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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
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The Characteristics of the Biochar with the Synthetic Food Waste and Wood Waste for Soil Contaminated with Heavy Metals
Baek, Ye-Seul ; Lee, Jai-Young ; Park, Seong-Kyu ; Bae, Sunyoung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.1.001
When processing the biomass by Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), a slow pyrolysis process, it produces bio-gas, biooil, and biochar. Among these end products, biochar is known for isolating or storing carbon and being used as a soil amendment. In this study, the characteristics of biochar generated by HTC at
for 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, and 20 hours with synthetic food wastes and wood wastes were analyzed for potential uses in soil contaminated with heavy metals. The yield of biochar (weight %) increased when the ratio of wood wastes increased and showed a decreasing tendency as reaction time increased. Elemental analysis of biochar based on various conditions showed a maximum of 70% carbon (C) content. The carbon content showed an increasing tendency with the increase of wood wastes. Iodine adsorption test was peformed to determine the optimum reaction condition, which was 15% wood waste for mixing ratio and 2 hours for reaction time. Using biochar generated at the optimum condition, its capability of adsorbing heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni) was evaluated. It was concluded that lead (Pb) was removed efficiently while zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) were hardly adsorbed by biochar.
Pollution Level of Heavy Metals of Asian Dust in Daejeon Area, 2008
Lee, Pyeong-Koo ; Bae, Beob-Geun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 1, 2014, Pages 8~25
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.1.008
The aims of this study were to determine concentrations of selected metals in Asian and non-Asian dust collected in Daejeon, Korea between February 2008 and December 2008 and to estimate the pollution level. The geochemical analyses of Asian dust (AD) and Non Asian dust (NAD) show that the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Zr, Sb, Mo and S reached levels up to 16, 209, 31, 43, 81, 28, 31, 122 and 302 times higher, respectively, than those in uncontaminated Chinese desert soils. These results indicate that both AD and NAD serve as an atmospheric repository for trace and heavymetal accumulation. The the enrichment factor (EF) and pollution index (PI) show that AD and NAD were severely contaminated by S, Mo, Zr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Sb, Cu, and As. All indices for these metals showed either strong or notably high level of pollution relative to Chinese desert soil, principally due to the severe atmospheric pollution derived from anthropogenic activities in heavily industrial Chinese cities. Therefore, Mo, Cd, Zr, As, Cu, Sb, Pb, and Zn are the ones most strongly affected by anthropogenic inputs such as airborne pollutants.
Quantification of Uncertainty Associated with Environmental Site Assessments and Its Reduction Approaches
Kim, Geonha ; Back, JongHwan ; Song, Yong-Woo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 1, 2014, Pages 26~33
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.1.026
Uncertainty associated with a sampling method is very high in evaluating the degree of site contamination; therefore, such uncertainty affects the reliability of precise investigation and remediation verification. In particular, in evaluating a site for a small-sized filling station, underground utilities, such as connection pipes and oil storage tanks, make grid-unit sampling impossible and the resulting increase in uncertainty is inevitable. Accordingly, this study quantified the uncertainty related to the evaluation of the degree of contamination by total petroleum hydrocarbon and by benzene, toluene, ethylene, and xylene. When planning a grid aimed at detecting a hot spot, major factors that influence the increase in uncertainty include grid interval and the size and shape of the hot spot. The current guideline for soil sampling prescribes that the grid interval increase in proportion to the area of the evaluated site, but this heightens the possibility that a hot spot will not be detected. In evaluating a site, therefore, it is crucial to estimate the size and shape of the hot spot in advance and to establish a sampling plan considering a diversity of scenarios.
Effect of Soil Micro-environments on the Remediation Efficiency of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater: Review and Case Study
Shim, Moo Joon ; Yang, Jung-Seok ; Lee, Mi Jung ; Lee, Giehyeon ; Park, Jae Seon ; Kim, Guk Jin ; Min, Sang Yoon ; Kim, Joo Young ; Choi, Min Joo ; Kim, Min Chan ; Lim, Jong Hwan ; Kwon, Man Jae ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 1, 2014, Pages 34~45
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.1.034
A variety of physical, chemical, and microbiological techniques have been developed to deal with soil and groundwater contamination. However, in the presence of the large portion of soil micro-environments, contaminant rebound and/or tailing have been frequently reported. Case study of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal by full-scale land farming showed that contaminant rebound and/or tailing occurred in 9 out of total 21 cases and subsequently resulted in problems of a long term operation to satisfy TPH guidelines of contaminated soil and groundwater. The main cause of contaminant rebound and tailing is considered to be the strong interactions between contaminants and micro-environments including micro-particles, micro-pores, and organic matter. Thus, this study reviewed the effects of soil micro-environments of soil and groundwater on the removal efficiency for both heavy metals and petroleum contaminants. In addition, the various methods of sampling, analysis, and assessment of soil micro-environments were evaluated. Thorough understanding of the effects of soil micro-environments on contaminant removal will be essential to achieve a cost-effective and efficient solution to contaminated sites.
Assessment of the Adsorption Capacity of Cadmium and Arsenic onto Paper Mill Sludge Using Batch Experiment
Baek, Jongchan ; Yeo, Seulki ; Park, Junboum ; Back, Jonghwan ; Song, Youngwoo ; Igarashi, T. ; Tabelin, C.B. ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 1, 2014, Pages 46~53
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.1.046
The purpose of this study is to promote utilization of paper mill sludge as an adsorbent for stabilizing heavy metals in contaminated water by measuring the adsorption capacity of paper mill sludge for cadmium and arsenic. To measure adsorption capacity of paper mill sludge, sorption isotherm experiments were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Also, two methods of chemical modifications were applied to improve the adsorption capacities of paper-mill-sludge: the first method used sodium hydroxide (NaOH), called PMS-1, and the second method used the NaOH and tartaric acid (
) together, called PMS-2. For Cd adsorption, PMS-1 presented the increase of reactivity while PMS-2 presented the decline of reactivity compared to that of untreated paper-mill-sludge. In case of As adsorption, both PMS-1 and PMS-2 showed the decrease of adsorption capacities. This is because zeta-potential of paper mill sludge was changed to more negative values during chemical modification process due to the hydroxyl group in NaOH and the carboxyl group in
, respectively. Therefore, we may conclude that the chemical treatment process increases adsorption capacity of paper mill sludge for cation heavy metals such as Cd but not for As.
Biotic and Abiotic Reduction of Goethite (α-FeOOH) by Subsurface Microorganisms in the Presence of Electron Donor and Sulfate
Kwon, Man Jae ; Yang, Jung-Seok ; Shim, Moo Joon ; Lee, Seunghak ; Boyanov, Maxim ; Kemner, Kenneth ; O`Loughlin, Edward ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 1, 2014, Pages 54~62
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.1.054
To better understand dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction (DIR and DSR) by subsurface microorganisms, we investigated the effects of sulfate and electron donors on the microbial goethite (
-FeOOH) reduction. Batch systems were created 1) with acetate or glucose (donor), 2) with goethite and sulfate (acceptor), and 3) with aquifer sediment (microbial source). With 0.2 mM sulfate, goethite reduction coupled with acetate oxidation was limited. However, with 10 mM sulfate, 8 mM goethite reduction occurred with complete sulfate reduction and x-ray absorption fine-structure analysis indicated the formation of iron sulfide. This suggests that goethite reduction was due to the sulfide species produced by DSR bacteria rather than direct microbial reaction by DIR bacteria. Both acetate and glucose promoted goethite reduction. The rate of goethite reduction was faster with glucose, while the extent of goethite reduction was higher with acetate. Sulfate reduction (10 mM) occurred only with acetate. The results suggest that glucose-fermenting bacteria rapidly stimulated goethite reduction, but acetate-oxidizing DSR bacteria reduced goethite indirectly by producing sulfides. This study suggests that the availability of specific electron donor and sulfate significantly influence microbial community activities as well as goethite transformation, which should be considered for the bioremediation of contaminated environments.
Nitrate Reduction by Fe(0)/iron Oxide Mineral Systems: A Comparative Study using Different Iron Oxides
Song, Hocheol ; Jeon, Byong-Hun ; Cho, Dong-Wan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 1, 2014, Pages 63~69
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.1.063
This paper presents the feasibility of using different iron oxides (microscale hematite (HT), microscale magnetite (MT), and nanoscale maghemite (NMH)) in enhancing nitrate reduction by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) under two solution conditions (artificial acidic water and real groundwater). Addition of MT and NMH into Fe(0) system resulted in enhancement of nitrate reduction compared to Fe(0) along reaction, especially in groundwater condition, while HT had little effect on nitrate reduction in both solutions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis showed association of MT and NMH with Fe(0) surface, presumably due to magnetic attraction. The rate enhancement effect of the minerals is presumed to arise from its role as an electron mediator that facilitated electron transport from Fe(0) to nitrate. The greater enhancement of MT and NMH in groundwater was attributed to surface charge neutralization by calcium and magnesium ions in groundwater, which in turn facilitated adsorption of nitrate on Fe(0) surface.