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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 11, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
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Detection of Biodegradative Genes in Oil Contaminated Soil Microbial Community by Oligonucleotide Microarray
Lee Jong-Kwang ; Kim Hee ; Lee Doo-Myoung ; Lee Seok-Jae ; Kim Moo-Hoon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 11, issue 1, 2006, Pages 1~6
The analysis of functional population and its dynamics on the environment is essential for understanding bioremediation in environment. Here, we report a method for oligonucleotide microarray for the monitoring of aliphatic and aromatic degradative genes. This microarray contained 15 unique and group-specific probes which were based on 100 known genes involved pathways in biodegradation. Hybridization specificity tests with pure cultures, strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC 1636 indicated that the designed probes on the arrays appeared to be specific to their corresponding target genes. It was found that the presence of 8 genes encoding alkane, naphthalene, biphenyl, pyrene (PAH ring-hydroxylating) degradation pathway could be detected in oil contaminated soil sample. Therefore, the findings of this study strongly suggest that oligonucleotide microarray is an effective diagnostic tool for evaluating biodegradation capability in oil contaminated subsurface environment.
Role of Electrode Reaction of Electrolyte in Electrokinetic-Fenton Process for Phenanthrene Removal
Park Ji-Yeon ; Kim Sang-Joon ; Lee You-Jin ; Yang Ji-Won ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 11, issue 1, 2006, Pages 7~13
The effects of electrolytes were investigated on the removal efficiency when several different electrolytes were used to change the electrode reaction in an electrokinetic (EK)-Fenton process to remediate phenanthrene-contaminated soil. Electrical potential gradient decreased initially due to the ion entrance into soil and then increased due to the ion extraction from soil under the electric field. Accumulated electroosmotic flow was $NaCl>KH_2PO_4>MgSO_4$ at the same concentration because the ionic strength of
was the highest and
formed near the cathode reservoir plugged up soil pore to inhibit water flow. When hydrogen peroxide was contained in electrolyte solution, removal efficiency increased by Fenton reaction. When NaCl was used as an electrolyte compound, chlorine (
) was generated at the anode and dissolved to form hypochlorous acid (HClO), which increased phenanthrene removal. Therefore, the electrode reaction of electrolyte in the anode reservoir as well as its transport into soil should be considered to improve removal efficiency of EK-Fenton process.
Simultaneous Removal of Cd & Cr(VI) by Fe-loaded Zeolite in Column System
Lee Ah-Ra ; Lee Seung-Hak ; Park Jun-Boum ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 11, issue 1, 2006, Pages 14~22
Laboratory column experiment for simultaneous removal of Cd and Cr(VI) were conducted using newly developed material of Fe-loaded zeolite having both reduction ability and sorption capacity. The solution containing Cd and Cr(VI) was injected into the column and the breakthrough curves (BTCs) for the contaminants were observed at the effluent port. Cd breakthrough was not initialized until Cr(VI) breakthrough was completed. Therefore it could be concluded that overall efficiency of Fe-loaded zeolite should be determined by the reactivity for Cr(VI). The relative concentration of Cr(VI) BTC increased to the unit value while initial breakthrough was delayed and the propagation of breakthrough was slowed. In order to quantitatively describe the shape of Cr(VI) BTC, new parameters of
designated to be shape parameters, were defined and applied in contaminant transport concentration. These parameters were employed to represent the degree of initial breakthrough delay and the degree of breakthrough propagation, respectively. As initial contaminant concentration increased,
decreased, which indicated the delay of BTC's initiation. And as initial contaminant flow rate increased,
decreased, which represented the faster propagation of the BTC. From these results, Fe-loaded zeolite was found to be an effective reactive material for PRBs against heavy metals having different ionic forms in groundwater. And it could be expected that as groundwater flows faster, the propagation of breakthrough would be faster and as contaminant concentration is higher, the initial point of breakthrough would appear earlier.
The Effects of Kinetics on the Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals in Tailings-Water Interaction
Kang Min-Ju ; Lee Pyeong-Koo ; Kim Sang-Yeon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 11, issue 1, 2006, Pages 23~36
Experimental leaching of tailings was performed as a function of times (1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days) in the laboratory using reaction solutions equilibrated to three different pH set-points (pHs 1,3 and 5). The initial pHs of 5 and 3 stabilized at either 4.6-6.1 or 2.8-3.5 in 2 days and decrease gradually with time afterwards. The results of the leaching tests indicate that the significant increase in the sulfate concentrations and in acidity after 7 days of leaching results from the oxidation of sulfide minerals. There were no significant variations in the extractable Pb found in the leach solutions of pH 5 and 3 within the reaction time (1-30 days), while Zn, Cd and Cu concentrations tend to significantly increase with time. In tailings leaching at an initial pH=1, two trends were observed: i) The 'Zn-type' (Zn, Cd and Cu), with increasing concentrations between days 1 and 30, corresponding to the expected trend when continuous dissolution is the dominant process, ii) the 'Pb-type' (Pb), with decreasing concentrations over time, suggesting rapid dissolution of a Pb source followed by the precipitation of 'anglesite' in relation to the large increase in dissolved sulfates. The high sulfate concentrations were coupled with high concentrations of released Fe, Zn and Cd. Release of Zn and Cd and acidity from these leaching experiments can potentially pose adverse impact to surface and groundwater qualities in the surrounding environment. The kinetic problems could be the important factor which leads to increasing concentrations of trace metals in the runoff water.
Comparison of ELLAM and LEZOOMPC for Developing an Efficient Modeling Technique
Suk Hee-Jun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 11, issue 1, 2006, Pages 37~44
This study summarizes advantages and disadvantages of numerical methods and compares ELLAM and LEZOOMPC to develop an efficient numerical modeling technique on contaminant transport. Eulerian-Lagrangian method and Eulerian method are commonly used numerical techniques. However Eulerian-Lagrangian method does not conserve mass globally and fails to treat boundary in a straightforward manner. Also, Eulerian method has restrictions on the size of Courant number and mesh Peclet number because of time truncation error. ELLAM (Eulerian Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method) which has been popularly used for past 10 years in numerical modeling, is known for overcoming these numerical problems of Eulerian-Lagrangian method and Eulerian method. However, this study investigates advantages and disadvantages of ELLAM and suggests a change for the better. To figure out the disadvantages of ELLAM, the results of ELLAM, LEZOOMPC (Lagrangian-Eulerian ZOOMing Peak and valley Capturing), and visual MODFLOW are compared for four examples having different mesh Peclet numbers. The result of ELLAM generates numerical oscillation at infinite of mesh Peclet number, but that of LEZOOMPC yields accurate simulations. The simulation results suggest that the numerical error of ELLAM could be alleviated by adopting some schemes in LEZOOMPC. In other words, the numerical model which combines ELLAM with backward particle tracking, forward particle tracking, adaptively local zooming, and peak/valley capturing of LEZOOMPC can be developed for not only overcoming the numerical error of ELLAM, but also keeping the numerical advantage of ELLAM.
Heating Characteristics of the Soils for the Application of Electrical Resistance Heating with Soil Vapor Extraction
Yun Yeo-Bog ; Ko Seok-Oh ; Park Gi-Ho ; Park Min-Ho ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 11, issue 1, 2006, Pages 45~53
This study was performed to evaluate the heating characteristics of soils for the application of electrical resistance heating process combined with soil vapor extraction. Laboratory tests were conducted to find out optimum heating conditions by the adjustment of electrical supply and electrode. Results show that fine soil particles are more efficient for electrical heating. As water content of soil increases, more efficient electrical heating is observed. However, as the soil is saturated with water above the soil porosity, decrease in the heating efficiency is observed. The higher the voltage, is and the shorter the distance between the electrodes is, the better the heating efficiency is. The soil contaminated by fuel is also more efficient than non-contaminated soil in electrical resistance heating. From the relationship between the intial electrical current and the conductivity obtained in this study, soil temperature by electrical heating can be estimated.
Distributions of Chromium, Copper, and Arsenic in Soils Adjacent to Stairs, a Deck, and a Sound Barrier Constructed with a Wood Preservative CCA-Treated Timbers
Kim He-Kap ; Kim Dong-Jin ; Park Jeong-Gue ; Shin Yong-Seung ; Hwang In-Young ; Kim Yoon-Kwan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 11, issue 1, 2006, Pages 54~64
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a wood preservative, has been widely used to protect wood products from attacks by bacteria, fungi and insects. However, the use of CCA is currently forbidden or limited to some applications in many countries because the toxic elements (Cr, Cu, and As) of CCA are released into the environments during outdoor uses, which may cause adverse health effects on humans and ecological systems. This study was conducted to investigate the distributions of chromium, copper and arsenic in soils adjacent to two CCA-treated wood structures. In a 7 month old pond entry structure, ten surface soil samples (0-2.5 cm) were collected at lateral distances of 0, 0.5, and 1 m from the stairway, and nine surface soil samples were collected beneath the deck. Nine top soil samples were taken from a 2 year old sound barrier structure at lateral distances of 0, 1, and 2 m. Background surface soil samples were also collected from each structure. Samples were analyzed for some physicochemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter content, and soil texture. Following the extraction of the elements with a microwave digestion system, samples were analyzed for Cr, Cu, and As. The concentrations of the three elements in soils adjacent to the structures were significantly elevated compared to the background levels, indicating that the elements have been leached out of the structures. Released e1ements showed lateral concentration gradients within 1 m. The elevations of the three elements in soils underneath the deck did not seem different (background-corrected concentrations: Cr, 5.01 mg/kg; Cu, 5.50 mg/kg; As, 4.91 mg/kg), while the elements in soils near the sound barrier were elevated in the order of As>Cu>Cr with measured concentrations of 49.7, 44.7 and 52.5 mg/kg, respectively. Background As, Cu, and Cr concentrations near the sound barrier were 9.88, 30.8, and 46.5 mg/kg, respectively. These results showed that CCA constituents are released into the environment and it is suggested that risk assessment need to be conducted to investigate harmful effects of the released elements on humans and ecological systems.
Estimation of the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Recharge by Grid-based Soil Water Balance Method
An Jung-Gi ; Lee Yong-Doo ; Hwang Jong-Hwan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 11, issue 1, 2006, Pages 65~76
This paper outlines the methodology of grid-based water balance for estimating the spatial distribution of recharge, which is applied to Woedo catchment in the northern area of the Jeju Island. The catchment is divided into grids and a daily water balance in each grid is computed for the period of 5 years. Daily rainfall data in each grid is interpolated from the data of 10 rainfall gauging stations. The spatial distributions of parameters such as SCS curve number, soil water retention capacity and crop coefficients are derived from GIS analyses of soil and land use characteristics. The SCS curve number is obtained by calibrating simulated runoffs with respect to the observed runoffs. The results show that the average annual rainfall increases from 1,665 mm/year to 3,382 mm/year in accordance with the topographic elevation, and the average annual recharge varies from 372 mm/year to 2,576 mm/year according to the average annual rainfall increases. Spatial variability of recharge is the highest among the water balance components such as rainfall, direct runoff, evaprotranspiration and recharge because the rate of runoff and evapotranspiration in the area with relatively low rainfall is higher than the other area.