized as ambiguity and obscureness of boundaries, generation of dynamic perspectives, induction of motility by indefinite circulation, and strangeness and sublime beauty by the impossibility of perception. In picturesque gardens, the ambiguity and obscureness of boundaries are presented in the irregularity and asymmetric elements of planes and the rejection of a single view, and the generation of dynamic perspectives results from the adoption of narrative structure and overlapping of spaces through the creation of complete views, medium range views, and distant views, which the existing gardens lack. Thus, the scene composition technique is reproduced. The induction of motility by indefinite circulation is created by branching circulation, and strangeness and sublime beauty are presented through the use of various elements and the adoption of `roughness`, `irregularity`, and `ruins` in the gardens.
Jeju Shinyang Fishing Port Remodeling Plan Utilizing Marine Tourism Resources
Kim, Yelim ; Sung, Jong-Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 52~69
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.052
The fishing port was once the foothold of production as well as the stronghold of communities but with the declining of the fishing industry, ports became abandoned space. Jeju Special Self-Governing Province has continued its effort to vitalize marine tourism since 2010. Shinyang Port in particular is designated as a Prearranged Marina Port Development Zone, and planning for the Jeju Ocean Marina City project is underway. Nevertheless, fishing port remodeling projects implemented on Jeju so far have focused only on civil engineering such as renovating old facilities. In addition, most Marina Port Development Projects have been irrelevant to local communities. Leading projects by the local government mostly suffer from a lack of funding, which results in the renovation of old facilities and improper maintenance, while private sector investment projects do not lead to benefit sharing with the community. Shinyang Port, also renovated in 2008, ended up with outer breakwater extension construction that neither solved the fundamental problem of the site nor gave benefits to residents. To arrange a way to solve problems for civil engineering focused development project, improper maintenance, and benefit sharing with community, first, this study proposes a development plan that connects with the outlying areas near the ports. The plan reflects existing topography, Jeju traditional stonewalls, narrow paths on the master plan and programs by reading the regional context. In this way, this paper suggests a space development plan reflecting the local landscape and characteristic factors. Second, it satisfies various needs by using existing and new Marine Tourism Resources. Third, it examines sustainable operation and management measures through residents` participation. The proposal is significant in two key ways: it is a fresh attempt at connecting the fishing port with its outlying areas from a landscape perspective; and it considers environmental, social, economic issues, and suggests participation for local communities. Thus, the model can be used in future fishing-port remodeling plans for revitalizing unused space, including invaluable traditional landscapes, and for boosting the marine-leisure industry.
Characteristics of Vegetation Biotope in Cultural Heritage Site of Odaesan National Park
Kim, Ji-Suk ; Yi, Young-Kyoung ; Yi, Pyong-In ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 70~82
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.070
We investigated the vegetation structure in Cultural Heritage Site of Odaesan National Park using 52 quadrats for each type of land use to figure out some characteristics of plant biotope. As we classified vegetation communities, they are six groups of communities. distinguished species in two of them are Taraxacum officinal, Erigeron annuus and Poa pratensis which are common in urban areas. Distinguished species in one of them are Potentilla fragarioides var. major which is common in outskirt of forest. And Distinguished species in another 3 communities are Sasa borealis and Quercus mongolica which are common in forest. Using TWINSPAN and DCA, we are able to classify the six communities into 3 types biotope (temple-biotope, slope-biotope, forest-biotope) in Cultural Heritage Site. The dominant species of urban-biotope are Poa pratensis, Artemisia prinseps and that of slope-biotope is Tripterygium regelii. Also the dominant species of forest-biotope are Quercus mongolica, Abies holophylla and Ulmus davidiana var. japonica. We could see more species in slope-biotope than another biotope types. Moreover, in urban-biotope types, we could find many of naturalized plant species.
The Consolidation and Implementation of Green Infrastructure Policy in Urban Spatial Planning - Focused on the London Plan & the All London Green Grid -
Yoon, Sang-Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 83~95
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.083
Strategies for parks and open spaces in the 21st century have moved from focusing on specific elements, such as quantitative growth and ecological and recreational aspects, to green infrastructure, which refers to a multi-functional network of open and green spaces offering a range of benefits. In the case of London, green infrastructure is realised as an integral part of urban infrastructure, involving physical and social infrastructure as well as practical spatial planning at the local level within statutory urban planning as part of a continuously developing green infrastructure framework with a theoretical basis. Taking this perspective, the present study looks at alterations to and developments in green infrastructure policies in the London Plan, the green grid framework as detailed in the city`s strategic implementation of green infrastructure. Various trends and characteristics of the policies adopted in the London Plan and some implications are deduced, with three main results being identified. The first is a clear division of roles among the national government, Greater London Authority and borough councils, with local plans established under the guidance of the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) and the London Plan. Green infrastructure policies in the London Plan have been applied at a high rate in the boroughs` local plans, which leads to another, linked point. Secondly, green infrastructure policies and the green grid as an implementation framework have been consistently extended and developed through consolidating the London Plan, despite the change of government. Finally, in order to achieve the London Plan, the Mayor of London implemented policies by partnership and supporting programmes for London boroughs. Recently, the Seoul Metropolitan Authority introduced a parks and green spaces development policy, but the London case remains a good example; this is because green infrastructure policies in London were not a manifesto pledge but rather have been continuously and consistently advanced regardless of party politics and thus realised as long-term planning.
A Study on the Perception of Korean Intellectuals on Botanical Gardens during the Open Port Period
Kim, Jung-Hwa ; Zoh, Kyung-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 96~107
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.096
This study is an attempt to trace the origins of Korean botanical gardens prior to the construction of the botanical garden in Changgyeonggung Palace. We trace the time period during which Korean intellectuals first understood and appropriated botanical gardens based on accounts found in travel journals. These were written by members of delegations sent to Japan, Russia, and Great Britain and by students who had studied abroad, such as Tchi-Ho Yun and Kil-Chun Yu, during the open port period from 1876 to 1910. This study shows that the term "botanical garden" did not appear in any of the travel journals and the delegations did not show much interest in them until the 1880s. Japan had planned to introduce the different types of botanical gardens to the delegations from the Joseon Dynasty, but the delegations left no official records or related accounts regarding their visits. In contrast, members of delegations who were sent to Russia, Europe, and America after the 1890s began to pay attention to botanical gardens. They considered botanical gardens as a representative and essential part of Western culture and attempted to introduce them in Korea as essential tools for academic development as well as for enlightenment. Although many Korean intellectuals` opinions about the necessity of a botanical garden did not actually lead to its construction during the open port period, such a movement was significant in that it strengthened the botanical garden`s image as a symbol of civilization. Apart from tracing the origins of the botanical gardens in Korea, this study serves as fundamental research material for understanding the establishment of the Changgyeongwon Botanical Garden in 1909.
The Implication and Issues of Landscape Design Education through National Exhibition of Korean Landscape Architecture
Choi, Jung-Mean ; Yun, Su-jin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 108~121
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.108
The purpose of this study is to explore the issues and implications for landscape design education in Korean landscape architecture by analyzing the National Exhibition of Korean Landscape Architecture(NEKLA). This study analyzed the suggested topics and selected site as well as the commentary that appeared in the NEKLA`s award-winning book published from 2004 to 2014. Results of the study are as follows: First, topics of NEKLA are not only competition guidelines but related to exploring new area and role of Korean landscape architecture. Second, most dealing with site is `industrial heritage and regeneration space` and `green infrastructure`. In more recent years, a larger variety of sites were addressed. Third, site locations are concentrated in metropolitan areas, and awards and participation of the non-metropolitan universities was very low. Fourth, seven criteria can be applied in a general landscape design competition such as `newness of the concept(idea)`, `logicality of the design process`, `selection of site fidelity of analysis(interpretation)`, `presentation and completion of the master plan`, `consistency with the theme`, `linkage of concepts and results` and `feasibility`. The evaluation criteria are increasing the sophistication of the design language to provide useful suggestions on how to find design education methods. Its implications are as follows: First, training is essential to derive innovative ideas, but it should avoid excessive concept-oriented education. Second, design education may include instruction on how to define the problems related with the site. Third, more emphasis on design logic is essential to transform the innovative concept to actual results. Fourth, `slick images` unrelated to design should be suppressed. Fifth, practice is needed to solve the topics addressed in the design process of education. Sixth, `feasibility` and `creative thinking` are necessary to recognize a reciprocal relationship that is helpful to one another. This study uses direct quote commentary to minimize the subjectivity of the researcher and to trace issues of the contemporary landscape architecture more directly and vividly. This study is a record waiting for another review as meta-criticism. In this regard this study, the landscape architect of the next times will have a mean that historical records to review the current thinking of the landscape theory and design.
Growth and Physiological Response of Three Evergreen Shrubs to De-icing Salt(CaCl
) at Different Concentrations in Winter - Focusing on Euonymus japonica, Rhodoendron indicum, and Buxus koreana -
Ju, Jin-Hee ; Park, Ji-Yeon ; Xu, Hui ; Lee, Eun-Yeob ; Hyun, Kyoung-Hak ; Jung, Jong-Suk ; Choi, Eun-Young ; Yoon, Yong-Han ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 122~129
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.122
It is important to know the sensitivity of shrubs to de-icing salt in order to set guidelines for ecological tolerance of evergreen shrubs along roads. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of de-icing salt, calcium chloride(
), on the growth and physiological characteristics of three evergreen shrubs, Euonymus japonica, Rhododendron indicum, and Buxus koreana. Plants were exposed to calcium chloride at different concentrations(weight percentage, 0% as control, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0%) through amended soil maintained from the start of the experiment in October of 2014 until termination in March of 2015. The survival rate, plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, number of leaves, fresh weight, dry weight, dry matter, root/top ratio, chlorophyll contents, fluorescence, photosynthesis, stomatal conduct, and transpiration rate were recorded. Elevated calcium chloride concentrations decreased plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, fresh weight, dry weight, dry matter, and R/T ratio of the three shrubs. Root growth responded more sensitively than the top growth to salinity. However Euonymus japonica was more tolerant to salt stress than Rhododendron indicum and Buxus koreana. Their growths were totally inhibited by
above 3.0% and 1.0% concentrations, respectively. Chlorophyll content, fluorescence, photosynthesis, stomatal conduct, and transpiration rate of both Rhododendron indicum and Buxus koreana were reduced sharply, while Euonymus japonica exhibited mild reductions compared to plants grown in control when increasing calcium chloride was used. Especially, the transpiration rates of Rhododendron indicum, and the photosynthesis and stomatal conduct of Buxus koreana were suppressed as the concentrations of calcium chloride increased. Therefore, Euonymus japonica should be considered as an ecologically tolerant species with proven tolerance to de-icing salt.
Analysis on Trends in the Designation and Development of Historical Parks in Korea
Gil, Ji-Hye ; Park, Hee-Soung ; Park, Jae-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 44, issue 2, 2016, Pages 130~142
DOI : 10.9715/KILA.2016.44.2.130
After the revision of the Urban Park Act in 2005, historical parks emerged in Korea to promote the preservation of historical heritage while also offering recreation and education to ordinary citizens. It is now time to examine the characteristics of domestic historical parks by examining their current operational conditions, and seek appropriate institutional improvements. By studying the characteristics of historical parks in various countries, as well as the trends in the designation and development of domestic historical parks, this study attempts to examine the function and role of historical parks, and seeks a direction for future action. Through its literature review, this study also examines the current state of historical parks through cooperation with relevant public officials and experts. The results of the study show that, despite historical resources being concentrated in sites dating to the Joseon Dynasty, they also include heritage pertaining to persons, events, and places. There is also a trend toward increasing the focus on modern heritage. Historical parks show differences across existing cities and new towns, as well as between major cities and provincial cities. Provincial cities showed a recent trend of using historical parks as important resources for strengthening their economics and solidifying their identities. Also, there are many cases where the designated category for a park is changed to a historical park. In such cases, there may be a problem where certain functions of the park run into conflict. Domestic historical parks can be divided into four categories: heritage parks, memorial parks, historical theme parks, and historic parks. Such detailed classification schemes may serve as the strategic foundation for later conservation and usage of historical heritage, as well as a standard for suggesting concrete direction in the operation of historical parks.