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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Dec 2013
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Climate Change and Groundwater Sustainability in Korea for Next Decade
Woo, Nam C. ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.001
Global climate changes affect the local hydrologic cycle, and subsequently, require changes in water resource management strategies of Korea. Variations in precipitation and urbanization have adverse effects on the reasonable and efficient utilization of groundwater resources. Groundwater management strategies of Korea have been implemented based on the evaluation of "sustainable yield", which is calculated from the amount of annual recharge. However, this sustainable yield has no consideration of natural discharge and dynamic equilibrium of the groundwater system. Therefore, for the effective groundwater management strategies of the following decades, we need representative and reliable observations, and have to develop methods for the systematic analysis and interpretations of the data to draw valid information in linkage of natural and societal environmental changes.
Evaluation of Electrolyte and Electrode Spacing for Application of Electrokinetic Remediation
Park, Geun-Yong ; Kim, Woo-Seung ; Kim, Do-Hyung ; Yang, Jung-Seok ; Baek, Kitae ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 6~15
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.006
The influence of processing fluids and electrode spacing on the electrokinetic process was evaluated to remediate As-, Cu-, Pb-contaminated soil. Single and mixture of sodium citrate, EDTA and NaOH was used to investigate the metal extraction. EDTA for washing reagent showed the highest removal efficiency. Based on the extraction result, the electrode spacing (20, 40, 60 cm) on the electrokinetic process was investigated to remove the multi-metals from soil. The highest removal was observed at the experiment with 60 cm of electrode spacing, however, the correlation between electrode spacing and removal of metals was not clear. The electrode spacing influenced the amount of accumulated electro-osmotic flow. BCR sequential extraction showed that electrokinetic process removed the fractionation of metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide.
Chemical Ranking and Scoring Methodology for the Drinking and non-drinking Groundwater pollutants: CROWN (Chemical Ranking of Groundwater PollutaNts)
An, Youn-Joo ; Lee, Woo-Mi ; Jeong, Seung-Woo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 16~25
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.016
The Korean groundwater law regulates 20 groundwater contamination parameters, including 14 specific harmful substances. Expanding the number of groundwater quality standards are needed to cope with recent groundwater quality deterioration due to the use of various chemicals. Chemical ranking and scoring system (CRS) is a scientific tool to sort priority chemicals by considering exposure and toxicity potentials. In this study, we developed a CRS for scoring and ranking of possible groundwater pollutants and screened priority substances to be later considered in the Korean standard expansion. Chemical Ranking Of groundWater pollutaNts (CROWN) incorporates important parameters consisting of exposure potential, human and water ecotoxicity, interests, and certainty. Furthermore, CROWN additionally evaluated existence of other media standards to consider impacts by contamination of other media. The 197 substances that were common to 9 countries were selected first. CROWN evaluated and ranked each chemical, and finally suggested priority substances. Suggested priority substances were classified into two groups according to the groundwater use purposes: drinking and non-drinking. The priority substances were further classified into
group priorities. The
group consists of 75 substances, including the all the Korean groundwater standard parameters. CROWN will be used in selecting groundwater pollutants for possible inclusion in the Korean standard expansion.
Optimal Condition of Operation Parameter for Livestock Carcass Leachate using Fenton Oxidation Process
An, Sang-Woo ; Jeong, Young-Cheol ; Yoo, Ji-Young ; Min, Jee-Eun ; Lee, Si-Jin ; Park, Jae-Woo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 26~35
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.026
Outbreak of animal infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, avian influenza are becoming prevalent worldwide. For prevent the further infection, tremendous numbers of the infected or culled stocks are buried around farm. This burial method can generate a wide range of detrimental components such as leachate, nutrient, salt, and pathogenic bacteria, consequently. In this study, for the stabilization of livestock carcasses leachate, advanced oxidation processes utilizing the Fenton reaction was investigated in lab-scale experiments for the treatment for
of livestock carcass leachate.
reduction by the Fenton oxidation was investigated response surface methodology using the Box-Begnken methods were applied to the experimental results. A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of the independent variables of pH (
), dosage of
) and dosage of
) on the dependent variables
). A 1 M NaOH and
was using for pH control,
was used as iron catalyst and NaOH was used for Fenton reaction. The optimal conditions for Fenton oxidation process were determined: pH, dosage of
and dosage of
were 3, 0.6 g (0.0151 M) and 7 mL(0.259 M), respectively. Statistical results showed the order of significance of the independent variables to be pH > initial concentration of ferrous ion > initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide.
Environmental Characteristics of Natural Radionuclides in Groundwaters in Volcanic Rock Areas: Korea
Jeong, Do Hwan ; Kim, Moon Su ; Ju, Byoung Kyu ; Hong, Jung Ki ; Kim, Dong Su ; Kim, Hyun Koo ; Kim, Hye Jin ; Park, Sun Hwa ; Han, Jin Seok ; Kim, Tae Seung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 36~45
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.036
We analyzed natural radionuclides in 80 wells in volcanic rock areas and investigated environmental characteristics. Uranium and radon concentrations ranged from ND to
(median value: 0.21)
, 38~29,222 pCi/L (median value: 579), respectively. In case of gross-
, 26 samples exceeded MDA (minimum detectable activity, < 0.9 pCi/L) value and the activity values ranged from 1.05 to 8.06 pCi/L. The radionuclides concentrations did not exceed USEPA MCL (maximum contaminant level) value of Uranium (
) and gross-
(15 pCi/L). But Rn concentrations in 4 samples exceeded USEPA AMCL (Alternative maximum contaminant level, 4,000 pci/L) and one of them showed a significantly higher value (29,222 pCi/L) than the others. The levels of uranium concentrations in volcanic rock aquifer regions were detected in order of andesite, miscellaneous volcanic rocks, rhyolite, basalt aquifer regions. Radon, however, was detected in order of miscellaneous volcanic rocks, rhyolite, andesite, basalt aquifer regions. The correlation coefficient between uranium and radon was r = 0.45, but we found that correlations of radionuclides with in-situ data or major ions were weak or no significant. The correlation coefficient between the depth of wells and uranium concentrations was a slightly higher than that of depth of wells and radons. Radionuclide concentrations in volcanic rock aquifers showed lower levels than those of other rock aquifers such as granite, metamorphic rock aquifers, etc. This result may imply difference of host rock's bearing-radioactive-mineral contents among rock types of aquifers.
Removal of Benzene in Solution by using the Bio-carrier with Dead Bacillus drentensis sp. and Polysulfone
Park, Sanghee ; Lee, Minhee ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 46~56
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.046
Laboratory scale experiments to remove benzene in solution by using the bio-carrier composed of dead biomass have been performed. The immobilized bio-carrier with dead Bacillus drentensis sp. and polysulfone was manufactured as the biosorbent. Batch sorption experiments were performed with bio-carriers having various quantities of biomass and then, their removal efficiencies and uptake capacities were calculated. From results of batch experiments, 98.0% of the initial benzene (1 mg/L) in 1 liter of solution was removed by using 40 g of immobilized bio-carrier containing 5% biomass within 1 hour and the biosorption reaction reached in equilibrium within 2 hours. Benzene removal efficiency slightly increased (99.0 to
) as the temperature increased from 15 to
, suggesting that the temperature rarely affects on the removal efficiency of the bio-carrier. The removal efficiency changed under the different initial benzene concentration in solution and benzene removal efficiency of the bio-carrier increased with the increase of the initial benzene concentration (0.001 to 10 mg/L). More than 99.0% of benzene was removed from solution when the initial benzene concentration ranged from 1 to 10 mg/L. From results of fitting process for batch experimental data to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, the removal isotherms of benzene were more well fitted to Freundlich model (
=0.9242) rather than Langmuir model (
=0.7453). From the column experiment, the benzene removal efficiency maintained over 99.0% until 420 pore volumes of benzene solution (initial benzene concentration: 1 mg/L) were injected in the column packed with bio-carriers, investigating that the immobilized carrier containing Bacillus drentensis sp. and polysulfone is the outstanding biosorbent to remove benzene in solution.
Assessment of Dredged Soils and Sediments Properties in the Lower Reach of Nakdong River and Coastal Areas of Busan for Beneficial Uses
Yi, Yongmin ; Kim, Gukjin ; Sung, Kijune ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 57~66
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.057
Although the quantity of dredged soils has increased owing to recent new harbor construction, sea course management, polluted sediment dredging, and four-river project, the reuse or recycling of those dredged soils has not done properly in Korea. To develop measures to utilize them in various ways for reuse or recycling, the biophysicochemical properties of dredged soils and sediment were assessed in this study. Samples were classified according to their sources-river and sea-by location, and as dredged soil and sediment depending on storage time. The results showed that dredged materials from the sea have high clay content and can be used for making bricks, tiles, and lightweight backfill materials, while dredged materials from the river have high sand content and can be used in sand aggregates. Separation procedures, depending on the intended application, should be carried out because all dredged materials are poorly sorted. All dredged soils and sediments have high salinity, and hence, salts should be removed before use for cultivation. Since dredged materials from the sea have adequate concentrations of nutrients, except phosphate, they can be used for creating and restoring coastal habitats without carrying out any additional removal processes. The high overall microbial activities in dredged materials from the river suggested that active degradation of organic matter, circulation of nutrients, and provision of nutrients may occur if these dredged materials are used for cultivation purpose.
Removal of Semi-volatile Soil Organic Contaminants with Microwave and Additives
Jeong, Sangjo ; Choi, Hyungjin ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 67~77
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.067
To improve the energy efficiency of conventional thermal treatment, soil remediation with microwave has been studied. In this study, the remediation efficiency of contaminated soil with semi-volatile organic contaminants were evaluated with microwave oven and several additives such as water, formic acid, iron powder, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, and activated carbon. For the experiment, loamy sand and sandy loam collected from Imjin river flood plain were intentionally contaminated with hexachlorobenzene and phenanthrene, respectively. The contaminated soils were treated with microwave facility and the mass removals of organic contaminants from soils were evaluated. Among additives that were added to increase the remediation efficiency, activated carbon and NaOH solution were more effective than water, iron powder, and formic acid. When 10 g of hexachlorobenzene (142.4 mg/kg-soil) or phenanthrene (2,138.8 mg/kg-soil) contaminated soil that mixed with 0.5 g iron powder, 0.5 g activated carbon and 1 ml 6.25 M NaOH solution were treated with microwave for 3 minutes, more than 95% of contaminants were removed. The degradation of hexachlorobenzene during microwave treatments with additives was confirmed by the detection of pentachlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene. Naphthalene and phenol were also detected as degradation products of phenanthrene during microwave treatment with additives. The results showed that adding a suitable amount of additives for microwave treatments fairly increased the efficiency of removing semi-volatile soil organic contaminants.
A Study on Remediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Explosives using Pulsed-UV System
Lee, Han-Uk ; Han, Jonghun ; Yoon, Yeomin ; Lee, Jongyeol ; Her, Namguk ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 78~84
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.078
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the removal process for long-term contamination sources including chlorinated hydrocarbons (TCE and PCE) and explosive compounds (TNT, RDX, and HMX) in underground water using a pulsed-UV system. Crystallized cells containing the contaminants were placed 10, 20, and 40 cm away from a lamp that emits pulsed-UV rays in order to examine how the removal efficiency is influenced by the distance between the source of the light and the compounds. Chlorinated hydrocarbons were completely removed in 30 minutes with a distance of 10 cm, while PCE was completely removed even with a distance of 20 cm. In the case of explosive compounds, removal efficiencies slightly varied depending on the compounds. The majority of the compounds were perfectly removed with a contact time of 10 minutes. In particular, for RDX, the results showed that complete removal was obtained within one minute, regardless of the distance from the UV source. The amount of light energy is in inverse proportion to the distance, and thus the energy reaching the compounds severely diminishes as the distance increases. Therefore, the removal efficiency decreased with increasing distance in the system.
Studies on Characterization of Soil Pollution and Variations of Heavy Metal Contents after Water-Tailings Reaction from Yonghwa Mine
Kang, Han ; Kim, Young-Hun ; Jang, Yun-Deuk ; Kim, Jeong-Jin ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 85~93
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.085
This study is conducted to evaluate the leaching of contaminants from mine tailing by natural water and finally to estimate the leaching and transportation of heavy metal contaminants by rainfall. In order to identify contaminated heavy metal of soil, 17 soil, 2 tailing and 2 waste dump and 2 control samples were taken at mine area and analyzed total metal contents. The leaching experiments were conducted using distilled water. Cu, Pb, Zn was extracted from the reddish mine tailing in a short period time, especially the extraction rate of Cu (45.0%) was highest. The contaminants were leached from the yellowish mine tailing within an hour and the leaching rate of Cd (42.0%) and Zn (17.2%) were relatively high. The reddish soil from the waste dump showed leaching of Cu (5.1%), Pb (4.0%) and Zn (3.3%), however the leaching rate was low except Mi (14.2%). From the yellowish soil sampled from the dumping site, the leaching of Cu (8.2%) and Ni (9.7%) was high while the leaching of Zn (0.2%) were relatively low.
Quantification of Uncertainty Associated with Soil Sampling and Its Reduction Approaches
Kim, Geonha ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 94~101
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.094
It is well known that uncertainty associated with soil sampling is bigger than that with analysis. In this research, uncertainties for soil sampling when assessing TPH and BTEX concentration in soils were quantified based on actual field data. It is almost impossible to assess exact contamination of the site regardless how carefully devised for sampling. Uncertainties associated with sample reduction for further chemical analysis were quantified approximately 10 times larger than those associated with core sampling on site. Bigger uncertainties occur when contamination level is low, sample quantity is small, and soil particle is coarse. To minimize the uncertainties on field, homogenization of soil sample is necessary and its procedures are proposed in this research as well.
Characteristics of Solidification/Carbonation in the Heavy-Metal-Contaminated Sediment Treated by MgO-Based Binder
Hwang, Kyung-Yup ; Seo, Jeong-Yun ; Phan, Hoang Quang Huy ; Ahn, Jun-Young ; Hwang, Inseong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 102~111
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.102
A novel MgO-based binder was developed and applied to treat the anoxic sediment that was collected from Seonakdong river, Korea and was contaminated with heavy metals. The treated sediment was evaluated by measuring compressive strength, expansion, leaching of heavy metals and storage characteristics for
. Initially, an optimal blending ratio of lime (L)/fly ash (FA)/blast furnace slag (BFS) that was to be mixed with MgO was screened to be
. Long-term strengths of the sediments that were treated by various mixtures of MgO and
were then evaluated and the blending ratios between 4 : 6 and 6 : 4 were found optimal, which yielded a compressive strength of 4.09 MPa. On this basis, the optimal MgO-based binder was selected to be a 5 : 5 mixture of MgO and
. The good performance of the MgO-based binder was believed to be due to the formation of Mg
, which filled the micropores and also increased the density of the solidified matrices. The MgO-based binder exhibited an average stabilizing capacities for heavy metals of 92.9%, which was similar to or higher than that of Portland cement. It was found that 69.1 kg of carbon dioxide could be sequestrated after 365 days of curing when treating a ton of anoxic sediments.
A Review on the Analytical Techniques for the Determination of Fluorine Contents in Soil and Solid Phase Samples
An, Jinsung ; Kim, Joo-Ae ; Yoon, Hye-On ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 112~122
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.112
Current status of soil contamination with fluorine and its source were investigated. The basic principles and procedures of various techniques for the analysis of fluorine contents in soil and solid phase samples were summarized in this review. Analysis of fluorine in solid matrices can be achieved by two types of techniques: (i) UV/Vis spectrophotometer or ion selective electrode (ISE) analysis after performing appropriate extraction steps and (ii) direct solid analysis. As the former cases, the standard method of Korean ministry of environment, alkali fusion-ISE method, pyrohydrolysis, oxygen bomb combustion, aqua regia digestion-automatic analysis, and sequential extraction-ISE method were introduced. In addition, direct analysis methods (i.e., X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and proton induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry) and atomic spectrometry combining with the equipment for introducing solid phase sample were also reviewed. Fluorine analysis techniques can be reasonably selected through site-specific information such as matrix condition, contamination level, the amount of samples and the principles of various methods for the analysis of fluorine presented in this review.
Water Quality and Sediment Contamination in the Iksan Stream
Seo, Young-Seok ; Cho, Min ; Oh, Byung-Taek ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 123~128
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.123
Water quality and contamination of sediment is a growing concern in the Iksan stream of Korea. Heavy metal contamination and changes in the physicochemical properties of the stream were evaluated. Water and sediment samples were collected from six sites during the dry and rainy seasons; pH, DO, EC, ORP, turbidity,
-N and selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, As, Zn, Cd, Hg) were measured. Results showed almost no change in pH between seasons. DO was highest at site 2 (~2.63 mg/L) in the dry season; EC (1,540 ms/m) was greatest at site 1 in both seasons. The ORP gradually increased from the dry to rainy season at most of the sites and was highest at site 5. Turbidity was highest at site 1 and gradually decreased from the dry to rainy season at all sites except site 3.
-P ranged from a high of 1,193mg/L at site 1 to in the dry season to a low of ~1.2 mg/L at site 4. In contrast,
-N was highest at site 3 in the rainy season (12,531 mg/L). Among the heavy metals measured, Cu and Zn concentrations were highest at all sediment sites. Cu and Zn are added to livestock feed to improve reproductive rates and can be carried to the stream with manure. Transport of sediment and heavy metals during the rainy season is the major source of stream contamination and it is important to continue monitoring and take necessary action in these areas.
Effect of Acid Buffering Capacity and Soil Component Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Phenanthrene using Electrokinetic-Fenton Process
Kim, Jung Hwan ; Na, So Jeong ; Park, Joo Yang ; Byun, Young Deog ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 129~136
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.129
This research was conducted to investigate effects of acid buffering capacity and soil component in treatment of phenanthrene using electrokinetic-Fenton process. In Hadong clay of high acid buffering and low iron oxide content, it was difficult to oxidize phenanthrene due to shortage of iron catalyst and scavenger effect of carbonate minerals. The desorbed phenanthrene conductive to Fenton oxidation was transported toward cathode by electroosmotic flow. However, in Youngdong illitic clay, oxidation of phenanthrene near anode readily occurred compared to Hadong clay due to high iron content and low acid buffering capacity.
Cost Analysis for the Carcass Burial Construction
Kim, Mihyung ; Kim, Geonha ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 1, 2013, Pages 137~147
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.1.137
A lot of burial sites for the disposal of the contagious livestock slaughtered by foot and mouth disease were constructed in a short time for preventing the rapid spread of the virus. More than 4,700 carcass burial sites were constructed in 2011. Approximately 7 million poultry and 3.5 million livestock including head of cattle and swine were buried in farm land. However, the available cost data for a burial site was not provided. This study was to performed in order to understand the economic issues related to carcass burial disposal. The data from a local government was analyzed and the assumption data web based was constructed to evaluate the cost for constructing a carcass burial. The results showed that the local government paid KRW 5,386 for the burial disposal of a mortality (swine). It was estimated that the cost could be reduced through an appropriate measures.