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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 10, Issue 5 - Oct 2005
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
Selecting the target year
Policy Suggestions to Korea from a Comparison Study of the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark's Polices on Risk Assessment of Contaminated Soils
Park Yong-Ha ; Yang Jay-E. ; Ok Yong-Sik ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 10, issue 5, 2005, Pages 1~10
Policies of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark were compared and analyzed on risk assessment of contaminated sites. These countries were chosen from a feasible preliminary analysis of 18 countries of the European Union and the U. S. All the countries selected met two major criteria : I) implementation of risk assessment to determine the soil contamination and remediation targets of contaminated sites, ii) use of soil guidance values and risk assessment as complementary measures to determine soil contamination. Suggested policy improvements to Korea regarding these issues include i) legislation of a rational risk assessment methodology of contaminated sites, and ii) enactment of collaboration of risk assessment with the soil guidance values. To establish effective risk assessment legislation, additional in-depth research on social, economic and long-term effects of the proposed risk assessment methodologies, as well as the mutual consent of all parties including academia, industry, and administration will be necessary. Linking risk assessment with soil guidance values would be applicable to a site contaminated where the contaminant concentration exceeds a certain soil guidance value. In parallel, application of risk assessment to a site where a contaminant concentration is naturally different such as mining sites would be plausible. The policy suggestions above are not yet conclusive due to a lack of policy implementation, and simulation. Thus, additional research on developing risk assessment methodology is needed. Nevertheless, initiation of the suggested policy would increase the efficacy of Korean policy regarding the survey and remediation of contaminated sites.
Removal of Phenanthrene by Electrokinetic-Fenton Process in a 2-dimensional Soil System
Park Ji-Yeon ; Kim Sang-Joon ; Lee You-Jin ; Yang Ji-Won ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 10, issue 5, 2005, Pages 11~17
Characteristics of phenanthrene removal in the Electrokinetic (EK)-Fenton process were investigated in a 2-dimensional test cell in a viewpoint of the effect of gravity and electrosmotic flow (EOF). When the constant voltage of 100 V was applied to this system, the current decreased from 1,000 to 290 mA after 28 days, because soil resistance increased due to the exhaustion of ions in soil by electroosmosis and electromigration. Accumulated EOF in two cathode reservoirs was 10.3 L and the EOF rate was kept constant for 28 days. At the end of operation, the concentration of phenanthrene was observed to be very low near the anode and increased in the cathode region because hydrogen peroxide was supplied from anode to cathode region following the direction of EOP. Additionally, the concentration of phenanthrene decreased at the bottom of the test cell because the electrolyte solution containing hydrogen peroxide was largely transported toward the bottom due to a low capillary action in the soil with high porosity. Average removal efficiency of phenanthrene by EK-Fenton process was 81.4% for 28 days. In-situ EK-Fenton process would overcome the limitations of conventional remediation technologies and effectively remediate the contaminated sites.
Water Quality Changes in Wastewater Effluent from the Unsaturated and Saturated Soil Aquifer Treatment(SAT) Columns Simulating Shallow Aquifer
Cha Woo-Suk ; Kim Jung-Woo ; Choi Hee-Chul ; Won Jong-Ho ; Kim In-Soo ; Cho Jae-Weon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 10, issue 5, 2005, Pages 18~24
Water quality changes of wastewater effluent in the shallow aquifier condition was investigated using laboratory unsaturated and saturated SAT columns for over five months. Average DOC removal was 31.9% in the unsaturated SAT column whereas no removal occurred in the saturated SAT column. Under the shallow aquifer condition, nitrification was not completed in the unsaturated SAT column, releasing residual ammonium nitrogen into the saturated SAT column. Short retention time (one day) in the shallow unsaturated SAT column rendered DO of about 2 mg/L to the influent of the saturated SAT column. Phosphate was not removed at all in the unsaturated SAT column while complete removal was achieved in the saturated column. Consequently, organic and inorganic compounds were removed under the shallow aquifer condition as effectively as was in deep aquifer, except for the release of ammonium and relatively high DO into the saturated SAT column.
Assessment of Water Pollution by Discharge of Abandoned Mines
Kim Hee-Joung ; Yang Jay-E. ; Ok Yong-Sik ; Lee Jai-Young ; Park Byung-Kil ; Kong Sung-Ho ; Jun Sang-Ho ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 10, issue 5, 2005, Pages 25~36
Several metalliferous and coal mines, including Myungjin, Seojin and Okdong located at the upper watershed of Okdong stream, were abandoned or closed since 1988 due to the mining industry promotion policy. Thus these disposed an enormous amount of mining wastes without a proper treatment facilities, resulting in water pollution in the downstream areas. Acid mine drainage (AMD) and waste water effluents from the closed coal mines were very strongly acidic showing pH ranges of 2.7 to 4.5 and had a high level of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) showing the ranges of 1,030 to 1,947 mg/L. Also heavy metal concentrations in these samples such as Fe, Cu, Cd and anion such as sulfate were very high. Concentrations of water soluble heavy metals in the Okdong streams were in the orders of Fe>Al>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, indicating Fe from the AMD and waste water effluents contributed greatly to the quality of water and soil in the lower watershed of Okdong stream. Copper concentrations in the effluents from the tile drainage of mine tailings dams were highest during the raining season. Water Pollution Index (WPI) of the surface water at the upper stream of Okdong river where AMD of the abandoned coal mines was flowed into main stream were in the ranges of 16.3 to 47.1. On the other hand, those at the mid stream where effluents from tailings dams and coal mines flowed into main stream were in the WPI ranges of 10.6 to 19.5. However, those at the lower stream were ranged from 10.6 to 14.9. These results indicated that mining wastes such as AMD and effluents from the closed mines were the major source to water pollution at the Okdong stream areas.
An Experimental Study of Runoff Reduction Using Infiltration Facility
Park Jae-Roh ; Kwon Hyok ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 10, issue 5, 2005, Pages 37~44
The main object of this study is to develop the infiltration facility that it can be used in grounds, parking areas, roads, pathway, housing etc. As a result, it is much alike in the infiltration method of facility to use permeable concrete, permeable hole and be filled with broken stones. And through this experiment, it was perceived the truth that the state of ground, the groundwater level, buildings around them, the history of submerging and the applicable infiltration facilities are the key. To verify how much the infiltration facility reduce the outflow, we set up the infiltration facility in the test area. In result, it reduced the outflow 89% in 24 mm rainfall, 93% in 12 mm, 51% in 140 mm, 75% in 64 mm and 80% in 54 mm. As the rainfall rate increased, the infiltration increased up to the limited rainfall. And in the limited rainfall, we knew that the infiltration was reduced suddenly. Infiltration is closely related to the state of ground, the rain interval etc. and we will analyze these conditions through the continuous monitoring.
Enhancement of Phenanthrene Sorption Rate on Natural Manganese Oxide Using the Oxidative Coupling Reaction of Phenanthrene
Jeon Sun-Young ; Park Jae-Woo ; Shin Won-Sik ; Ko Seok-Oh ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 10, issue 5, 2005, Pages 45~51
The sorption/desorption characteristics of phenanthrene on the natural manganese oxide (NMD) were investigated in the presence of phenolic compounds. 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was effectively oxidized by NMD catalyzed reaction and transformed into humic-like macromolecular compound through inter-or cross-coupling reaction between byproducts. As 4-CP was degraded with time, sorbed amount of phenanthrene on NMD was significantly increased, resulting from the formation of oxidative coupling products. These results imply that NMD can be used for simultaneous treatment of phenolic contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils, sediments, or water. Also, sorbed phenanthrene on NMD in the presence of 4-CP showed high degree of desorption resistance, indicating that sequestration process of phenanthrene was ongoing with time.
A Development of Generalized Coupled Markov Chain Model for Stochastic Prediction on Two-Dimensional Space
Park Eun-Gyu ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 10, issue 5, 2005, Pages 52~60
The conceptual model of under-sampled study area will include a great amount of uncertainty. In this study, we investigate the applicability of Markov chain model in a spatial domain as a tool for minimizing the uncertainty arose from the lack of data. A new formulation is developed to generalize the previous two-dimensional coupled Markov chain model, which has more versatility to fit any computational sequence. Furthermore, the computational algorithm is improved to utilize more conditioning information and reduce the artifacts, such as the artificial parcel inclination, caused by sequential computation. A generalized 20 coupled Markov chain (GCMC) is tested through applying a hypothetical soil map to evaluate the appropriateness as a substituting model for conventional geostatistical models. Comparing to sequential indicator model (SIS), the simulation results from GCMC shows lower entropy at the boundaries of indicators which is closer to real soil maps. For under-sampled indicators, however, GCMC under-estimates the presence of the indicators, which is a common aspect of all other geostatistical models. To improve this under-estimation, further study on data fusion (or assimilation) inclusion in the GCMC is required.
Influence of Solution pH on Pyrene Binding to Sorption-Fractionated and Kaolinite-Bound Humic Substance
Hur Jin ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 10, issue 5, 2005, Pages 61~69
Changes in pyrene binding by dissolved and kaolinite-associated humic substances (HS) due to HS adsorptive fractionation processes were examined using purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) at different pH (4, 7 and 9). Irrespective of solution pH, molecular weight (MW) fractionation occurred upon adsorption of PAHA onto kaolinite, resulting in the deviation of residual PAHA MW from the original MW prior to sorption. Variation in
by bulk PAHA was observed at different pH due to relative contributions of partitioning and size exclusion effects (i.e., specific interactions). For all pH conditions investigated, carbon-normalized pyrene binding coefficients for nonadsorbed, residual fractions
were different from the original dissolved PAHA
prior to contact with the kaolinite suspensions. Positive correlations between pyrene
and weight-average molecular weight
for residual PAHA fractions were observed for pH 7 and 9. However, such a positive correlation was not found at pH 4 due to the absence of the dramatic fractionation observed for high pH conditions (i.e., exclusive fractionation with respect to higher MW), suggesting that actual MW distribution pattern is more important for sorption-fractionated HS than the composite MW value. For adsorbed PAHA, conformational changes of PAHA upon adsorption seem to be important for the extent of pyrene binding. At relatively high pH (7 and 9), lower extent of pyrene binding was observed for adsorbed PAHA versus nonadsorbed PAHA. The conformation effects were more pronounced at higher pH.
An Introduction to Regulations on Underground Injection Wells: A Case in Missouri
Lee Jin-Yong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 10, issue 5, 2005, Pages 70~76
It is expected that use of groundwater wells for contaminated groundwater remediation, artificial groundwater recharge and geothermal heat pump systems is increasing in the future in Korea. Some practical confusions may be produced due to lack of regulations related to permits and registrations of these types of wells. This short note is intended to draw attention of relevant professionals by shortly introducing some relevant code of state regulations in Missouri, USA.