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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 13, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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Hydrochemistry and Noble Gas Origin of Various Hot Spring Waters from the Eastern area in South Korea
Jeong, Chan-Ho ; Nagao, Keisuke ; Kim, Kyu-Han ; Choi, Hun-Kong ; Sumino, Hirochika ; Park, Ji-Sun ; Park, Chung-Hwa ; Lee, Jong-Ig ; Hur, Soon-Do ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~12
The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrogeochemical characteristics of hot spring waters and to interpret the source of noble gases and the geochemical environment of the hot spring waters distributed along the eastern area of the Korean peninsula. For this purpose, We carried out the chemical, stable isotopic and noble gas isotopic analyses for eleven hot spring water and fourteen hot spring gas samples collected from six hot spring sites. The hot spring waters except the Osaek hot spring water show the pH range of 7.0 to 9.1. However, the Osaek
-rich hot spring water shows a weak acid of pH 5.7. The temperature of hot spring waters in the study area ranges from
. Electrical conductivity of hot spring waters varies widely from 202 to
. High electrical conductivity (av.,
) by high Na and Cl contents of the Haeundae and the Dongrae hot spring waters indicates that the hot spring waters were mixed with seawater in the subsurface thermal system. The type of hot springs in the viewpoint of dissolved components can be grouped into three types: (1) alkaline Na-
type including sulfur gas of the Osaek, Baekam, Dukgu and Chuksan hot springs, and (2) saline Na-Cl type of the Haeundae and Dongrae hot springs, and (3) weak acid
type of Osaek hot spring. Tritium ratios of the Haeundae and the Dongrae hot springs indicate different residence time in their aquifers of older water of
TU and younger water of
values of hot spring waters indicate that they originate from the meteoric water, and that the values also reflect a latitude effect according to their locations.
ratios of the hot spring waters except Osaek
-rich hot spring water range from
which are plotted above the mixing line between air and crustal components. It means that the He gas in hot spring waters was originated mainly from atmosphere and crust sources, and partly from mantle sources. The Osaek
-rich hot spring water shows
ratio that is 2.4 times higher than those of atmosphere. It provides clearly a helium source from the deep mantle.
ratios of hot spring water are in the range of an atmosphere source.
The Change in Geotechnical Properties of Clay Liner and the Contamination Behavior of Groundwater Due to Contaminant
Ha, Kwang-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Eun ; Chung, Sung-Rae ; Chun, Byung-Sik ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 13~23
The triaxial compression tests and consolidation tests using NaCl solution and leachates as substitute pore (or saturated) water in samples were carried out to find out the behavior characteristics of strength, deformation and permeability coefficient of contaminated clay. Also, the chemical property analysis on the clay samples using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer were involved. The magnitudes of composition ratio were shown in the order of O, C, Si, Al, and Fe as a result of chemical composition analysis for clay samples. Besides, as the results of triaxial compression tests and consolidation tests, the shear strength, compression and permeability properties were increased with increasing in the concentration of contaminant (NaCl). It may be considered that these circumstances be caused by the changes of soil structure to flocculent structure due to the decrease in the thickness of diffuse double layer with increasing in the concentration of electrolyte. MT3D model was also using to grasp the procedures that the groundwater may be contaminated by the leachates permeated through the clay liner. The results of contaminant transport analysis showed a tendency that the predicted concentration of groundwater was higher with increasing in the initial concentration of
ion and increased as a nonlinear curves with time. The transportation distance calculated by the use of regression equation between the distance from contaminant source and the concentration of
ion was increased with increasing the initial concentration.
Trichloroethylene Removal Using Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Ferric Iron
Hwang, Ki-Chul ; Min, Jee-Eun ; Park, In-Sun ; Park, Jae-Woo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 24~31
Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is universally distributed in the sediment, especially in marine environment. SRB reduce sulfate as electron acceptor to hydrogen sulfide in anaerobic condition. Hydrogen sulfide is reducing agent enhancing the reduction of the organic and inorganic compounds. With SRB, therefore, the degradability of organic contaminants is expected to be enhanced. Ferrous iron reduced from the ferric iron which is mainly present in sediment also renders chlorinated organic compounds to be reduced state. The objectives of this study are: 1) to investigate the reduction of TCE by hydrogen sulfide generated by tht growth of SRB, 2) to estimate the reduction of TCE by ferrous iron generated due to oxidation of hydrogen sulfide, and 3) to illuminate the interaction between SRB and ferrous iron. Mixed bacteria was cultivated from the sludge of the sewage treatment plant. Increasing hydrogen sulfide and decreasing sulfate confirmed the existence of SRB in mixed culture. Although hydrogen sulfide lonely could reduce TCE, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide produced by SRB was not sufficient to reduce TCE directly. With hematite as ferric iron, hydrogen sulfide produced by SRB was consumed to reduce ferric ion to ferrous ion and ferrous iron produced by hydrogen sulfide oxidation decreased the concentration of TCE. Tests with seawater confirmed that the activity of SRB was dependent on the carbon source concentration.
Process Evaluation of Soil Washing Including Surfactant Recovery by Mathematical Simulation
Ahn, Chi-Kyu ; Woo, Seung-Han ; Park, Jong-Moon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 32~42
A surfactant recovery and reuse process by selective adsorption with activated carbon was proposed to reduce surfactant cost in a soil washing process. Mathematical model simulation was performed for the whole process, which consists of soil washing, soil recovery, and soil re-washing. The optimal range of surfactant dosage was
-fold critical micelle concentration in soil. The efficiency of surfactant reuse process was decreased with increasing the dosage of activated carbon. Effectiveness factor for activated carbon significantly altered the efficiency of the reuse process unlike effectiveness factor for soil. Total requirement of surfactant was reduced to 20-30% with the reuse process compared to the conventional soil washing process. The contamination of wastewater after soil washing was reduced with the reuse process. This mathematical model can be used to estimate performance of the whole process of soil washing including surfactant recovery and to obtain optimal ranges of operating conditions without extra labor-intensive experimental works.
Periodic Variation of Water Table at a Headwater Catchment in the Gwangneung Ecohydrological Research Site
Kim, Yu-Lee ; Woo, Nam-C. ; Lee, Sang-Duck ; Hong, Tae-Kyung ; Kim, Joon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 43~51
Periodic fluctuation of water levels were analyzed for their causes and effects on groundwater movement. Groundwater levels were monitored from two shallow monitoring wells, G1 and G4, located at a headwater catchment in the Gwangneung Ecohydrological Research Site using pressure transducers with automatic data-loggers by five-minute interval from February to October, 2006. The water table fluctuates on a daily basis with a clear diurnal variation, and the fluctuation amplitude increases with time from the winter to the summer. Results from spectral analysis of water-level data show periodic variations in 24.38 hour and in 12.19 hour, indicating
semidiurnal tidal components, respectively. The diurnal component of the water level in summer has greater power than that in winter, implying that the water table is affected not only by earth tides, but also by evapotranspiration. Right after rain stops, the power of diurnal component of the water level decreases, indicating that evapotranspiration influences significantly diurnal periodicity. The effects of diurnal and semidiurnal components of the water level range from 0.4 to 4.2 cm and from 0.2 to 0.7 cm, respectively.
A Study on Adsorption and Desorption of As(III) and As(V) on Soil using a Column
Kim, Myoung-Jin ; Kim, Tae-Suk ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 52~59
Adsorption is a major process causing the accumulation of arsenic onto soil. Therefore, further understanding of the adsorption/desorption characteristics of arsenic species on soil is essential for predicting their fate and preparing appropriate remediation strategy to remove arsenic from soil. In this study, the column adsorption/desorption experiment has been performed with As(III) and As(V) on soil. Experiment with As(III) was conducted under reducing condition, whereas that with As(V) was under oxidizing condition. Most of As(III) was remained on the oxidation state during the experiment. The results showed that the adsorption/desorption rate of As(III) was higher than that of As(V). Adsorption and desorption of arsenic species were not completely reversible in the column experiment. It was also found that As(V) in the column experiment was adsorbed more rapidly on soil than in the batch experiment.
Effects of HCl and EDTA on Soil Washing to Remediate Lead-contaminated Soil in a Firing Range
Kim, Hyo-Sik ; Choi, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 60~66
Laboratory soil washing experiments with HCl or EDTA were conducted to remediate lead-contaminated soil in a firing range. After lead bullets were removed by standard sieve #18 (1.0 mM), Pb concentrations were measured by EPA Method 3050B (9,443 mg/kg) and Korea Standard Test (4,803.5 mg/kg). The results of the batch test showed that the removal efficiency curve was logarithmic and approximately 90% of lead in soil was removed, when HCl was used. In case of EDTA, the removal efficiency increased proportionally to the concentration of EDTA, up to 98% lead removal with 0.1M EDTA. High mixing strength resulted in increase of removal efficiency and kinetics showed that the most lead was extracted in 10 min.
A Study on Delineation of Groundwater Recharge Rate Using Water-Table Fluctuation and Unsaturate Zone Soil Water Content Model
Cho, Jin-Wook ; Park, Eun-Gyu ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 67~76
In this study, a combined model of a water-table fluctuation and a soil moisture content model is proposed for the estimation of groundwater recharge rate at a given location. To evaluate the model, groundwater level data from 4 monitoring wells (Pohang Yeonil, Pohang Kibuk, Suncheon Oeseo, Hongcheon Hongcheon) of National Groundwater Monitoring Network from 1996 to 2005 and precipitation data of corresponding years are used. From the proposed methodology, the groundwater recharge rates are estimated to be from 0.5 to 61.4% for Hongcheon Hongcheon, from 1.1 to 27.4% for Pohang Yeonil, from 5.1 to 41.4% for Pohang Kibuk, and from 1.1 to 8.3% for Suncheon Oeseo. The magnitude of variation of the estimated recharge rate depends on the soil type observed near the stations. The groundwater fluctuation model used in this study includes precipitation as a unique source of water-table perturbation and there may exist corollary limitations. To improve the applicability of the proposed method, a capillary-water content constitutive model for unsaturated fractured rock media may be considered. The proposed recharge rate delineation method is physically based and uses minimum numbers of assumptions. The method may be used as a better substitute for the previous tools for delineating recharge rate of a location using water-table fluctuation method and contribute to national groundwater management plan. Further research on the spatial interpolation of the method is under progress.
A Joint Application of DRASTIC and Numerical Groundwater Flow Model for The Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability of Buyeo-Eup Area
Lee, Hyun-Ju ; Park, Eun-Gyu ; Kim, Kang-Joo ; Park, Ki-Hoon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 77~91
In this study, we developed a technique of applying DRASTIC, which is the most widely used tool for estimation of groundwater vulnerability to the aqueous phase contaminant infiltrated from the surface, and a groundwater flow model jointly to assess groundwater contamination potential. The developed technique is then applied to Buyeo-eup area in Buyeo-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. The input thematic data of a depth to water required in DRASTIC model is known to be the most sensitive to the output while only a few observations at a few time schedules are generally available. To overcome this practical shortcoming, both steady-state and transient groundwater level distributions are simulated using a finite difference numerical model, MODFLOW. In the application for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability, it is found that the vulnerability results from the numerical simulation of a groundwater level is much more practical compared to cokriging methods. Those advantages are, first, the results from the simulation enable a practitioner to see the temporally comprehensive vulnerabilities. The second merit of the technique is that the method considers wide variety of engaging data such as field-observed hydrogeologic parameters as well as geographic relief. The depth to water generated through geostatistical methods in the conventional method is unable to incorporate temporally variable data, that is, the seasonal variation of a recharge rate. As a result, we found that the vulnerability out of both the geostatistical method and the steady-state groundwater flow simulation are in similar patterns. By applying the transient simulation results to DRASTIC model, we also found that the vulnerability shows sharp seasonal variation due to the change of groundwater recharge. The change of the vulnerability is found to be most peculiar during summer with the highest recharge rate and winter with the lowest. Our research indicates that numerical modeling can be a useful tool for temporal as well as spatial interpolation of the depth to water when the number of the observed data is inadequate for the vulnerability assessments through the conventional techniques.
Identification of Active Agents for Reductive Dechlorination Reactions in Cement/Fe (II) Systems by Using Cement Components
Jeong, Yu-Yeon ; Kim, Hong-Seok ; Hwang, In-Seong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 92~100
Experimental studies were conducted to identify the active agents for reductive dechlorination of TCE in cement/Fe(II) systems focusing on cement components such as CaO,
. A hematite that was used to simulate an
component in cement was found to have degradation efficiencies (k = 0.641
) equivalent to that of cement/Fe(II) systems in the presence of CaO/Fe(II), only when it contained an aluminum impurity
. When the effect of
content of hematite/CaO/
/Fe(II) system was tested, the mole ratio of
to CaO affected the rate of TCE degradation with an optimum ratio around 1 : 10 that resulted in a rate constant of 0.895
. In the SEM images of hematite/CaO/
/Fe(II) systems, acicular crystals were also found that were also observed in cement/Fe(II) systems. Thus it was suspected that these crystals were reactive reductants and that they might be goethite or ettringite that are known to have acicular structures. An EDS element map analysis revealed that these crystals were not goethite crystals. A subsequent experiment that tested reactivities of compounds formed during the ettringite synthesis showed that ettringite and minerals associated with ettringite formation are not reactive reductants. These observations conclude that a mineral containing CaO and
with a acicular structure could be a major reactive reductant of cement/Fe(II) systems.
Surface Complexation of Cationic Metal Adsorption Onto Amorphous Aluminum Oxide
Park, Youn-Jong ; Yang, Jae-Kyu ; Choi, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 1, 2008, Pages 101~109
The adsorption characteristics of cationic metals such as copper, cadmium, and lead onto the amorphous aluminum oxide, AMA-L, which was mineralized from raw sanding powder at
were investigated. Additionally, surface complexation reaction of cationic heavy metals onto AMA-L was simulated with MINEQL + software employing a diffuse layer model. From the batch adsorption tests in a single element system, the adsorption affinity of each metal ion onto AMA-L was following order: lead > copper > cadmium. In a binary system composed with copper and cadmium, quite a similar adsorption affinity was observed in each metal ion compared to the single element system. When the surface complexation constants obtained in the single system were used in the prediction of experimental adsorption results, model predictions were well fitted with experimental results of both single and binary systems.