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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Scientific Feasibility on the Risk-Based Clean-up and Management of Contaminated Sites
Shin, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 1, 2007, Pages 1~35
In the last decades, the decrease in biological or chemical availability of sorbed contaminants as contact time passed, is generally accepted. This phenomenon so called as "aging" or "sequestration" is known to directly affect risk of the contaminats. This was observed for mainly for hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), but also reported for heavy metals. Aging is known to be directly related to sorption-desorption hysteresis, irreversible sorption, desorption-resistance, nonequilibrium sorption, etc. The decrease in bioavailability due to aging or sequestration indicates realistic decrease in risk potential. Recently a risk-based management concept by scientific evidences but not the simple measurement of contaminant concentration has been attempted to determine environmentally acceptable remedial endpoint. This is because selection of remedial endpoint based on not total concentration but the bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants can reduce both the treatment cost and remedial activities of the contaminated sites. The bioavailability and toxicity of the residual contaminants are highly affected by the fate and transport and also directly affect the exposure pathways and bioaccumulation of contaminants in the living biota. In this paper, scientific feasibility on the risk-based clean-up and management of contaminated sites is reviewed.
Soil Investigation Strategies for Soil Risk Assessment
Jeong, Seung-Woo ; An, Youn-Joo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 1, 2007, Pages 36~43
The objectives of soil investigation in risk assessment of contaminated sites are to characterize the level and area of contamination, and provide the important physical and chemical properties of contaminated sites for later exposure assessment. This study suggests two soil investigation strategies to be considered in the soil risk assessment in Korea. First, soil investigation for characterizing soil properties is additionally required to the current investigation method that has focused on chemical analysis. Second, application of statistical concepts to soil investigation plan and soil data analysis are required for confidential decison-making on contamination and determining the exposure soil concentration. This study provides a practical soil investigation strategy to involve the current Korean soil analysis guidance with the minimum sample number required for satisfying statistical limits.
Contaminant Fate and Transport Modeling for Risk Assessment
Kim, Mee-Jeong ; Park, Jae-Woo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 1, 2007, Pages 44~52
This study reviewed the overall process of application of contaminant fate and transport model as part of risk assessment. Site characterization and establishment of a conceptual model prior to establishing or selecting a appropriate model were described. Types of models, model selection guidance, and generic site conditions for model application were presented, the process of model calibration, validation, and sensitivity analysis were reviewed. Objectives of modeling should be defined before model selection, and the complexity of selected models should balance the quantity and quality of available input data with the desired model output. If model output is highly sensitive to an assumed or default value of input parameter, or fate and transport models cannot be adequately calibrated or validated, consideration should be given to other options such as using measured data or using another model.
Comparative Study of Soil Risk Assessment Models used in Developed Countries
An, Youn-Joo ; Baek, Yong-Wook ; Lee, Woo-Mi ; Jeong, Seung-Woo ; Kim, Tae-Seung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 1, 2007, Pages 53~63
Soil risk assessment models were used to determine the goals of soil remediation and to establish the soil quality standards in developed countries. Recently, Korean Ministry of Environment prepared the guideline for soil risk assessment. Soil risk assessment model applicable to Korean situation will be needed in the near future. In this study, three models for soil risk assessment were extensively compared to suggest the fundamental components that required for the soil risk assessment in Korea. The models considered in this study were CalTOX in the United States, CLEA (Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment) in the United Kingdom, and CSOIL in the Netherlands. The major exposure routes and the intake estimation equations suitable for Korean situation were suggested. The exposure routes suggested were intake of the crops, underground water, indoor outdoor soil ingestion, dust inhalation and a volatile matter inhalation. The equations for intake estimation used in CalTOX and CSOIL seem to be applicable for the calculation of the human intake in Korea.
Comparative Study on Exposure Factors for Risk Assessment in Contaminated Lands and Proposed Exposure Factors in Korea
An, Youn-Joo ; Lee, Woo-Mi ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 1, 2007, Pages 64~72
Humans are exposed by a range of pollutants in soil via exposure routes such as ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Risk assessment is a process of evaluating the adverse health effects of chemicals as a result of exposure to stressors, and it is a very useful tool to establish the cleanup goals in contaminated lands. In the exposure assessment that is one of main process in risk assessment, exposure factor plays a significant role to quantify the intake of soil pollutants. However there is a very limited study about the exposure factor applicable to Korea. In this study, we compared the exposure factors applied by the developed countries including the United States and representative European countries, and suggested the exposure factor that might be suitable in our situation. The exposure factors considered in this study include average lifetime, body weight, (exposed) skin surface area, life time, skin absorption, soil-skin adherence factor, and soil ingestion rate. This information is needed to quantitatively estimate the intake of soil pollutants in contaminated lands.
Determination of Target Clean-up Level and Risk-Based Remediation Strategy
Ryu, Hye-Rim ; Han, Joon-Kyoung ; Nam, Kyoung-Phile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 1, 2007, Pages 73~86
Risk-based remediation strategy (RBRS) is a consistent decision-making process for the assessment and response to chemical release based on protecting human health and the environment. The decision-making process described integrates exposure and risk assessment practices with site assessment activities and remedial action selection to ensure that the chosen actions are protective of human health and the environment. The general sequences of events in Tier 1 is as follows: initial site assessment, development of conceptual site model with all exposure pathways, data collection on pollutants and receptors, and identification of risk-based screening level (RBSL). If site conditions do not meet RBSL, it needs further site-specific tier evaluation, Tier 2. In most cases, only limited number of exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, and chemicals of concern are considered the Tier 2 evaluation since many are eliminated from consideration during the Tier 1 evaluation. In spite of uncertainties due to the conservatism applied to risk calculations, limitation in site-specific data collections, and variables affecting the selection of target risk levels and exposure factors, RBRS provides us time- and cost-effectiveness of the remedial action. To ensure reliance of the results, the development team should consider land and resource use, cumulative risks, and additive effects. In addition, it is necessary to develop appropriate site assessment guideline and reliable toxicity assessment method, and to study on site-specific parameters and exposure parameters in Korea.
Prediction of Potential Risk Posed by a Military Gunnery Range after Flood Control Reservoir Construction
Ryu, Hye-Rim ; Han, Joon-Kyoung ; Nam, Kyoung-Phile ; Bae, Bum-Han ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 1, 2007, Pages 87~96
Risk assessment was carried out in order to improve the remediation and management strategy on a contaminated gunnery site, where a flood control reservoir is under construction nearby. Six chemicals, including explosive chemicals and heavy metals, which were suspected to possess risk to humans by leaching events from the site were the target pollutants for the assessment. A site-specific conceptual site model was constructed based on effective, reasonable exposure pathways to avoid any overestimation of the risk. Also, conservative default values were adapted to prevent underestimation of the risk when site-specific values were not available. The risks of the six contaminants were calculated by API's Decision Support System for Exposure and Risk Assessment with several assumptions. In the crater-formed-area(Ac), the non-carcinogenic risks(i.e., HI values) of TNT(Tri-Nitro-Toluene) and Cd were slightly larger than 1, and for RDX(Royal Demolition Explosives), over 50. The total non-carcinogenic risk of the whole gunnery range calculated to a significantly high value of 62.5. Carcinogenicity of Cd was estimated to be about
, while that of Pb was about
, which greatly exceeded the generally acceptable carcinogenic risk level of
. The risk assessment results suggest that an immediate remediation practice for both carcinogens and non-carcinogens are required before the reservoir construction. However, for more accurate risk assessment, more specific estimations on condition shifts due to the construction of the reservoir are required, and more over, the effects of the pollutants to the ecosystem is also necessary to be evaluated.
Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Vicinity of the Abandoned Metal Mine Areas
Lee, Jin-Soo ; Kwon, Hyun-Ho ; Shim, Yon-Sik ; Kim, Tae-Heok ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 1, 2007, Pages 97~102
An environmental survey from three abandoned metal mine areas was undertaken on to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to heavy metals influenced by past mining activities. Tailings contained high concentrations of heavy metals may have a impact on soils and waters around the tailing piles. In order to perform the human risk assessment, chemical analysis data of soils, rice grains and waters for As, Cd, Cu and Pb have been used. The HQ values for heavy metals via the rice consumption were significantly higher compared with other exposure pathways in all metal mine areas. The resulting HI values in three mine areas were higher than 9.0, and their toxic risk due to rice ingestion was strong in these mine areas. The cancer risk of being exposed to As by the rice consumption from the A, B and C mine areas was
, respectively. The As cancer risk via the exposure pathway of rice ingestion from these mine areas exceeds the acceptable risk of 1 in 10,000 set for regulatory purposes. Thus, the daily intakes of rice by the local residents from these mine areas can pose a potential health threat if exposed by long-term As exposure.
Ecosystem Risk Assessment Using the Indicator Species
Chang, Jin-Soo ; Kim, Kyoung-Woong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 1, 2007, Pages 103~115
Risk assessment by living indicator species provides the information about the ecosystem disturbance, disapperance of symbiosis and change of living group. In the initial stage of this kind research, the degree of contamination was reported using the level of simple number, but simple number may not represent the risk itself which can be casued in the living organisms. Risk assessment using various indicator species overcomes these limitations and can be expanded to the DNA level. In many developed counties, the government has supervised the researches about the indicator species for the monitoring and its application to ecosystem restoration. Several living indicator species found in the vicinity of the abandoned Au mines such as fern, earthworm, bacteria, rhizosphere-rhizoplane, salamamdor and DNA change of these species are described in this paper.