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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Limits of the NRCS-CN Method to Assess Groundwater Recharge
Choi, In-Hyuk ; Woo, Nam-C. ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 1~6
Performance Evaluation of Soil Vapor Extraction Using Prefabricated Vertical Drain System
Shin, Eun-Chul ; Park, Jeong-Jun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 9~18
Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an effective and cost efficient method of removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons from unsaturated soils. However, soil vapor extraction becomes ineffective in soils with low gas permeability, for example soils with air permeabilities less than 1 Darcy. Incorporating PVDs in an SVE system can extend the effectiveness of SVE to lower permeability soils by shortening the air flow-paths and ultimately expediting contaminant removal. The objective of the research described herein was to effectively incorporate PVDs into a SVE remediation system. The test results show that the gas permeability was evaluated for four different equivalent diameters, increasing the equivalent diameter results in a decrease in the calculated gas permeability. It was found that the porosity for the dry condition was greater than that of the wet condition and will allow flow rate for the same vacuum flow, offering a low resistance to the air flow.
Estimation of Groundwater Recharge by Considering Runoff Process and Groundwater Level Variation in Watershed
Chung, Il-Moon ; Kim, Nam-Won ; Lee, Jeong-Woo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 19~32
In Korea, there have been various methods of estimating groundwater recharge which generally can be subdivided into three types: baseflow separation method by means of groundwater recession curve, water budget analysis based on lumped conceptual model in watershed, and water table fluctuation method (WTF) by using the data from groundwater monitoring wells. However, groundwater recharge rate shows the spatial-temporal variability due to climatic condition, land use and hydrogeological heterogeneity, so these methods have various limits to deal with these characteristics. To overcome these limitations, we present a new method of estimating recharge based on water balance components from the SWAT-MODFLOW which is an integrated surface-ground water model. Groundwater levels in the interest area close to the stream have dynamics similar to stream flow, whereas levels further upslope respond to precipitation with a delay. As these behaviours are related to the physical process of recharge, it is needed to account for the time delay in aquifer recharge once the water exits the soil profile to represent these features. In SWAT, a single linear reservoir storage module with an exponential decay weighting function is used to compute the recharge from soil to aquifer on a given day. However, this module has some limitations expressing recharge variation when the delay time is too long and transient recharge trend does not match to the groundwater table time series, the multi-reservoir storage routing module which represents more realistic time delay through vadose zone is newly suggested in this study. In this module, the parameter related to the delay time should be optimized by checking the correlation between simulated recharge and observed groundwater levels. The final step of this procedure is to compare simulated groundwater table with observed one as well as to compare simulated watershed runoff with observed one. This method is applied to Mihocheon watershed in Korea for the purpose of testing the procedure of proper estimation of spatio-temporal groundwater recharge distribution. As the newly suggested method of estimating recharge has the advantages of effectiveness of watershed model as well as the accuracy of WTF method, the estimated daily recharge rate would be an advanced quantity reflecting the heterogeneity of hydrogeology, climatic condition, land use as well as physical behaviour of water in soil layers and aquifers.
Concept and Application of Generalized Preferential Flow Model (GPFM)
Kim, Young-Jin ; Steenhuis, Tammo ; Nam, Kyoung-Phile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 33~36
In recent years the convective-dispersive equation has been often discredited in predicting subsurface solute transport under field conditions due to presence of preferential flow paths. Kim et al. (2005) proposed a simple equation that can predict the breakthrough of solutes without excessive data requirements. In their Generalized Preferential Flow Model (GPFM), the soil is conceptually divided in a saturated "distribution layer" near the surface and a "conveyance zone" with preferential flow paths below. In this study, we test the model with previously published data, and compare it with a classical convective-dispersive model (CDM). With three parameters required-apparent water content of the distribution zone, and solute velocity and dispersion in the conveyance zone-GPFM was able to describe the breakthrough of solutes both through silty and sandy loam soils. Although both GPFM and CDM fitted the data well in visual, variables for GPFM were more realistic. The most sensitive parameter was the apparent water content, indicating that it is the determining factor to apply GPFM to various soil types, while Kim et al. (2005) reported that changing the velocity of GPFM reproduced solute transport when same soils were used. Overall, it seems that the GPFM has a great potential to predict solute leaching under field conditions with a wide range of generality.
The Phenomenological Comparison between Results from Single-hole and Cross-hole Hydraulic Test
Kim, Tae-Hee ; Kim, Kue-Young ; Oh, Jun-Ho ; Hwang, Se-Ho ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 39~53
Generally, fractured medium can be described with some key parameters, such as hydraulic conductivities or random field of hydraulic conductivities (continuum model), spatial and statistical distribution of permeable fractures (discrete fracture network model). Investigating the practical applicability of the well-known conceptual models for the description of groundwater flow in fractured media, various types of hydraulic tests were applied to studies on the highly fractured media in Geumsan, Korea. Results from single-hole packer test show that the horizontal hydraulic conductivities in the permeable media are between
m/sec arithmetic mean and
m/sec geometric mean. Total number of test interval is 110 at 8 holes. The number of completely impermeable interval is 9, and the low permeable interval - below
m/sec is 14. In other words, most of test intervals are permeable. The vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivities shows apparently the good correlation with the results of flowmeter test. But the results from the cross-hole test show some different features. The results from the cross-hole test are highly related to the connectivity and/or the binary properties of fractured media; permeable and impermeable. From the viewpoint of the connection, the application of the general stochastic approach with a single continuum model may not be appropriate even in the moderately or highly permeable fractured medium. Then, further studies on the investigation method and the analysis procedures should be required for the reasonable and practical design of the conceptual model, with which the binary properties, including permeable/impermeable features, can be described.
Effects of Organic Amendments on Heavy Mineral Oil Biodegradation
Lee, Sang-Hwan ; Kim, Eul-Young ; Choi, Ho-Jin ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 54~63
To examine the effects of amendments on heavy mineral oil degradation, a pilot scale experiment was conducted for over 105days. During the experiment, soil samples were collected and analyzed periodically for the determination of residual hydrocarbon and microbial activities. At the end of the experiment, the initial level of contamination (
) was reduced by
in the amendment amended soil; whereas only 8% of the hydrocarbon was eliminated in the non-amended soil. Heavy mineral oil degradation was much faster and more complete in compost amended soils. Enhanced dissipation of heavy mineral oil in compost amended soil might be derived from increased microbial activities (respiration, microbial biomass-C) and soil enzyme activity(lipase, dehydrogenase, and FDA hydrolase) were strongly correlated with heavy mineral oil biodegradaton (P < 0.01).
Arsenic Occurrence in Groundwater of Korea
Ahn, Joo-Sung ; Ko, Kyung-Seok ; Chon, Chul-Min ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 64~72
Nationwide occurrence of arsenic in groundwater of Korea was investigated with the data from the groundwater quality monitoring stations. During 2001-2006, As has been quantitatively detected in 3.0 % of the total wells
, and its geographical distribution suggests 3 groups: an urbanized and industrialized area (Seoul and its neighbouring province), and two naturally occurring areas (Chungbuk and Gyeongnam provinces). Natural occurrence of As appears to be geologically related with Ogcheon metasedimentary rocks and Cretaceous volcanic rocks. Based on the results of the previous studies in the high As sites, the oxidation of sulfides can be a major control on As concentrations in groundwater in the mineralized and altered zone within the area of Cretaceous volcanic rocks. Desorption process under slightly high pH conditions may also be responsible for high As in groundwater in areas of Ogcheon metasedimentary rocks.
Optimization Study of Trace Analysis of Potential Diesel Oxygenate Using the Design Of Experiment (DOE) in Solid-Phase Microextraction with GC/FID
Park, Jae-Sang ; Chang, Soon-Woong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 73~85
In this study, the experiment of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique using GC/FID was conducted as a possible alternative to liquid-liquid extraction for the analysis of EGBE, DGBE, DBM and TGME in water, and also, an optimization condition of trace analysis for disel oxygenates including EGBE by the design of experiment (DOE) was described. Experiments used a fractional factorial design method followed by central composite design allowing optimization of a number of factors as well as statistical analysis of the results. The response surface analysis showed that the extraction efficiency could be represented by a second-order polynomial equation in which the salts concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time and sonication time are the major influences. Using DOE method, a new datadependent method was developed to improve the quantity of confidently analyzed disel oxygenates in water samples.
Classification and Characterization for Water Level Time Series of Shallow Wells at the National Groundwater Monitoring Stations
Kim, Gyoo-Bum ; Yum, Byoung-Woo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 86~97
The principal component analysis was performed to identify the general characteristics of groundwater level changes from 202 deep and 112 shallow wells monitoring data, respectively, which came from the National Groundwater Monitoring Stations operated by KWATER with time spans of 156 continuous weeks from 2003 to 2005. Eight principal components, which accounted for 80% of the variability of the original time series, were extracted for water levels of shallow and deep monitoring wells. As a result of cluster analysis using the loading value of three principal components for shallow wells, shallow monitoring wells were divided into 3 groups which were characterized with a response time to rainfall (Group 1: 4.6 days, Group 2: 24.1 days, Group 3: 1.4 days), average long-term trend of water level (Group 1:
m/day, Group 2:
m/day, Group 3:
m/day) and water level difference (Group 1 < Group 2 < Group 3). Additionally, they showed significant differences according to a distance to the nearest stream from well (Group 3 < Group 2 < Group 1), topographic slope of well site (Group 3: plain region, Group 1: mountainous region) and groundwater recharge rate (Group 3 < Group 2 < Group 1) with a p-value of 0.05.
A Preliminary Investigation of Radon Concentrations in Groundwater of South Korea
Cho, Byong-Wook ; Sung, Ig-Hwan ; Cho, Soo-Young ; Park, Sun-Ku ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 98~104
A survey was performed to evaluate the distribution of radon concentrations in groundwater of South Korea. Groundwaters of 615 wells were sampled for this study during the four years from 1999 to 2002. The results showed radon values ranging from 4 pCi/L to 40,010 pCi/L with a mean and a median of 1,862 pCi/L and 920 pCi/L, respectively. The samples were classified into five groups according to the rock types; granite, sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks, Ogcheon metamorphic rocks, and Cheju volcanics. Mean radon concentrations were highest (2,595 pCi/L) in granites and lowest (238 pCi/L) in Cheju volcanic rocks. The groundwaters generally showed the highest radon content (2,298 pCi/L) in the weathered and the fractured bedrock complex and the lowest level (672 pCi/L) in the alluvium. The results showed that the radon concentrations in South Korea are low relative to those reported from other countries. But further investigations are suggested to confirm our results.
Development of Practical Advanced Oxidation Treatment System for Decontamination of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Chlorinated Solvent (TCE, PCE) : Phase I
Sohn, Seok-Gyu ; Lee, Jong-Yeol ; Jung, Jae-Sung ; Lee, Hong-Kyun ; Kong, Sung-Ho ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 105~114
The most advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are based on reactivity of strong and non-selective oxidants such as hydroxyl radical (
). Decomposition of typical DNAPL chlorinated compounds (TCE, PCE) using various advanced oxidation processes (
process) was approached to develop appropriate methods treating chlorinated compound (TCE, PCE) for further field application.
oxidation system was most efficient for degrading TCE and PCE at neutral pH and the system could remove 99.92% of TCE after 150 min reaction time at pH 6(
= 147 mM, UVdose = 17.4 kwh/L) and degrade 99.99% of PCE within 120 min (
= 29.4 mM, UVdose = 52.2 kwh/L). Whereas,
system removed TCE and PCE ca. > 90% (UVdose = 34.8 kwh/L,
= 0.1 mM, [Oxalate] = 0.6 mM,
= 147 mM) and 98% after 6hrs (UVdose = 17.4 kwh/L,
= 0.1 mM, [Oxalate] = 0.6 mM,
= 29.4 mM), respectively. We improved the reproduction system with addition of UV light to modified Fenton reaction by increasing reduction rate of
. We expect that the system save the treatment time and improve the removal efficiencies. Moreover, we expect the activity of low molecular organic compounds such as acetate or oxalate be effective for maintaining pH condition as neutral. This oxidation system could be an economical, environmental friendly, and practical treatment process since the organic compounds and iron minerals exist in nature soil conditions.
Oxidative-Coupling Reaction of Aromatic Compounds by Mn Oxide and Its Application for Contaminated Soil Remediation
Kang, Ki-Hoon ; Shin, Hyun-Sang ; Nam, Kyoung-Phile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 12, issue 5, 2007, Pages 115~123
Immobilization of contaminants in subsurface environment is one of the major processes that determine their fate. Especially, immobilization by oxidative-coupling reactions, which is irreversible in the bio-chemical reactions and results in a significant reduction of toxicity, can be successfully applied for the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater more effectively than conventional degradation. As a catalyst of this oxidative-coupling reaction, manganese oxide has many advantages in practical aspects as compared to microorganisms or oxidoreductive enzymes extracted from microorganisms, fungi, or plants. This paper is to present recent research achievements on the treatment mechanisms of various organic contaminants by manganese oxide. Especially, treatment methods of non-reactive organic compounds to Mn oxide are the main focus; i.e., application of reaction mediator, PAHs treatment method, combination with an appropriate pretreatment such as reduction using
, which suggests the potential of a wide range of engineering application. Concerning the natural carbon cycle processes, immobilization and stabilization by oxidative coupling reaction can be effectively applied as a environmentally-friend remediation method especially for aromatic contaminants which possess a high resistance to degradation.