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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
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Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Impacts of Urbanization on Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport in a Coastal Aquifer, Suyeong-Gu, Busan, Korea
Cho, Hyeon-Jo ; Kim, Jun-Mo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 1~18
A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations using a generalized multidimensional hydrodynamic dispersion numerical model is performed to simulate effectively and to evaluate quantitatively impacts of urbanization on density-dependent groundwater flow and salt transport in a coastal aquifer system, Suyeong-Gu, Busan, Korea. A series of steady-state numerical simulations of groundwater flow and salt transport before urbanization with material properties of geologic formations, which are established by numerical modeling calibrations considering all the urbanization factors, is performed first without considering all the urbanization factors. A series of transient-state numerical simulations of groundwater flow and salt transport after urbanization is then performed considering the urbanization factors individually and all together. Finally, the results of both numerical simulations are compared with each other and analyzed. The results of the numerical simulations show that density-dependent groundwater flow, salt transport, and seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer system are intensively and extensively impacted by the urbanization factors. Especially, these urbanization factors result in the changes of the total groundwater volume and salt mass in the coastal aquifer system. However, such impacts of each urbanization factor are not spatially uniform but locally different.
A Study on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Groundwater Using Permeable Reactive Barriers Based on Nano FeS
Jung, Gwan-Ju ; Choi, Sang-Il ; Lee, Jai-Young ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 19~28
The acid mine drainage (AMD) and landfill leachates released into the subsurface environment can result in serious environmental problems like soil and groundwater contamination. The AMD and the leachates of landfill were known to contain many heavy metals. In this study, the author assessed the reactivity and ability of the FeS coated-ALC for the removal of contaminants (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Al) in AMD and leachates in landfill. The synthetic nano-FeS and Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete (ALC) were used as reactive materials in the permeable reactive barriers(PRBs). The result of batch test indicated that synthetic nano-FeS can remove 99% of heavy metals for the 1hr of reaction time except for As and Ni(about 90%). However, the 80% of As and Ni was removed in column 1(FeS coated-ALC). The column 2(Ore FeS) removed more than 99% of heavy metals. The pH of the column 1 was increased from 3.51 to 6.39~6.50, and the pH with column 2 was increased from 3.51 to 9.20. As the result of this study, the author can surmise that the synthetic nano-FeS coated ALC will use as a very good reactive material of the PRBs to treat the contaminated groundwater with AMD and leachate of landfill.
Inhibition of Biological Perchlorate Reduction by Nitrate and Oxygen
Choi, Hyeok-Sun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 29~34
In this study, a chloride ion probe as a direct measurement for perchlorate reduction was used to determine whether biological perchlorate reduction was inhibited by other electron acceptors (
) and to investigate competition of electron acceptors for using electron donors. Profiles of chloride production (= perchlorate reduction) in flasks containing perchlorate reducing populations were monitored by a chloride ion probe. Biological reduction of 2 mM perchlorate was inhibited by 2 mM nitrate that chloride production rate was decreased by 30% compared to perchlorate used as the only electron acceptor and chloride production rate was decreased by 70% when acetate was limited. Reduction of 2mM perchlorate was completely inhibited by oxygen at 7~8 mg/L, regardless of acetate excess / limitation.
Development of Analytical Methods for Micro Levels of Naphthalene and TNT in Groundwater by HPLC-FLD and MSD
Park, Jong-Sung ; Oh, Je-Ill ; Jeong, Sang-Jo ; Choi, Yoon-Dae ; Her, Nam-Guk ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 35~44
Naphthalene and TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) are defined by U.S. EPA as possible carcinogenic compounds known to have detrimental effects on the aquatic ecosystem and human body. There are, however, few researches on methods of analyzing micro-levels of naphthalene and TNT dissolved in groundwater. This study introduces and evaluates the newly developed analytical methods of measuring naphthalene and TNT in groundwater by using HPLC-FLD (Fluorescence detector) and MSD (Mass detector). The MDL, LOQ and salt effect of these methods, respectively, are compared with those of conventional methods which use HPLC-UV. For the analysis of naphthalene, HPLC-FLD was set in the maxima wavelength (Ex: 270 nM, Em: 330 nM) obtained from 3D-Fluorescence to be compared with HPLC-UV in 266 nM wavelength. The MDL (
) and LOQ (
) of naphthalene by using HPLC-FLD were approximately 80 times lower than those analyzed by HPLC-UV (MDL:
). HPLC-MSD were used in comparison with HPLC-UV in 230 and 254 nM wavelength for the analysis of TNT. The MDL (
) and LOQ (
) of TNT analyzed by using HPLC-MSD were approximately 130 times lower than those obtained by using HPLC-UV in 230 nM (MDL:
). The chromatogram of TNT analyzed by using HPLC-UV in 230 nM displayed elevated baseline as the concentration of
increases beyond 21 mg/L, while the analysis using HPLC-MSD did not demonstrate any change in baseline in presence of
of 63.7 mg/L which is 3.5 times higher than average concentration in groundwater. In conclusion, HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MSD may be used as suitable methods for the analysis of naphthalene and TNT in groundwater and drinking water. These methods can be applied to the monitoring of naphthalene and TNT concentration in groundwater or drinking water.
Effect of Biofilm Formation on Soil Sorbed Naphthalene Degradation
Li, Guang-Chun ; Chung, Seon-Yong ; Park, Jeong-Hun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 45~52
Naphthalene-degrading bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa CZ6 isolated from contaminated soil can adhere to crystal naphthalene and produce extracellular polymeric substance. LB, YM and MSM medium were used as culture mediums to investigate the formation of biofilm. Biofilm was developed the most in LB medium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CZ6. In the culture, strain CZ6 growth was rarely affected by naphthalene concentration. Optimal culture condition was
and pH 7 at 0.10% substrate and 150 rpm shaking. The effect of culture medium on naphthalene degradation in the two soil slurry system was evaluated. The initial degradation rate of naphthalene was highest in the MSM medium of soil slurry. However, the sorbed naphthalene was rapidly degraded at the LB medium when naphthalene availability in liquid was limited. The results of this study suggest that biofilm formation and extracellular polymeric substance production increased bioavailability of soil sorbed naphthalene.
Model Development on the Fate and Transport of Chemical Species in Marsh Wetland Sediments Considering the Effects of Plants and Tides
Park, Do-Hyun ; Wang, Soo-Kyun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 53~64
Wetlands can remove organic contaminants, metals and radionuclides from wastewater through various biogeochemical mechanisms. In this study, a mathematical model was developed for simulating the fate and transport of chemical species in marsh wetland sediments. The proposed model is a one-dimensional vertical saturated model which is incorporated advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, biodegradation, oxidative/reductive chemical reactions and the effects from external environments such as the growth of plants and the fluctuation of water level due to periodic tides. The tidal effects causes periodic changes of porewater flow in the sediments and the evapotranspiration and oxygen supply by plant roots affect the porewater flow and redox condition on in the rhizosphere along with seasonal variation. A series of numerical experiments under hypothetical conditions were performed for simulating the temporal and spatial distribution of chemical species of interests using the proposed model. The fate and transport of a trace metal pollutant, chromium, in marsh sediments were also simulated. Results of numerical simulations show that plant roots and tides significantly affect the chemical profiles of different electron acceptors, their reduced species and trace metals in marsh sediments.
Surface Tension-Water Saturation Relationship as the Function of Soil Particle Size and Aquifer Depth During Groundwater Air Sparging
Kim, Heon-Ki ; Kwon, Han-Joon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 65~70
Reduction of groundwater surface tension prior to air sparging (SEAS, surfactant-enhanced air sparging) was known to increase air saturation in the aquifer under influence, possibly enhancing the removal rates of volatile contaminants. Although SEAS was known to be efficient for increasing air saturation, little information is available for different hydrogeological settings including soil particle sizes and the depth of aquifer. We investigated water saturations in the sparging influence zone during SEAS using one-dimensional column packed with sands of different particle sizes and different aquifer depths. An anionic surfactant was used to suppress the surface tension of water. Two different sands were used; the air entry pressures of the sands were measured to be
, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the water saturation-surface tension relationship for sands with different particle sizes. As the surface tension decreased, the water saturation decreased to a lowest point and then it increased with further decrease in the surface tension. Both sands reached their lowest water saturations when the surface tension was set approximately at 42 dyne/cm. SEAS was conducted at three different aquifer depths; 41 cm, 81 cm, and 160 cm. Water saturation-surface tension relationship was consistent regardless of the aquifer depth. The size of sparging influence zone during SEAS, measured using two-dimensional model, was found to be similar to the changes in air saturation, measured using one-dimensional model. Considering diverse hydrogeological settings where SEAS to be applied, the results here may provide useful information for designing SEAS process.
Groundwater Quality Evaluation for Upper and Lower Aquifers of Cotaminated Groundwater Well Using Preliminary Packer
Cho, Heuy-Nam ; Cho, Yun-Chul ; Kim, Joo-Young ; Chol, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 73~77
Two different aquifers with different characteristics developed in the study area - a lower and upper aquifer zone. Nitrate contamination of the lower aquifer zone was likely due to infiltration of nitrate-contaminated groundwater of the upper aquier zone through abandoned groundwater wells. In order to evaluate the feasibility of a preliminary packer designed to prevent nitrate migration through abandoned groundwater wells NO3-N concentrations of the upper and lower part of preliminary packer installed at four sampling sites were measured. Nitrate concentrations of the and lower part of Yechun sinwolri were 10.3 mg/L and 5.0 mg/L, respectively. Yechun eosinri, Yechun jeowooriis, and Andong hoegokri were
-N concentrations in the upper (11.3, 11.0, and 14.6 mg/L) and lower (8.8, 1.6, and 8.0 mg/L), respectively.
-N contents of all groundwater samples in the lower part after the preliminary packer installation showed 22~85% lower than those of the upper part.
Stabilization of Heavy Metal Contaminated Paddy Soils near Abandoned Mine with Steel Slag and CaO
Son, Jung-Ho ; Roh, Hoon ; Lee, Sun-Young ; Kim, Sung-Kyu ; Kim, Gil-Hong ; Park, Joong-Kyu ; Yang, Jae-Kyu ; Chang, Yoon-Young ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 78~86
Applicability of CaO and steel slag as stabilizers in the treatment of field and paddy soils near Pungjeong mine contaminated with arsenic and cationic heavy metals was investigated from batch and column experiments. Immobilization of heavy metals was evaluated by TCLP dissolution test. Immobility of heavy metal ions was less than 15% when steel slag alone was used. This result suggests that
, known as the major component of steel slag, have little effect for the immobilization of heavy metal ions due to acidity of TCLP solution. Immobilization of cationic heavy metals was little affected by the ratio of CaO and steel slag while arsenic removal was increased as the ratio of steel slag to CaO increased. In the column test, concentrations of both arsenic and cationic heavy metals in effluents were below the water discharge guideline over the entire reaction period. This result can be explained by the immobilization of cationic heavy metals from the increased pH in soil solution as well as by the formation of insoluble
. From this work, it is possible to suggest that arsenic and cationic heavy metals can be concurrently stabilized by application of both CaO and steel slag.
Removal of NAPL from Aquifer Using Surfactant-enhanced Air Sparging at Elevated Temperature
Song, Young-Su ; Kwon, Han-Joon ; Kim, Heon-Ki ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 87~94
Surfactant-enhanced air sparging (SEAS) was developed to suppress the surface tension of groundwater prior to air sparging resulting in higher air saturation and larger contact area between NAPL and gas during air sparging. Larger contacting interface between NAPL and gas means faster mass transfer of contaminants from NAPL to gas phase. This new technique, however, is limited to relatively volatile contaminants because vaporization is its basic mechanism of mass transfer. In this study, SEAS was tested at an elevated temperature for a semi-volatile n-decane, which is expected not to be a good candidate of SEAS application due to its low vapor pressure at ambient temperature. Three sparging experiments were conducted using 1-dimensional column (5 cm id, 80 cm length) packed with sand; (1) ambient temperature (
), column saturated with distilled water, (2) SEAS at ambient temperature (
), for n-decane contaminated sand, (3) SEAS at elevated temperature (
), for n-decane contaminated sand. Higher air saturation was achieved by SEAS compared to that by air sparging without surfactant application. The n-decane removal efficiency of SEAS at elevated temperature was significantly higher(> 10 times) than that of ambient SEAS. The n-decane concentrations in the gas effluent from column during SEAS at
are found to be 10 times of those measured at ambient temperature. Thus, SEAS technique can be applied for removal of semi-volatile contaminants provided that an appropriate technique for elevating aquifer temperature is available.
Towards More Efficient Energy Use for Green Remediation
Hwang, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 95~100
Strategies incorporating more efficient energy use into remediation of contaminated sites, which are those of important elements in green remediation, are developed and discussed in this work. Firstly, from several case studies of remedial actions in Korea, thermal desorption and/or in-situ method including pump-and-treat were found energy intensive and soil washing less intensive. In order to use energy efficiently and minimize use of fossil fuels during land revitalization process, it is necessary to optimize energy intensive systems, to use low energy remediation systems (such as bioremediation), and to integrate renewable energy sources. Furthermore, economic incentive systems such as subsidy need to be adopted if renewable energy sources are incorporated into remediation of contaminated sites.
A Study on Transport Characteristics of CMC-modified Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) Nanoparticles in Porous Media
Cho, Yun-Chul ; Choi, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 101~107
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as stabilizer is expected to facilitate in-situ delivery of zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles in a contaminated aquifer because it increases dispersity of ZVI nanoparticles. This work investigated the transport of CMC-stabilized ZVI nanoparticles (CMC-Fe) using column breakthrough experiments. The ZVI nanoparticles (100 mg/L Fe) were transportable through sand porous media. In contrast, non-stabilized ZVI nanoparticles rapidly agglomerate in solution and are stopped in sand porous media. At pH 7 of solution approximately 80% CMC-Fe were eluted. When the pH of solution is below 5, 100% CMC-Fe were eluted. These results suggest that the mobility of CMCFe was increased as pH decreases. In the mobility test under different ionic strengths using
ions, there was no signigficant difference in the mobility of CMC-Fe. Also, in the experiments of effect of clay and natural organic mater (NOM) on the mobility of ZVI, there was no significant difference in the mobility of CMC-Fe not only between 1 and 5% clay, but 100 and 1000 mg/L NOM. The results from this work suggests that the CMC-Fe nanoparticles could be easily delivered into the subsurface over a broad range of ionic strength, clay and NOM.