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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Determination of Soil Sample Size Based on Gy's Particulate Sampling Theory
Bae, Bum-Han ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.001
A bibliographical review of Gy sampling theory for particulate materials was conducted to provide readers with useful means to reduce errors in soil contamination investigation. According to the Gy theory, the errors caused by the heterogeneous nature of soil include; the fundamental error (FE) caused by physical and chemical constitutional heterogeneity, the grouping and segregation error (GE) aroused from gravitational force, long-range heterogeneous fluctuation error (
), the periodic heterogeneity fluctuation error (
), and the materialization error (ME) generated during physical process of sample treatment. However, the accurate estimation of
cannot be estimated easily and only increasing sampling locations can reduce the magnitude of the errors. In addition, incremental sampling is the only method to reduce GE while grab sampling should be avoided as it introduces uncertainty and errors to the sampling process. Correct preparation and operation of sampling tools are important factors in reducing the incremental delimitation error (DE) and extraction error (EE) which are resulted from physical processes in the sampling. Therefore, Gy sampling theory can be used efficiently in planning a strategy for soil investigations of non-volatile and non-reactive samples.
Effective Strategies for Investigation and Management of Naturally Occurring Asbestos Areas
Kim, Jeong-Wook ; Jung, Myung-Chae ; Kim, Dong-Jin ; Jeon, Gee-Seok ; Lee, Chang-Hwan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 10~18
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.010
This study presents a state of the art in evaluation on naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) areas and effective strategies for investigation and management of NOA areas in Korea. First of all, we defined and classified the NOA area as compiling various countries' regulations, then discussed the best methods for evaluation and management of NOA for reducing exposure of asbestos in the vicinity of NOA areas. According to the literature survey, a three-steps management strategy was suggested in this study. The first step is a confirmation stage of asbestos contamination possibility and the second step is an assessment stage of asbestos contamination using investigation, analysis, evaluation and reclamation. The final step is a following-up control stage. These three management steps for NOA area will give the maximum effectiveness of NOA control in Korea.
Study on the Water Quality of Bank Filtration Depending on Soil Characteristics
Na, Hyeon-Young ; Kwon, Dae-Young ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 19~26
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.019
In this research, soil analysis and adsorption were conducted, and compared with the water quality of bank filtration and river in terms of TS, TDS, SS,
-N, Fe, Mn, BOD and
consumption for the development of bank filtration in Gimhae city. Analysis of soil showed high levels of Fe (470 mg/kg), Mn (80 mg/kg) and
-N (15 mg/kg). Also, adsorption coefficient values (k and 1/n) were 0.00159 and 0.8714, respectively. This implies that the adsorption of the soil depends on organic matter. Water qualitiy of the river and the bank filtration revealed that the concentrations of TS and TDS almost didn't change but the concentration of SS decreased 84% through the bank filtration.
-N in the bank filtration was detected more than 1 mg/L which might be due to agricultural activities in the research area.
-N was close to the detection limit owing to the removal by the adsorption.
consumption and BOD of the river were decreased by the bank filtration 250% and 350%, respectively, while Fe and Mn were significantly increased by the bank filtration.
Rainwater Infiltration Characteristics in the Unsaturated Soil : Comparison of Finite Element Model with Experimental Results
Yoo, Kun-Sun ; Kim, Sang-Rae ; Kim, Tschung-Il ; Yoon, Hyun-Sik ; Han, Moo-Young ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.027
Infiltration plays an important role in the urban water cycle. Infiltration has a potential to contribute to groundwater recharge in addition to runoff reduction. However, infiltration in urban areas has been considered only as a means of runoff reduction. Conventional design methods for infiltration facilities assume soils to be fully-saturated for the sake of simplicity. The amount of groundwater recharge can not be estimated properly with this scheme. Hence, the characteristics of the unsaturated soil condition need to be considered. The finite element model using SEEP/W to estimate infiltration under the unsaturated condition is presented. Infiltration tests for Joomonjin sand are performed and the infiltration behavior of Joomoonjin sand under the unsaturated condition is measured experimentally to verify the validity of the finite element model. The results from comparing infiltrated volume between the saturated and the unsaturated conditions under the same soil and rainfall conditions show that the infiltrated volume in the unsaturated condition is two times bigger than that in the saturated condition.
Modeling Artificial Groundwater Recharge in the Hancheon Drainage Area, Jeju island, Korea
Oh, Se-Hyoung ; Kim, Yong-Cheol ; Koo, Min-Ho ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 34~45
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.034
For the Hancheon drainage area in Jeju island, a groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW was developed to simulate artificial recharge through injection wells installed in the Hancheon reservoir. The model was used to analyze changes of the groundwater level and the water budget due to the artificial recharge. The model assumed that
of storm water would recharge annually through the injection wells during the rainy season. The transient simulation results showed that the water level rose by 39.6 m at the nearest monitoring well and by 0.26 m at the well located 7 km downstream from the injection wells demonstrating a large extent of the affected area by the artificial recharge. It also shown that, at the time when the recharge ended in the 5th year, the water level increased by 81 m at the artificial reservoir and the radius of influence was about 2.1 km downstream toward the coast. The residence time of recharged groundwater was estimated to be no less than 5 years. The model also illustrated that 15 years of artificial recharge could increase the average linear velocity of groundwater up to 1540 m/yr, which showed 100 m/yr higher than before. Increase of groundwater storage due to artificial recharge was calculated to be
at the end of the 5th and 10th years of artificial recharge, respectively. The rate of storage increase was gradually diminished afterwards, and storage increase of
was retained after 15 years of artificial recharge. Conclusively, the artificial recharge system could augment
of additional groundwater resources in the Hancheon area.
Analytical Solution of Multi-species Transport Equations Coupled with a First-order Reaction Network Under Various Boundary Conditions
Suk, Hee-Jun ; Chae, Byung-Gon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 46~57
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.046
In this study, analytical solution of multip-species transport equations coupled with a first-order reaction network under constant concentration boundary condition or total flux boundary condition is obtained using similarity transformation approach of Clement et al. (2000). The study shows the schematic process about how multi-species transport equations with first-order sequential reaction network is transformed through the similarity transformation approach into independent and uncoupled single species transport equations with first-order reaction. The analytical solution was verified through the comparison with popular commercial programs such as 2DFATMIC and RT3D. The analytical solution can be utilized in nuclear waste sites where radioactive contaminants and their daughter products occur and in industrial complex cities where chlorinated solvent such as PCE, TCE, and its biodegradation products produces. In addition, it can help the verification of the developed numerical code.
Influence of Iron Phases on Microbial U(VI) Reduction
Lee, Seung-Yeop ; Baik, Min-Hoon ; Lee, Min-Hee ; Lee, Young-Boo ; Lee, Yong-Jae ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 58~65
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.058
The bacterial uranium(VI) reduction and its resultant low solubility make this process an attractive option for removing U from groundwater. An impact of aqueous suspending iron phase, which is redox sensitive and ubiquitous in subsurface groundwater, on the U(VI) bioreduction by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was investigated. In our batch experiment, the U(VI) concentration (
) gradually decreased to a non-detectable level during the microbial respiration. However, when Fe(III) phase was suspended in solution, bioreduction of U(VI) was significantly suppressed due to a preferred reduction of Fe(III) instead of U(VI). This shows that the suspending amorphous Fe(III) phase can be a strong inhibitor to the U(VI) bioreduction. On the contrary, when iron was present as a soluble Fe(II) in the solution, the U(VI) removal was largely enhanced. The microbially-catalyzed U(VI) reduction resulted in an accumulation of solid-type U particles in and around the cells. Electron elemental investigations for the precipitates show that some background cations such as Ca and P were favorably coprecipitated with U. This implies that aqueous U tends to be stabilized by complexing with Ca or P ions, which easily diffuse and coprecipitate with U in and around the microbial cell.
Site Prioritization for Artificial Recharge in Korea using GIS Mapping
Seo, Jeong-A ; Kim, Yong-Cheol ; Kim, Jin-Sam ; Kim, Yong-Je ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 66~78
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.066
It is getting difficult to manage water resources in South Korea because more than half of annual precipitation is concentrated in the summer season and its intensity is increasing due to global warming and climate change. Artificial recharge schemes such as well recharge of surface water and roof-top rainwater harvesting can be a useful method to manage water resources in Korea. In this study, potential artificial recharge site is evaluated using geographic information system with hydrogeological and social factors. The hydrogeological factors include annual precipitation, geological classification based on geological map, specific capacity and depth to water level of national groundwater monitoring wells. These factors were selected to evaluate potential artificial recharge site because annual precipitation is closely related to source water availability for artificial recharge, geological features and specific capacity are related to injection capacity and depth to water is related to storage capacity of the subsurface medium. In addition to those hydrogeological factors, social aspect was taken into consideration by selecting the areas that is not serviced by national water works and have been suffered from drought. These factors are graded into five rates and integrated together in the GIS system resulting in spatial distribution of artificial recharge potential. Cheongsong, Yeongdeok in Gyeongsangbuk-do and Hadong in Gyeongsangnam-do, and Suncheon in Jeollanam-do were proven as favorable areas for applying artificial recharge schemes. Although the potential map for artificial recharge in South Korea developed in this study need to be improved by using other scientific factors such as evaporation and topographical features, and other social factors such as water-curtain cultivation area, hot spring resorts and industrial area where groundwater level is severely lowered, it can be used in a rough site-selection, preliminary and/or feasibility study for artificial recharge.
Sorption and Desorption Kinetics of Naphthalene and Phenanthrene on Black Carbon in Sediment
Oh, Sang-Hwa ; Wu, Qi ; Song, Dong-Ik ; Shin, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 79~94
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.079
Black carbon (BC), a kind of high surface area carbonaceous material (HSACM), was isolated from Andong lake sediment. Sorption and desorption kinetics of naphthalene (Naph) and phenanthrene (Phen) in organic carbon (OC) and BC in the Andong lake sediment were investigated. Several kinetic models such as one-site mass transfer model (OSMTM), two-compartment first-order kinetic model (TCFOKM), and a newly proposed modified two-compartment first-order kinetic model (MTCFOKM) were used to describe the sorption and desorption kinetics. The MTCFOKM was the best fitting model. The MTCFOKM for sorption kinetics showed that i) the sorbed amounts of PAHs onto BC were higher than those onto OC, consistent with BET surface area; ii) the equilibration time for sorption onto BC was longer than those onto OC due to smaller size of micropore (
) of BC than OC (
); iii) initial sorption velocity of BC was higher than OC; and iv) the slow sorption velocity in BC caused the later equilibrium time than OC even though the fast sorption velocity was early completed in both BC and OC. The MTCFOKM also described the desorption of PAHs from the OC and BC well. After desorption, the remaining fractions of PAHs in BC were higher than those in OC due to stronger PAHs-BC binding. The remaining fractions increased with aging for both BC and OC.
A study on the Comparison of the Heavy Metal in Abandoned mine Soil by Sequential Extraction Exthaction Methods
Lee, Jong-Deuk ; Kim, Tae-Dong ; Jeon, Gee-Seok ; Kim, Hee-Joung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 95~105
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.095
Total extraction method and environmental standards for heavy metals in soils were revised in regulation recently. In case of Area 3, as the law amended, the soil pollution level has gone up to 4 to 13 times higher depending on the type of heavy metal. In this study, it compares the properties of heavy metals of soil by sequential extraction and total extraction methods depending on the analysis method, using the soil around mine. In case of arsenic, the soil pollution level has gone up to 4 times higher, but 6 to 10 times in the sample soil. Also, according to the results of portability evaluation depending on the type of existence form of heavy metal it exists as residual form in mine waste rock, which is less likely to move, while it exists as migrated form in tailing. Therefore, it should be considered to evaluate the soil pollution and decide the contaminated bounds depending on the existence form of heavy metals on soil to restore the polluted soil.
Development of Preliminary Assessment Methodology for Priority Listing of Soil and Groundwater Contamination Sources
Jeong, Seung-Woo ; Kim, Young-Ju ; Kim, Jae-Hoon ; Hwang, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 106~112
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.106
This study developed preliminary assessment methodology for priority listing of soil and groundwater contamination sources, considering source characteristics, local environments and risk receptors. Source characteristics were evaluated by scoring relative risk of contamination sources. Local environments were evaluated by scoring annual rainfall, hydraulic conductivity of aquifer, and annual groundwater use. Risk receptors were evaluated by scoring local population, direct distance to surface water, direct distance to drinking-water wells. Scores of each parameter were allocated by analysing distribution of parameter values obtained from government databases. Distributed scores of source characteristics local environments: risk receptors were 12 : 12 : 12. The preliminary assessment scored 0 to 36 for each soil and groundwater sources. Inventory of soil and groundwater sources consisted of 7 categories. This study applied the preliminary assessment methodology to Manan-Gu, Anyang City, Korea. The number of car repair and washing facility was the largest in the contamination source inventory. Petroleum storage facilities showed the highest assessment score. The preliminary assessment methodology also indicated that Anyang-Dong was the priority section among Anyang-Dong, Suksu-Dong, Bakdal-Dong. This study is the first trial for relative ranking soil and groundwater contamination sources by considering source and local characteristics. Therefore, further researches and revision of the preliminary assessment methodology need to be pursued for various applications.
A Study on Effective Management Scheme for Soil and Groundwater Contaminated by Radioactive Materials Due to Nuclear Accidents
Kim, Hee-Joo ; Hyun, Yun-Jung ; Kim, Young-Ju ; Hwang, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 113~121
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.113
In this study, we suggested the management scheme of analyzing the national and oversea related policy against soil and groundwater contamination by radioactive materials due to nuclear accidents. In Korea, we need to remedy swiftly the contaminated land due to intensive land development demand. So, we need to develop more effective management scheme to recover actively the land contaminated by radioactive materials. We require to improve monitoring network, to expand media-specific monitoring system, to prepare management system for remediation of contaminated land, and to develop flow work for soil and groundwater remediation.
pH Dependence of CH
-binding Sites in Humic Acid: An X-ray Absorption Study
Yoon, Soh-Joung ; Bleam, William F. ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 122~132
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.122
Mercury accumulates in biota mainly as methylmercury. In nature, methylmercury shows high affinity to organic matter and
-organic matter complexation affects the mobility and bioavailabiity of methylmercury. In this study, we examined the methylmercury binding sites in an aquatic humic acid as affected by the pH condition using Hg
-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). We evaluated methylmercury binding humic ligands using methylmercury-thiol, methylmerury-carboxyl, and methylmercury-amine complexation models. When
-to-humic reduced sulfur ratio is 0.3, we found that most of
binds to thiol ligands at pH 5 and 7. At pH 7, however, some carboxyl or amine ligand contribution is observed, unlike at pH 5 where
almost exclusively binds to thiol ligands. The carboxyl or amine ligand contribution may indicate that some types of thiol ligands in the natural organic matter have relatively low complexation constants or acid dissociation constants compared to those of some carboxyl or amine ligands. Analysis results indicate that ~0.2 fraction of methylmercury binds to amine or carboxyl ligands and ~0.8 to thiol ligands at pH 7.
Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Natural Radionuclides in Groundwater for Drinking-water Supply in Korea
Jeong, Do-Hwan ; Kim, Moon-Su ; Lee, Young-Joon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 133~142
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.133
A total of 247 samples were collected from groundwater being used for drinking-water supply, and hydrogeochemistry and radionuclide analysis were performed. In-situ analysis of groundwaters resulted in ranges of
for temperature, 5.9~8.5 for pH, 33~591 mV for Eh,
for EC, and 0.2~9.4 mg/L for DO. Major cation and anion concentrations of groundwaters were in ranges of 0.5~227.6 for Na, 1.0~279.3 for Ca, 0.0~9.3 for K, 0.1~100.1 for Mg, 0.0~3.3 for F, 0.9~779.1 for Cl, 0.3~120.4 for
, 0.0~27.4 for
-N, and 6~372 mg/L for
. Uranium-238 and radon-222 concentrations were detected in ranges of N.D-
and 18-15,953 pCi/L, respectively. In case of some groundwaters exceeding USEPA MCL level (
) for uranium concentration, their pH ranged from 6.8 to 8.0 and Eh showed a relatively low value(86~199 mV) compared to other areas. Most groundwaters belonged to Ca-(Na)-
type, and groundwaters of metamorphic rock exhibited the highest concentration of Na, Mg, Ca, Cl,
-N, U, and those of plutonic rock showed the highest concentration of
, and Rn. Uranium and fluoride from granite areas did not show any correlation. However, uranium and bicarbonate displayed a positive relation of some areas in plutonic rocks(
Distribution Characteristics of Uranium and Radon Concentration in Groundwaters of Provinces in Korea
Jeong, Do-Hwan ; Kim, Moon-Su ; Ju, Byoung-Kyu ; Kim, Tae-Seung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 16, issue 6, 2011, Pages 143~149
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2011.16.6.143
In order to figure out the characteristics of radionuclides concentrations of nine provinces, we analyzed uranium and radon in 681 samples of groundwater. Most of uranium concentrations in each province were less than
, and Gyeongnam, Jeonnam, Jeju provinces did not have groundwaters exceeding the US EPA drinking water MCL (
) of uranium. The ratio of radon values exceeding US EPA drinking water AMCL (4,000 pCi/L) was 22.6% (154/681) and Gyeongnam and Jeju provinces had no groundwaters exceeding the AMCL (alternative maximum contaminant level). Uranium and radon concentrations in groundwaters of Gyeonggi, Chungbuk, Jeonbuk, Chungnam mainly composed of the Mesozoic granite and the Precambrian gneiss were relatively high, but the concentrations of Gyeongnam and Jeju widely comprised of the sedimentary rock and the volcanic rock were relatively low. A week correlation between uranium and radon values showed in Gangwon, Chungbuk, Gyeonggi provinces.