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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 13, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Consideration of Trends and Applications of Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Methods in South Korea
Kim, Gyoo-Bum ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 1~16
There are generally two types of groundwater vulnerability assessments. Intrinsic vulnerability is based on the assessment of natural climatic, geological and hydrogeological attributes and specific vulnerability relates to a specific contaminant, contaminant class, or human activity. Several methods to assess groundwater vulnerability, which are based on hydrogeologic setting and socio-economical environment, have been developed in USA and Europe. A Modified-DRASTIC model including a lineament factor has been developed in South Korea, but it still has some limitations. To develop a solid and applicable method in this country, many data of quality, hydraulic features, GIS data, and pollution source, produced from a Basic Survey based on Article 5 of the Groundwater Act and other research projects, need to be collected, analyzed and verified introducing the previous methods.
Feasibility Study on Acid-enhanced Electrokintic Remediation of Zn and Ni-contaminated Soil
Park, Sung-Woo ; Cho, Jung-Min ; Ryu, Byung-Gon ; Kim, Kyung-Jo ; Baek, Ki-Tae ; Yang, Jung-Seok ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 17~22
The feasibility of acid-enhanced electrokinetic remediation on zinc and nickel-contaminated soil was investigated in the laboratory. Simple extraction efficiency using 1M HCl was 24% for Zn and 9% for Ni, as a result, the acid washing is not effective to remove Zn and Ni from the soil. The effiencey of normal electrokinetic treatment during 28 days was less than simple soil washing. Catholyte circulation with a strong acid enhanced dramatically the removal of Zn and Ni and pretreatment of soil with acid increased more the removal. Based on the result, acid-enhanced electrokinetic remediation is effective to remove Zn and Ni from the contaminated soil.
Air-sparging Technology for Remediation of Specific Aquifer Layer Using Surfactant
Kim, Heon-Ki ; Song, Young-Su ; Kwon, Han-Joon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 23~30
Air sparging technique has been used for remediation of VOC(volatile organic compound)-contaminated aquifer. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative air sparging technique that enhances the efficiency of air intrusion into a specific horizontal layer of aquifer where the contaminants exist with the help of water-soluble surfactant. A twodimensional physical box model, packed with homogeneous sand, was used for simulating the aquifer in this study. Aqueous solution of anionic surfactant (100 mg/L, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) was used to suppress the surface tension of groundwater. Three sets of experiments were conducted: air sparging experiment without surfactant application, air sparging experiments for box model where the surfactant solution was applied right above the air injection point, and air sparging experiments with surfactant solution layer formed in the middle of the box. It was found that the sparging influence zone was expanded up to five times of that formed by sparging without surfactant application. The size of sparging influence zone was more sensitive to the air flow (injection) rate with surfactant application than that without surfactant. More importantly, injection of air into the target aquifer layer was successful with surfactant application. Findings in this study are expected to provide more options for designing remediation processes using air sparging.
Improvement of the Soil Pollution Investigation in South Korea and Gyeonggi-do
Na, Kyung-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Chan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 31~39
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of soil pollution investigation conducted at South Korea and Gyeonggi-do, and to drive the way to improve its efficiency. The average pollution discovery rates in the soil pollution investigation were 2,7% in South Korea and 1.9% in Gyeonggi-do respectively during the last six years (2002
2007), which the discovery rates were lower than those of Japan and United States of America. The exceeding rate of the Korea soil pollution standard of the heavy metal and petroleum compounds in the soil pollution investigation were 89.8% and 8.9%, respectively in the whole country. The investigation rate of topsoil for heavy metal and deepsoil analysis for petroleum compounds analysis were 38% and 62% respectively. This show contradictory result which is demanded the improvement of investigation method on the deep soil. The main steps affecting the discovery rate of soil pollution were site selection step, sampling step and analysis step. We suggested the the guideline of priority on the site selection step which was the most important step. Also, the certificate need to be provided to the companies which have lower soil pollution degree after conducting the soil pollution investigation.
Mathematical Models on Diffusive Loss of Non-Aqueous Phase Organic Solvents from a Disk Source
Yoon, In-Taek ; S.E., Dickson ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 40~49
Matrix diffusion from planar fractures was studied mathematically and through physical model experiments. Mathematical models were developed to simulate diffusion from 2D and 3D instantaneous disk sources and a 3D continuous disk source. The models were based on analytical solutions previously developed by Carslaw and Jaeger (1959). The mathematical simulations indicated that the 2D scenario produces significantly different results from the 3D scenario, the time for mass disappearance is significantly larger for continuous sources than for instantaneous sources, the normalized concentration generally decreased over time for instantaneous sources while it increased over time for continuous sources, diffusion rates decrease significantly over time and space, and the normalized mass loss from the source zone never reaches 1 for continuous sources due to the semi-infinite integral. The simulations also showed that disappearance times increase exponentially with increasing source radii and matrix porosity, and decrease with increasing aqueous-phase NAPL solubilities.
Development of new integrated particle tracking techniques combining the numerical method, semi-analytical method, and analytical method
Suk, Hee-Jun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 50~61
In this study, new integrated particle tracking algorithm was developed to reduce the inherent problem of Eulerian- Lagrangian method, or adverse effect of particle tracking error on mass balance error. The new integrated particle tracking algorithm includes numerical method, semi-analytical method, and analytical method which consider both temporal and spatial changes of velocity field during time step. Detail of mathematical derivations is well illustrated and four examples are made to verify through the comparison of the new integrated particle tracking with analytical solution or Runge-Kutta method. Additionally, It was shown that the there is better superiority of the new integrated particle tracking algorithm over other existing particle tracking method such as Lu's method.
Assessment factors for the Selection of Priority Soil Contaminants based on the Comparative Analysis of Chemical Ranking and Scoring Systems
An, Youn-Joo ; Jeong, Seung-Woo ; Kim, Tae-Seung ; Lee, Woo-Mi ; Nam, Sun-Hwa ; Baek, Yong-Wook ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 62~71
Soil quality standards (SQS) are necessary to protect the human health and soil biota from the exposure to soil pollutants. The current SQS in Korea contain only sixteen substances, and it is scheduled to expand the number of substances. Chemical ranking and scoring (CRS) system is very effective to screen the priority chemicals for the future SQS in terms of their toxicity and exposure potential. In this study, several CRS systems were extensively compared to propose the assessment factors that required for the screening of soil pollutants The CRS systems considered in this study include the CHEMS-1 (Chemical Hazard Evaluation for Management Strategies), SCRAM (Scoring and Ranking Assessment Model), EURAM (European Union Risk Ranking Method), ARET (Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics), CRSKorea, and other systems. The additional assessment factors of CRS suitable for soil pollutants were suggested. We suggest soil adsorption factor as an appropriate factor of CRS system to consider chemical transport from soil to groundwater. Other factors such as soil emission rate and cases of accident of soil pollutants were included. These results were reflected to screen the priority chemicals in Korea, as a part of the project entitled ‘Setting the Priority of Soil Contaminants'.
Hydrogeochemistry and Statistical Analysis of Water Quality for Small Potable Water Supply System in Nonsan Area
Ko, Kyung-Seok ; Ahn, Joo-Sung ; Suk, Hee-Jun ; Lee, Jin-Soo ; Kim, Hyeong-Soo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 72~84
This study was carried out to provide proper management plans for small portable water supply system in the Nonsan area through water quality monitoring, hydrogeochemical investigation and multivariate statistical analyses. Nonsan area is a typical rural area heavily depending on small water supply system for portable usage. Geology of the area is composed of granite dominantly along with metasedimentary rocks, gneiss and volcanic rocks. The monitoring results of small portable water supply system showed that 13-21% of groundwaters have exceeded the groundwater standard for drinking water, which is 5 to 8 times higher than the results from the whole country survey (2.5% in average). The major components exceeding the standard limits are nitrate-nitrogen, turbidity, total coliform, bacteria, fluoride and arsenic. High nitrate contamination observed at southern and northern parts of the study area seems to be caused by cultivation practices such as greenhouses. Although Ca and
are dominant species in groundwater, concentrations of Na, Cl and
have increased at the granitic area indicating anthropogenic contamination. The groundwaters are divided into 2 groups, granite and metasedimentary rock/gneiss areas, with the second principal component presenting anthropogenic pollution by cultivation and residence from the principal components analysis. The discriminant analysis, with an error of 5.56% between initial classification and prediction on geology, can explain more clearly the geochemical characteristics of groundwaters by geology than the principal components analysis. Based on the obtained results, it is considered that the multivariate statistical analysis can be used as an effective method to analyze the integrated hydrogeochemical characteristics and to clearly discriminate variations of the groundwater quality. The research results of small potable water supply system in the study area showed that the groundwater chemistry is determined by the mixed influence of land use, soil properties, and topography which are controlled by geology. To properly control and manage small water supply systems for central and local governments, it is recommended to construct a total database system for groundwater environment including geology, land use, and topography.
A Hydrological Analysis of Current Status of Turbid Water in Soyang River and Its Mitigation
Lee, Jin-Yong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 85~92
Water in Soyang River is an essential source for citizens of Chuncheon and Seoul areas. In 2006, turbid water in Soyang River aggravated by the typhoon Ewiniar, sustained for over 280 days unlike conventional years, then which interrupted water supply of Chuncheon and Seoul areas. Soil erosion derived from high cool lands constituting about 55% of Soyang River area is considered one of main causes for the turbid water, including imprudent development of mountainous area, road expansion, and road construction for forestry. According to analysis of turbidity, precipitation and reservoir level in Soyang River region for June 2006
August 2008, the turbidity showed a peak correlation (r = 0.28) at a lag time of 49 days and especially did an excellent correlation (r = 0.60) with the reservoir level at a lag of 4 days. In the meantime, a critical turbidity of 31 NTU at Soyanggang Dam was estimated, over which would cause turbid water at Paldang Dam. In addition, a master recession curve was suggested, from which sustaining time of turbid water can be predicted.
Synthesis of Oxidation Resistant Core-shell Nanoscale Zero-valent Iron by Controlled Air Contact
Ahn, Jun-Young ; Kim, Hong-Seok ; Hwang, In-Seong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 93~102
Experimental studies were conducted to characterize the synthesized nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) which is resistant to oxidation in the atmospheric environment. XRD, XPS, and TEM analyses revealed that the oxidation-resistant NZVI particles formed under various controlled air contact conditions (4, 8 and 12 mL/min) have shells with
5 nm thickness. The shells consist of magnetite (
) and maghemite (
), predominantly. No substantial differences were found in the shell components and thickness among NZVI particles formed under the various air flow rates. On the other hand, shell was not detected in the TEM image of rapidly oxidized NZVI particles. NZVI particles synthesized under the various air flow rates showed similar TCE degradation performances (
= 0.111, 0.102, and 0.086
), which are equivalent to approximately 80% of those obtained by the fresh NZVI particles. TCE degradation efficiencies of the NZVI particles(fresh, controlled air contact and rapidly oxidized) were improved after equilibrating with water for one day, indicating that depassivation of the shells occurred. The performances of NZVI particles decreased to 90% and 50% of those of the fresh NZVI particles, when they were equilibrated with the atmosphere for a week and two months, respectively. The NZVI particles synthesized under the controlled air contact would have advantages over traditional NZVI particles in terms of practical application into the site, because of their inertness toward atmospheric oxygen.
Improving Soil Environment Policy to Build New Greenfield at Brownfield Redevelopment Projects
Hwang, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 13, issue 6, 2008, Pages 103~107
In this work, soil environment policy which should be taken into account at brownfield redevelopment projects was deduced from investigation on their environmental impact assessment statements. Soil contamination sources such as small-scale factories were found at a few large-scale brownfield projects, so contaminated soils did often exist at these sites. Especially, military facilities within the sites caused severe soil contamination problems. Therefore, soil environment policy was presented in detail to solve soil contamination problem at brownfield redevelopment projects. Furthermore, land-use planning focusing on greening (soil and vegetation) should be pursued at brownfield redevelopment projects in order to maximize environmental benefits of greenspace.