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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Dec 2013
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
A Review on Identification Methods for TCE Contamination Sources using Stable Isotope Compositions
Park, Youngyun ; Lee, Jin-Yong ; Na, Won Jong ; Kim, Rak-Hyeon ; Choi, Pil Sung ; Jun, Seong-Chun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.001
This study was performed to summarize application of
of trichloroethylene (TCE) to studies on environmental forensic field regarding identification of TCE sources and evaluation of contribution of TCE to groundwater using data collected from literatures.
of TCE give some information regarding sources of TCE because they show specific value according to manufacturing method. Also, TCE do not show a significant isotopic fractionation owing to adsorption and dilution. The isotopic fractionation mainly occurs by biodegradation. In addition, isotopic fractionation factor for TCE is different according to a kind of microorganism participated in biodegradation. However, the isotopic data of TCE have to be applied with chemical compositions of TCE and other hydrogeologic factors because isotopic fractionation of TCE is influenced by various factors.
Analyzing the Effect of Groundwater Dam Construction Using Groundwater Modeling
Kim, Ji-Wook ; Lim, Kyung-Nam ; Park, Hyun-Jin ; Rhee, Bo-Kyoung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 11~22
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.011
SEAWAT, a linked modeling program of Visual MODFLOW was used to analyze the change in groundwater levels and salinity related groundwater dam construction in Cheongsan island, Wando-Gun, Jeollanam-Do. The steady-state model results show the groundwater flow and salinity distribution of the studied area. The groundwater flows from north-west and south-east highlands into the river, located in the middle part of the basin, and is eventually discharged to the ocean. Part of the sea water infiltrates into the river; and through the estuary's alluvium aquifer, the sea water intrusion takes place spreading to about 830 m from the ocean. The transient model results show that after the groundwater dam construction, groundwater levels will rise to a maximum of 2.0 m upstream, and the groundwater storage will increase 21,000 after 10 years. Meanwhile 31% of the total area affected by sea water intrusion will decrease. To conclude, the groundwater dam is a very useful method for a secure water resource in preparation for drought and water shortages in the island regions.
Comparative Study of Groundwater Threshold Values in European Commission and Member States for Improving Management of Groundwater Quality in Korea
Nam, Sun-Hwa ; Lee, Woo-Mi ; Jeong, Seung-Woo ; Kim, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Huyn-Koo ; Kim, Tae-Seung ; An, Youn-Joo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 23~32
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.023
Korean groundwater quality standards were established in 1994, and revised in 2003 and 2010. The substances for which standards have been developed are classified into two groups, general pollutants, 4, and specific pollutants, 15. The standards have been applied to household water use, agriculture, aquaculture, and industrial use. However, there is no systematic methodology for either selecting candidate substances or establishing groundwater standards. We investigated various derivation methodologies for groundwater standards used by the European Commission and 27 member states and compared their methods for determining threshold values. The European Commission presented to their member states groundwater standards for two substances and a list of required substances for derivation of threshold values along with the member states. Interestingly, they first considered national background levels and then considered other criteria for water protection, such as drinking water standards, environmental quality standards, and irrigation standards. We suggest that Korean background levels in groundwater should be included in the methodology for establishing groundwater quality standards. These results may be useful in developing a systematic methodology for establishing Korean groundwater quality standards.
Characterization of Nitrate Contamination and Hydrogeochemistry of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area of Northeastern Hongseong
Ki, Min-Gyu ; Koh, Dong-Chan ; Yoon, Heesung ; Kim, Hyun-Su ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 33~51
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.033
Spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrate contamination and hydrogeochemical parameters were investigated for springs and surficial and bedrock groundwaters in northeastern part of Hongseong. Two field investigations were conducted at dry and wet seasons in 2011 for 120 sites including measurement of field parameters with chemical analyses of major dissolved constituents. Nitrate concentrations were at background levels in springs while 45% of bedrock groundwater and 49% of surficial groundwater exceeded the drinking water standard of nitrate (10 mg/L as
-N). The difference in nitrate concentrations between surficial and bedrock groundwater was statistically insignificant. Cumulative frequency distribution of nitrate concentrations revealed two inflection points of 2 and 16 mg/L as
-N. Correlation analysis of hydrogeochemical parameters showed that nitrate had higher correlations with Sr, Mg, Cl, Na, and Ca, in surficial groundwater in both dry and wet season. In contrast, nitrate had much weaker correlations with other hydrogeochemical parameters in bedrock groundwater compared to surficial groundwater and had significant correlations only in wet season. Temporally, nitrate and chloride concentrations decreased and dissolved oxygen (DO) increased from dry season to wet season, which indicates that increased recharge during the wet season affected groundwater quality. Aerobic conditions were predominant for both surficial and bedrock groundwater indicating low natural attenuation potential of nitrate in the aquifers of the study area.
A Study on Radon Removal Efficiencies in Drinking Water according to the Variations of Water Temperature and Aeration Rate in Small Waterwork Facility
Kim, Hyun Gu ; Choi, Jung Soo ; Joo, Hyun Jong ; Kim, Sung Chul ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 52~57
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.052
Radon, which is one of the radioactive elements in the natural world, exists in the atmosphere and water. When this element inflows into the human body, it carries the risks of developing lung cancer and stomach cancer. Therefore, in this study, an effective 10 L scaled reactor was produced to mitigate radon in water and the radon mitigation efficiency in water following the changes in water temperature and amount of aeration were evaluated. Based on this, the radon mitigation efficiency (SRRR; Specific radon removal rate) was derived per unit air volume. According to the study result, when water temperature increased from
, the SRRR value increased from 95
, and when the amount of aeration increased from 0.2 L/min to 1 L/min, the SRRR value decreased from 198.1
. Therefore, based on the experimental results, it is considered that it can be applied as a examination factor and objective indicator during the design of future radon-in-water mitigation systems.
A Study on the Removal of Heavy Metals in Soil by Sewage Sludge Biochar
Kim, Hye-Won ; Bae, Sunyoung ; Lee, Jai-Young ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 58~64
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.058
This study proposed a low temperature hydrothermal carbonization to treat and recycle sewage sludge and determined the optimal conditions for the biochar production. The physical and chemical properties of biochar were analyzed and its sorption capacity for heavy metals was evaluated. To produce biochar, 50 g of sewage sludge was heated at 220, 230, and
for 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 10 hours in a reactor. The optimal conditions to produce biochar was
and 8 hours. Sorption capacity tests were conducted for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni). Among them, lead was shown the highest heavy metal adsorption efficiency of biochar, followed by copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel, but arsenic was hardly adsorbed overall.
Treatment of Melamine by GAC Adsorption According to Adsorbent Size: Kinetics and Dispersion-Diffusion
Lee, Jai-Yeop ; Lee, Sangjung ; Han, Ihnsup ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 65~72
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.065
Adsorption of melamine was examined using columns packed with granular activated carbon (GAC). Raw GAC was sieved with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mesh to determine the influence of adsorbent particle size on reaction and diffusion. The mass ratio of the adsorption capacity of GAC for melamine ranged from 9.19 to 11.06%, and adsorption rates increased with decreasing particle size within this range. Rate constants between 3.295 ~ 4.799
were obtained using a pseudofirst-order equation that was used to determine adsorption kinetics. A surface diffusion model was adapted to take into account the unsteady-state equation of a spherical adsorbent by converting the surface concentration from a constant to a variable governed by a dispersion equation. The calculated values were fit with the experimental results by using the diffusion coefficients as regression parameters. The modified equation exhibited a more precise agreement with respect to the sum of the absolute error (SAE).
Effects of Soil Remediation Methods on the Biological Properties of Soils
Yi, Yongmin ; Kim, Gukjin ; Sung, Kijune ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 73~81
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.073
Various remediation methods have been applied to clean soils contaminated with pollutants. They remove contaminants from the soils by utilizing physicochemical, biological, and thermal processes and can satisfy soil remediation standards within a limited time; however, they also have an effect on the biological functions of soils by changing soil properties. In this study, changes of the biological properties of soils before and after treatment with three frequently used remediation methods-soil washing, land farming, and thermal desorption-were monitored to investigate the effects of remediation methods on soil biological functions. Total microbial number and soil enzyme activities, germination rate and growth of Brassica juncea, biomass change of Eisenia andrei were examined the effects on soil microorganisms, plant, and soil organisms, respectively. After soil washing, the germination rate of Brassica juncea increased but the above-ground growth and total microbial number decreased. Dehydrogenase activity, germination rate and above-ground growth increased in both land farming and thermal desorption treated soil. Although the growth of Eisenia andrei in thermal desorption treated soil was higher than any other treatment, it was still lower than that in non-contaminated soil. These results show that the remediation processes used to clean contaminated soil also affect soil biological functions. To utilize the cleaned soil for healthy and more value-added purposes, soil improvement and process development are needed.
Environmental Characteristics of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (
Rn) Concentration in Drinking Groundwaters of Metamorphic Rock Areas: Korea
Ju, Byoung Kyu ; Kim, Moon Su ; Jeong, Do Hwan ; Hong, Jung Ki ; Kim, Dong Su ; Noh, Hoe Jung ; Yoon, Jeong Ki ; Kim, Tae Seung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 82~92
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.082
This study has investigated naturally occurring radioactive materials (N.O.R.M;
) for 353 drinking groundwater wells in metamorphic rock areas in Korea. Uranium concentrations ranged from N.D (not detected) to 563.56
(median value, 0.68
) and radon concentrations ranged from 108 to 11,612 pCi/L (median value, 1,400 pCi/L). Uranium and radon concentrations in the groundwater generally are similar to USA with similar geological setting. Uranium concentrations in 9 wells (2.6%) exceeded 30
, which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) by the US environmental protection agency (EPA), radon concentrations in 46 wells (13%) exceeded 4,000 pCi/L, which is the Alternative MCL (AMCL) by the US.EPA. The log-log correlation coefficient between uranium and radon was 0.32. The correlation coefficient between uranium and pH was 0.12 and the correlation coefficient between radon and temperature was -0.01. The correlation coefficient between uranium and
was 0.09 and the correlation coefficient between uranium and Ca was 0.11. The median value of uranium was high Chung-Buk (1.78
), Gyeong-Buk (1.37
), In-Cheon (1.06
) for each province. On the other hand, the median value of radon was high In-Cheon (2,962 pCi/L), Chung-Buk (2,339 pCi/L), Jeon-Buk (2,165 pCi/L) for each province. Jeon-Buk for log-log correlation coefficient is the highest (0.63) among provinces.
Study on the Contamination Characteristics of Pollutants at Various type of Abandoned Metal Mines
Lee, Jong-Deuk ; Kim, Tae Dong ; Kim, Sun Gu ; Kim, Hee-Joung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 93~108
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.093
This study is aimed to prepare the effective detail survey methods(Phase II) of abandoned metal mines through the contamination assessment for mine types and facilities in the abandoned metal mine areas. The study sites of 12 abandoned mines are located in Gyeonggi-do and Gangwon-do and those were chosen among 310 sites that the Phase II survey was conducted from 2007 to 2009 after considering the results of Phase I for abandoned mines scattered all over the country. 12 study sites were classified into four types; Type I sites only have pit mouth. Type II sites have pit mouth and mine-waste field. Type III sites have pit mouth and tailing sorting field. Type IV sites have pit mouth, tailing sorting field and concentrator(s). In forest land, paddy soil and farm land of Type I, As and Cd were showed average concentration, and Cu and Pb were high on the pit mouth area in one mines where the pit mouth was developed within 500 m. In the mines of Type II, Cu and Pb were showed average concentration too, but As and Cd were slightly high in pit mouth and mine-waste field. The mines of Type III which had grinding particle process through physical separation milling or hitting showed similar tendency with Type II. However, mines of Type IV pit mouth, mine-waste field and showed various results depending on defining the contamination sources. For example, if contamination source was pit mouth, the mixed results of Type I, II, II were showed. In tailing sorting field which was regarded as the most important source and having high mobility, however, if there were no facilities or it was difficult to access directly, field sampling was missed occasionally during phase I and phase II survey. For that reason, the assessment for tailing sorting field is missed and it leads to completely different results. In the areas of Type I mines, the concentration of heavy metals exceeded precautionary standards of soil contamination or not within 1,000 meters of pit mouth. Nickel(Ni) was the largest factor of the heavy metal contamination in this type. The heavy metals except Arsenic(As) were shown high levels of concentration in Type II areas, where pit mouth and mine-waste field were operated for making powder in upriver region; therefore, to the areas in the vicinity of midstream and downstream, the high content of heavy metals were shown. The tendency of high level of heavy metals and toxic materials contained in flotation agent used during sorting process were found in soil around sorting and tailing field. In the abandoned-pit-mouth area, drygrinding area and tailing sorting field area, the content of Cupper(Cu) and Zinc(Zn) were higher than other areas. Also, the contaminated area were larger than mine reclamation area(2,000 m) and the location of tailing sorting field was one of the important factors to estimate contaminated area.
Characterization of the Transport of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles in an Aquifer for Application of Reactive Zone Technology
Kim, Cheolyong ; Ahn, Jun-Young ; Ngoc, Tuan Huynh ; Kim, Hong-Seok ; Jun, Seong-Chun ; Hwang, Inseong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 109~118
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.109
Characteristics of the transport of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) in an aquifer were investigated to evaluate an application of nZVI-based reactive zone technology. Main flow direction of groundwater was north. Preferential flow paths of the groundwater identified by natural gradient tracer test were shown northeast and northwest. The highest groundwater velocity was
m/s toward northwest. When the breakthrough curves obtained from the gravity injection of nZVI were compared with the tracer curves, the transport of nZVI was retarded and retardation factors were 1.17 and 1.34 at monitoring wells located on the northeast and northwest, respectively. The ratios of the amount of nZVI delivered to the amount of tracer delivered at the two wells mentioned above were 24 and 28 times greater than that of the well on the main flow direction, respectively. Attachment efficiency based on a filtration theory was
along the northwest direction that was the main migration route of nZVI. Our results, compared to attachment efficiencies obtained in other studies, demonstrate that the mobility of nZVI was higher than that of results reported in previous studies, regardless of large iron particle sizes of the current study. Based on distribution of nZVI estimated by the attachment efficiency, it was found that nZVI present within 1.05 m from injection well could remove 99% of TCE within 6 months.
A Comparative Study of Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Methods: Application in Gumma, Korea
Ki, Min-Gyu ; Yoon, Heesung ; Koh, Dong-Chan ; Hamm, Se-Yeong ; Lee, Chung-Mo ; Kim, Hyun-Su ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 119~133
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2013.18.3.119
In the present study, several groundwater vulnerability assessment methods were applied to an agricultural area of Gumma in Korea. For the groundwater intrinsic vulnerability assessment, the performance of DRASTIC, SINTACS and GOD models was compared and an ensemble approach was suggested. M-DRASTIC and multi-linear regression (MLR) models were applied for the groundwater specific vulnerability assessment to nitrate of the study site. The correlation coefficient between the nitrate concentration and M-DRASTIC index was as low as 0.24. The result of the MLR model showed that the correlation coefficient is 0.62 and the areal extents of livestock farming and upland field are most influential factors for the nitrate contamination of groundwater in the study site.