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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Phytoremediation on the Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil by Hyperaccumulators in the Greenhouse
Park, Sang-Hean ; Choi, Sang-Il ; Park, Jong-Bu ; Han, Ha-Kyu ; Bae, Sei-Dal ; Sung, Il-Jong ; Park, Eung-Ryeol ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.001
This study was performed to evaluate the remediation efficiency by Helianthus annuus, Brassica juncea and Brassica campestris on the soil contaminated with nickel, zinc and lead, respectively. The growth rates fell down under 60% in the condition of over 700 mg/kg of zinc for Brassica campestris, 300 mg/kg of lead for Helianthus annuus, and 150 mg/kg of nickel for Brassica juncea on the basis of heavy metal concentration in the soil, because of its toxicity. Also, the hyperaccumulators showed the maximum heavy metal contents in their biomass after 90 days of cultivation. The accumulated heavy metal content per kilogram of hyperaccumulator was 0.65 mg of nickel in Brassica juncea, 0.14 mg of zinc in Brassica campestris, and 0.06 mg of lead in Helianthus annuus, respectively. Additionally, 73.2% of nickel accumulated in Brassica juncea and 95.1% of zinc accumulated in Brassica campestris were concentrated in the upper site of crop like stem and leaves. However, in the case of Helianthus annuus, 83.7% of lead was accumulated in the root.
Improved Germination and Seedling Growth of Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea in Heavy Metal Contaminated Medium by Inoculation of a multiple-Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterium (m-PGPR)
Lee, Ah-Reum ; Bae, Bum-Han ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 9~17
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.009
Positive effect of multiple-PGPR (Plan Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria), isolated from heavy metal contaminated soil, on the germination of Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) was quantitatively estimated in 5 heavy metal (Cd, As, Ni, Cu, and Pb) contaminated liquid medium. The
value for respective heavy metal was estimated by TSK (Trimmed Speraman-Karber) model based on germination rate. The results showed overall increase in
with PGPR inoculation. The
value increased 1.4% from 96.0 mg/L (control) to 97.4 mg/L (PGPR-treated) in As contaminated medium. In Ni contaminated medium, the
value increased 31.9% from 148.0 mg/L (control) to 195.2 mg/L (PGPR-treated), while the
showed 4.8% increase from 63.4 mg/L (control) to 66.5 mg/L (PGPR-treated) in Cu medium. Overall seedling growth was stronger in the PGPR treated seeds than that in the control, but positive effect on seedling growth was not conspicuous. At effective concentration of 100 mg/L, the average seedling length of the PGPR treatment in As, Cd, Cu, and Ni medium, respectively, was 1.13, 0.14, 0.40, and 0.06 cm longer than that in the control. However, the increase of seedling growth was statistically insignificant (p < 0.05). These results suggest that inoculation of the isolated-PGPR exerts positive effects on seed germination by reducing heavy metal toxicity and can be an effective tool for application of phytoremediation on heavy metal contaminated soils.
Electrokinetic Restoration of Saline Soil Accumulated with Nitrate and Sulfate
Cho, Jung-Min ; Jo, Sung-Ung ; Kim, Do-Hyung ; Yang, Jung-Seok ; Baek, Ki-Tae ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 18~23
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.018
The electrokinetic transport characteristics of salts were investigated using nitrate and sulfate accumulated saline greenhouse soil. Within 8 days, 95% of nitrate was removed from the soil, while sulfate removal was 19% for 8 days. The low removal of sulfate came from adsorption reaction on the soil particles or organic matter and precipitation with calcium. Divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium were transported toward cathode via electromigration, and most monovalent cation such as potassium was removed. The pattern of residual electrical conductivity was similar with that of sulfate. Based on the results, electrokinetic technique is effective to restore nitrate-accumulated saline soil, but is not effective to restore sulfate-accumulated soil.
Enhanced Natural Purification of Crude Oil Contaminated Tidal Flat
Kim, Young-A ; Sung, Ki-June ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 24~30
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.024
Tidal flats which are ecologically sensitive, are hard to remediate once they are contaminated by oil spill accidents. Traditional oil remediation measures focus on removal efficiency, and their improper implementation can adversely affect crude oil contaminated coastal areas and greatly disrupt the structure and functions of crude oil contaminated tidal flats. In this study, the oil degradation due to the implementation of remediation measures naturally enhanced using air and natural oil sorbents was evaluated in the lower strata of tidal flats. The effects of air and natural oil sorbents on oil degradation for two concentration levels (< 500 ppm and > 500 ppm) were tested at artificially contaminated tidal flats. Fifty days after these treatments, the natural oil sorbent treatment showed the lowest total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration (
) at the low concentration level, whereas both air and natural oil sorbent treatments showed high degradation efficiencies at the high concentration level (
). Although the phosphatase activity decreased for all treatments, there was no significant difference between the decreases for the different treatments; on the other hand, B-glucosidase activities were high for both air and natural oil sorbent treatments. Although degradation efficiencies decreased as the concentration increased, the air provision and natural oil sorbent treatment could be an effective ecological restoration measure for oil contaminated tidal flats while minimizing the environmental impact of the remediation efforts.
Stabilization of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Mine Tailings Using Phosphate Fertilizers and Red Mud
Kang, Sin-Hyun ; Ahn, Jun-Young ; Hwang, Kyung-Yup ; Seo, Jeong-Yun ; Kim, Jae-Gon ; Song, Ho-Cheol ; Yim, Soo-Bin ; Hwang, In-Seong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 31~41
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.031
The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiencies of the stabilizers such as mono-potassium phosphate (MKP), phosphate fertilizer and red mud in treating the mine tailings contaminated with heavy metals and to characterize the changes in fractionations of the heavy metals during the stabilization. The TCLP results showed that the stabilization efficiencies of Cd, Pb and Zn increased with the increase in the stabilizer dosage and the reaction times. MKP showed the highest efficiencies for the heavy metals stabilization among the stabilizers tested. When the mine tailings were amended with MKP, the TCLP concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn were reduced by 79~97%, 61~84%, and 89~99%, respectively. When the composite stabilizers, MKP/phosphate fertilizer or MKP/red mud, were used, the stabilization efficiencies were lower than when MKP was used as a single stabilizer. The sequential extraction results showed that carbonates fraction of Cd and Zn increased generally. Especially, when red mud was used, carbonates fraction of Cd and Zn increased 5 and 18 times, respectively. In the case of Pb, the treatment with MKP increased residual fraction by 10 times. The results showed that MKP was the most effective in stabilizing the heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) to improve the efficacy of the composite binders.
Measurement of Gas-Accessible PCE Saturation in Unsaturated Soil using Gas Tracers during the Removal of PCE
Kim, Heon-Ki ; Kwon, Han-Joon ; Song, Young-Soo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 42~52
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.042
In this laboratory study, the changes in gas-exposed perchloroethene (PCE) saturation in sand during a PCE removal process were measured using gaseous tracers. The flux of fresh air through a glass column packed with PCEcontaminated, partially water-saturated sand drove the removal of PCE from the column. During the removal of PCE, methane, n-pentane, difluoromethane and chloroform were used as the non-reactive, PCE-partitioning, water-partitioning, and PCE and water-partitioning tracers, respectively. N-pentane was used to detect the PCE fraction exposed to the mobile gas. At water saturation of 0.11, only 65% of the PCE was found to be exposed to the mobile gas prior to the removal of PCE, as calculated from the n-pentane retardation factor. More PCE than that detected by n-pentane was depleted from the column due to volatilization through the aqueous phase. However, the ratio of gas-exposed to total PCE decreased on the removal of PCE, implying gas-exposed PCE was preferentially removed by vaporization. These results suggest that the water-insoluble, PCE-partitioning tracer (n-pentane in this study), along with other tracers, can be used to investigate the changes in fluid (including nonaqueous phase liquid) saturation and the removal mechanism during the remediation process.
Characterizing Groundwater Discharge and Radon Concentration in Coastal Waters, Busan City
Ok, Soon-Il ; Hamm, Se-Yeong ; Lee, Yong-Woo ; Cha, Eun-Jee ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, In-Soo ; Khim, Boo-Keun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 53~66
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.053
Groundwater which infiltrated in recharge areas discharges in the forms of evapotranspiration, baseflow to streams, groundwater abstraction and eventually flows into the sea. This study characterized radon-222 concentration and electrical conductivity (EC) in coastal groundwater discharge, well groundwater, Ilkwang Stream water, and seawater in the coastal area of Busan Metropolitan City and subsequently estimated groundwater discharge rate to the sea. The median value of Rn-222 concentration is highest in well groundwater (18.36 Bq/L), and then decreases in the order of coastal groundwater discharge (15.92 Bq/L), Ilkwang Stream water (1.408 Bq/L), and seawater (0.030 Bq/L). The relationship between Rn-222 concentration and EC values is relatively strong in well groundwater and then in seawater. However, the relationship is not visible between coastal groundwater discharge and Ilkwang Stream water. The groundwater discharge rate to the sea is estimated as
/day by using radon mass budget model and
/day by using Darcy's law.
Study on Gross-alpha Characteristics of Groundwater for Drinking in Korea
Jeong, Do-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Joon ; Ju, Byoung-Kyu ; Noh, Hoe-Jung ; Yu, Soon-Ju ; Kim, Moon-Su ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 67~73
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.067
Groundwaters were sampled from 730 wells being used for drinking purposes during 2007-2009. These samples were analysed using a gas-flow type GPC (Gas Proportional Counter) according to the USEPA method (900.0). We obtained a gross-alpha counting TDS (total dissolved solid) efficiency curve (Y = 0.0017X2 - 0.3122X + 19.165, X = TDS, Y = efficiency,
= 0.9734) using natural uranium standard to get gross
value of the samples. The gross alpha values ranged from MDA (minimum detectable activity) to 14.88 pCi/L and 429 samples showed values higher than MDA (< 0.9 pCi/L). Correlations of the uranium values with the total alpha values and the gross-alpha values indicate that uranium values have high impacts on gross-alpha values. Groundwater samples of study areas were classified into four regions according to the rock types; plutonic (granite) rock region (427 areas), metamorphic rock region (181 aeras), sedimentary rock region (70 areas), volcanic rock region (52 areas). Groundwater of Cretaceous granite presented the highest gross-alpha value. Gross alpha in groundwaters showed no relationship with uranium in terms of the geological ages, rocks and minerals.
Biodegradation of fluorene and bioremediation study by Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil
Nam, In-Hyun ; Chon, Chul-Min ; Kim, Jae-Gon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 74~81
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.074
The fluorene-degrading strain Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil near a mineimpacted area by selective enrichment techniques. Fluorene added to the Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 culture as sole carbon source was 78.4% removed within 120 h. A fluorene degradation pathway is tentatively proposed based on identification of the metabolic intermediates 9-fluorenone, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, and 8-hydroxy-3,4-benzocoumarin. Further the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 to bioremediate 100 mg/kg fluorene in soil matrix was examined by composting under laboratory conditions. Treatment of microcosm soil with the strain KM-02 for 20 days resulted in a 65.6% reduction in total amounts. These results demonstrate that Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 could potentially be used in the bioremediation of fluorene from contaminated soil.
An Energy Budget Algorithm for a Snowpack-Snowmelt Calculation
Lee, Jeong-Hoon ; Ko, Kyung-Seok ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 82~89
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.082
Understanding snowmelt movement to the watershed is crucial for both climate change and hydrological studies because the snowmelt is a significant component of groundwater and surface runoff in temperature area. In this work, a new energy balance budget algorithm has been developed for melting snow from a snowpack at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory (CSSL) in California, US. Using two sets of experiments, artificial rain-on-snow experiments and observations of diel variations, carried out in the winter of 2002 and 2003, we investigate how to calculate the amount of snowmelt from the snowpack using radiation energy and air temperature. To address the effect of air temperature, we calculate the integrated daily solar radiation energy input, and the integrated discharge of snowmelt under the snowpack and the energy required to generate such an amount of meltwater. The difference between the two is the excess (or deficit) energy input and we compare this energy to the average daily temperature. The resulting empirical relationship is used to calculate the instantaneous snowmelt rate in the model used by Lee et al. (2008a; 2010), in addition to the net-short radiation. If for a given 10 minute interval, the energy obtained by the melt calculation is negative, then no melt is generated. The input energy from the sun is considered to be used to increase the temperature of the snowpack. Positive energy is used for melting snow for the 10-minute interval. Using this energy budget algorithm, we optimize the intrinsic permeability of the snowpack for the two sets of experiments using one-dimensional water percolation model, which are
for the artificial rain-on-snow experiments and observations of diel variation, respectively.
Simultaneous Removal of Heavy Metals and Diesel-fuel from a Soil Column by Surfactant Foam Flushing
Heo, Jung-Hyun ; Jeong, Seung-Woo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 90~96
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.5.090
Simultaneous removal of heavy metals (Cd, Pb) and diesel-fuel from a soil column was evaluated by respectively flushing with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, mixture of SDS and sodium iodide (SDS + NaI), and surfactant foam (SDS + NaI foam). First, this study evaluated these flushing methods to the heavy metals only-contaminated soil for removal of heavy metals from the heavy-metal only contaminated soil column. After 7 pore volume flushing of the soil column, Cd removal efficiencies from the soil were 40% by SDS solution, 50% by SDS + NaI mixture, and 60% by surfactant foam. The flushing results implied that anionic surfactant and ligand can be efficiently applied to extraction of Cd from the heavy metal contaminated soil. Furthermore, surfactant foam flushing showed an increased flushing efficiency with enhancing the contact between surfactant solution and soil. However, Pb removal efficiency by these flushing methods did not show any difference unlike those of Cd. Second, this study eventually evaluated flushing methods for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and diesel-fuel from the soil column with 7 pore volume flushing. Diesel-fuel removal efficiencies were 50% by SDS + NaI flushing and 90% by SDS + NaI foam flushing. Cd removal efficiency by the foam flushing reached to 80% which was higher than the result of the previous heavy metals onlycontaminated soil experiment. This result implied that diesel-fuel could act as a metal-solvent while it contacted to heavy metals present in the soil. This study clearly showed that surfactant foam flushing simultaneously removed heavy metals and diesel fuel from the soil column.