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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
A Study on Pump and Treat Design through Evaluation of Radius of Influence
Kim, Jeong-Woo ; Lee, Kang-Kun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1~14
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.001
It is necessary to decide the pumping rate and pumping well location together with the capture zone in order to determine an appropriate groundwater remediation strategy to manage the contaminated groundwater. The relationship between the capture zone and the drawdown radius of influence (
) was considered.
is defined as the distance where the criteria of drawdown is cs meter from pumping well in this paper. A method to decide the required pumping rate for the remediation of contaminated groundwater in order to create appropriate
is suggested by using the Theis equation (1935) and Cooper-Jacob equation (1946). It was shown in this study that
is in proportion to the pumping rate and the criteria of drawdown, which decides
, is inversely proportional to Ti value (transmissivity
hydraulic gradient). The pumping rate which creates the required
could be planned through the relationship between the
and pumping rates (
-Q curve) of the field sites 1, 2 and 3. If the drawdown is investigated along with Ti value and pumping rate at a specific site where pump and treat remediation is planned, it is expected that the required criteria of drawdown can be evaluated by using the relationship between the cs and Ti (cs-Ti curve).
Review of the Extraction Methods of Soil Extracts, Soil Elutriates, and Soil Suspensions for Ecotoxicity Assessments
Nam, Sun-Hwa ; An, Youn-Joo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 15~24
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.015
Soil pollution has been recognized as a serious problem because it causes groundwater pollution through medium contacts. Although concentration of individual chemical could be more easily measured by physico-chemical analysis, it is not easy to consider the bioavailability of edaphic receptors living in soil or groundwater. To measure the toxicity of soil, the soil extracts (soil elutriates or soil suspensions in the other words) are often used due to the difficulties of extracting soil pore water. In this study, we reviewed 15 toxicity test methods found in literature to analyze the detail of each extraction method and to recommend the most frequently used extraction methods. The identified most commonly used extraction methods are as following: The 1 : 4 soil:water ratio, 24 hours shaking time, room temperature, dark, and separation of supernatant using a
pore size filter.
Phyto-restoration Potential of Soil Properties using Secale cereale for Recycle of Soils with Residual TPHs (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) after Off-site Treatment
Park, Jieun ; Bae, Bumhan ; Joo, Wanho ; Bae, Seidal ; Bae, Enjoo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 25~32
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.025
The amount of TPH contaminated soil treated at off-site remediation facilities is ever increasing. For the recycle of the treated-soil on farmlands, it is necessary to restore biological and physico-chemical soil characteristics and to remove residual TPH in the soil by an economic polishing treatment method such as phytoremediation. In this study, a series of experiments was performed to select suitable plant species and to devise a proper planting method for the phyto-restoration of TPH-treated soil. Rye (Secale cereale) was selected as test species through a germination test, among 5 other plants. Five 7-day-old rye seedlings were planted in a plastic pot, 20 cm in height and 15 cm in diameter. The pot was filled with TPH-treated soil (residual TPH of 1,118 mg/kg) up to 15 cm, and upper 5 cm was filled with horticulture soil to prevent TPH toxic effects and to act as root growth zone. The planted pot was cultivated in a greenhouse for 38 days along with the control that rye planted in a normal soil and the blank with no plants. After 38 days, the above-ground biomass of rye in the TPH-treated soil was 30.6% less than that in the control, however, the photosynthetic activity of the leaf remained equal on both treatments. Soil DHA (dehydrogenase activity) increased 186 times in the rye treatment compared to 10.8 times in the blank. The gross TPH removal (%) in the planted soil and the blank soil was 34.5% and 18.4%, respectively, resulting in 16.1% increase of net TPH removal. Promotion of microbial activity by root exudate, increase in soil permeability and air ventilation as well as direct uptake and degradation by planted rye may have contributed to the higher TPH removal rate. Therefore, planting rye on the TPH-treated soil with the root growth zone method showed both the potential of restoring biological soil properties and the possibility of residual TPH removal that may allow the recycle of the treated soil to farmlands.
Efficiency Assessment of Wastewater Treatment Plant and Groundwater Level by Pump and Treat Technology Applied for Petroleum Contaminated Site
Cho, Chang-Hwan ; Kim, Joon-Ho ; Park, Min-Kyu ; Kim, Tae-Hyung ; Choi, Yoen-Soo ; Choi, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 33~38
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.033
This study was performed to evaluate the applicability of pump and treat technology as well as to identify the changes of groundwater level by continuous pumping at the petroleum contaminated site. A total of 9 monitoring wells were installed at the site and the contaminant concentrations, TPH, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene, of groundwater were measured. With the results of the groundwater monitoring, a total of 9 wells were set up for pumping contaminated groundwater in 3 locations. The waste water treatment facility with a capacity of
was installed in the site and operated for about 1 year. The concentrations of the contaminated groundwater from the 3 pumping wells were exceeded groundwater regulation for benzene and TPH. However, the effluent concentration of benzene and TPH was under the regulation showing the maximum level of 0.011 mg/L and 1.2 mg/L during the operation periods. Groundwater levels were decreased by continuous pumping and those were not recovered during the operation period. Groundwater levels of PW-1,2, PW-3,4,5,6 and PW-7,8,9 were decreased about 5 m, 0.7 m, 2 m, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of the region of PW-1,2, PW-3,4,5,6 and PW-7,8,9 was estimated to be
. Groundwater level was seemed to be affected not by hydraulic conductivity but by morphological effect. These results show that the pump and treat technology has high applicability for the restoration of petroleum contaminated groundwater but needs continuous monitoring to prevent rapid groundwater drawdown.
A Relationship between Hydraulic Conductivity and Electrical Properties of Silty Sand on the Riverside of the Nakdong River
Kim, Soo-Dong ; Park, Samgyu ; Hamm, Se-Yeong ; Oh, Yun-Yeong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 39~46
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.039
Hydraulic conductivity is an important parameter, representing permeable property of the groundwater in aquifers, in the issues of groundwater development, groundwater contamination, and groundwater flow, etc. We estimated a relationship between hydraulic conductivity and electrical properties (formation factor, chargeability, and time constant) of silty sand in the laboratory. For this study, we conducted grain size analysis, constant head permeameter test, and measured electrical resistivity and spectral induced polarization of silty sand samples collected from the riverside alluvium of the Nakdong River in Nogok-ri area, Dasan-myeon, Goryeong-gun in Gyeongbook Province, Korea. In the laboratory test, we used soil samples of approximately uniform porosity with 0.5% error range, and kept the electrical resistivity of pore water with 100 ohm-m. As a result, the relationship between effective particle size and hydraulic conductivity agrees fairly well with the existing empirical formulas. Hydraulic conductivity was correlated with formation factor, chargeability, and time constant: hydraulic conductivity increased with increasing formation factor and time constant as well as with decreasing chargeability.
Overexpression and Purification of Monooxygenases Cloned from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 for Enzymatic Decomposition of 4-Chlorophenol
Ryu, Song-Jung ; Kang, Christina S. ; Kim, Han S. ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 47~55
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.047
Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 possesses several monooxygenases (CphC-I, CphC-II, and CphB) that can catalyze the transformation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) to hydroxylated intermediates in the initial steps of substrate metabolism. The corresponding genes of the monooxygenases were cloned, and the competent cells were transformed with these recombinant plasmids. Although CphC-II and CphB were expressed as insoluble forms, CphC-I was successfully expressed as a soluble form and isolated by purification. The specific activity of the purified CphC-I was analyzed by using 4-CP, 4-chlorocatechol (4-CC), and catechol (CAT) as substrates. The specific activities for 4-CP, 4-CC, and CAT were determined to be 0.312 U/mg, 0.462 U/mg, 0.246 U/mg, respectively. The results of this study indicated that CphC-I is able to catalyze the degradation of 4-CC and CAT in addition to 4-CP, which is a primary substrate. This research is expected to provide the fundamental information for the development of an eco-friendly biochemical degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons.
Optimization of Explosive Compounds (TNT and RDX) Biodegradation by Indigenous Microorganisms Activated by External Carbon Source
Park, Jieun ; Bae, Bumhan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 56~65
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.056
Contamination of explosive compounds in the soils of military shooting range may pose risks to human and ecosystems. As shooting ranges are located at remote places, active remediation processes with hardwares and equipments are less practical to implement than natural solutions such as bioremediaton. In this study, a series of experiments was conducted to select a suitable carbon source and to optimize dosing rate for the enhanced bioremediation of explosive compounds in surface soils and sediments of shooting ranges with indigenous microorganisms activated by external carbon source. Treatability study using slurry phase reactors showed that the presence of indigenous microbial community capable of explosive compounds degradation in the shooting range soils, and starch was a more effective carbon source than glucose and acetic acid in the removal of TNT. However, at higher starch/soil ratio, i.e., 2.0, the acute toxicity of the liquid phase increased possibly due to transformation products of TNT. RDX degradation by indigenous microorganisms was also stimulated by the addition of starch but the acute toxicity of the liquid phase decreased with the increase of starch/soil ratio. Taken together, the optimum range of starch/soil ratio for the degradation of explosive compounds without significant increase in acute toxicity was found to be 0.2 of starch/soil.
Determining Optimal Locations of an Artificial Recharge Well using an Optimization-coupled Groundwater Flow Model
Lee, Hyeonju ; Koo, Min-Ho ; Kim, Yongcheol ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 66~81
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.066
A Fortran program was developed to determine the optimal locations of an artificial recharge well. Three objective functions were considered: (1) maximizing the recovery rates, (2) maximizing the injection rates, and (3) minimizing the coefficient of variation of the increased pumping rates. We also suggested a new aggregate objective function which combined the first and the third objective functions. The model results showed that locating the injection well inside the cluster of pumping wells was desirable if either the recovery or the injection rate was taken into account. However, the injection well located outside the cluster evenly increased the pumping rates in existing pumping wells. Therefore, for clustered pumping wells, installing an injection well at the center or the upstream of the pumping wells seems beneficial. For linear arrangement of pumping wells parallel to the constant head boundary, locating the injection well in the upstream was recommended. On the contrary, in case of the linear arrangement perpendicular to the constant head boundary, the injection well installed on both sides of the central part of the pumping wells was preferable.
Shifts in Biochemical Environments and Subsequent Degradation of Explosive Compounds (TNT and RDX) by Starch Ball Addition in the Benthic Zone of Bench Scale Settling Basins
Park, Jieun ; Bae, Bumhan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 82~93
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.082
A starch ball was devised to conveniently supply carbon source to indigenous microorganisms and to enhance biotransformation of explosive compounds(TNT and RDX) in the sediments of settling basins installed in military shooting ranges. To identify optimum dose/sediment ratio for degradation of explosives in the basin, a series of bench scale settling basin experiments were performed for 30 days while monitoring supernatant pH, DO, concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, explosive compounds, and acute toxicity measured by bacterial luminescence. Addition of starch ball induced changes in oxidation conditions from oxic to anoxic in the benthic zone of the basin, which resulted in subsequent reductive degradation of both TNT and RDX in the liquid and solid phase of basin. However, fermentation products of excess starch, acetic acid and formic acid, caused acute toxicity in the liquid phase. The optimum ratio of starch ball/sediment for explosive compounds degradation by inducing changes in bio-geochemical environments without increase in acute toxicity, was found to be 0.009~0.017.
Desorption of Heavy Petroleum Oils and Heavy Metals from Soils by Flushing Agents
Yun, Sung Mi ; Kim, Gil Ran ; Lim, Hee Jun ; Kim, Han S. ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 94~103
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.094
In this study washing efficiency and desorption isotherms for heavy petroleum oil (HPO), Zn, and Pb bound to complex contaminated soils were examined using various soil flushing agents. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), methanol, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and citric acid were selected as soil flushing agents. 3% (w/v) and 4% SDS showed the highest removal efficiency for HPO, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Thus, 3% SDS was chosen as the best soil flushing agent for HPO. In the case of heavy metals, 0.1-M EDTA showed the highest removal efficiencies. But 0.05-M citric acid was selected due to its economic and eco-friendly strengths. The desorption isotherms obtained using Freundlich and Langmuir models indicated that the maximum desorption characteristics (
) of HPO with 4% SDS and 90% methanol and heavy metals with 0.1-M EDTA and 0.1-M citric acid, respectively, were markedly lower than in other cases. In addition, when 4% SDS and 90% methanol were used for HPO in the range of
higher than 600 mg/L, and when 0.1M citric acid and 0.1M EDTA were used for Zn and Pb in the range of
higher than 300 and 100 mg/L, respectively, the distribution constant converged to certain levels. Thus, constant values of
were determined. It was found that these constants represent the maximum desorption capacity and they can be used as distribution coefficients of desorption equilibrium for the flushing agents. The results of this study provided fundamental information for the selection of the best agents as well as for the process design and operation of soil washing/soil flushing of complex contaminated soils.
Study on The Gross Alpha Analysis Method with LSC
Ju, Byoung Kyu ; Kim, Moon Su ; Kim, Hyun Koo ; Kim, Dong Su ; Kim, Young Rok ; Jeong, Do Hwan ; Yang, Jae Ha ; Park, Sun Hwa ; Kim, Tae Seung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 104~110
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.104
In order to study gross alpha analysis method using LSC, the efficiency tests with uranium standard materials were performed and then compared with the GPC method (US EPA 900.0 method) using 15 groundwater samples. For 15 groundwater samples, the average efficiencies of the GPC and LSC method were 7~11% and 90%, respectively. The average precisions of the GPC and LSC method were 16.16% and 6.00%, respectively. Also, The average standard deviations for 15 samples were 7.38 pCi/L and 2.95 pCi/L, respectively. The determination coefficient of the tested results by two methods was 0.9948. As a result, the LSC method tested in this study was applicable for the screening of the gross alpha and showed the advantages in the gross alpha measurement due to the simple measurement procedures.
An Experimental Study of the Effect of the Test-well Arrangement on the Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test for the Estimation of the NAPL Saturation
Kim, Bo-A ; Kim, Yongcheol ; Yeo, In Wook ; Ko, Kyung-Seok ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 111~122
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.111
Partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) is a method to quantify and qualify a site contaminated with NAPLs (Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids). Analytical description of PITT assumes that the injection-pumping well pair is on the line of the ambient groundwater flow direction, but the test-well pair could frequently be off the line in a real field site, which could be an erroneous factor in analyzing PITT data. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of the angle of the test-well pair on the ambient groundwater flow direction based on the result from PITT. From the experiments, it was found that the obliqueness of the test-well pair to the ambient groundwater flow direction could affect the tracer test resulting in a decreased NAPL estimation efficiency. In case of an oblique arrangement of the test-well pair to the ambient flow direction, it was found that the injection of a chase fluid could enhance the estimation efficiency. An increase of the pumping rate could enhance the recovery rate but it cannot be said that a high pumping rate can increase the test efficiency because a high pumping rate cannot give partitioning tracers enough time to partition into NAPLs. The results have a implication that because the arrangement of the test-well pair is a controlling factor in performing and interpreting PITT in the field in addition to the known factors such as heterogeneity and the source zone architecture, flow direction should be seriously considered in arranging test-well pair.
A Comparative Study on Forecasting Groundwater Level Fluctuations of National Groundwater Monitoring Networks using TFNM, ANN, and ANFIS
Yoon, Pilsun ; Yoon, Heesung ; Kim, Yongcheol ; Kim, Gyoo-Bum ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 123~133
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.123
It is important to predict the groundwater level fluctuation for effective management of groundwater monitoring system and groundwater resources. In the present study, three different time series models for the prediction of groundwater level in response to rainfall were built, those are transfer function noise model (TFNM), artificial neural network (ANN), and adaptive neuro fuzzy interference system (ANFIS). The models were applied to time series data of Boen, Cheolsan, and Hongcheon stations in National Groundwater Monitoring Network. The result shows that the model performance of ANN and ANFIS was higher than that of TFNM for the present case study. As lead time increased, prediction accuracy decreased with underestimation of peak values. The performance of the three models at Boen station was worst especially for TFNM, where the correlation between rainfall and groundwater data was lowest and the groundwater extraction is expected on account of agricultural activities. The sensitivity analysis for the input structure showed that ANFIS was most sensitive to input data combinations. It is expected that the time series model approach and results of the present study are meaningful and useful for the effective management of monitoring stations and groundwater resources.
A Case Study of Quality Assurance and Control for the Soil Environmental Assessment in Abandoned Mine
Ji, Won Hyun ; Kim, Jong Keun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 134~141
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.134
A testing inspection is one of the important in the industry, owing to determine the reliability and directivity of testing inspection results. Therefore, the quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) work which performed by personnel not directly in the inventory compilation development, in testing inspection must be thoroughly considered. Some agencies for environmental test inspection, they sometimes misunderstood that the QA/QC was ended with proficiency testing performance and on-site assessment by a director. Thus, results were often calculated without QA/QC work by self manual when conducting test. The objective of this study was to improve reliability of testing and inspection agency through the QA/QC case study which basically performed to raising reliability of testing and inspection agency. In this study, it increased reliability of result by verifying calibration curve (IC, ICV, CCV), blank, accuracy (LCS, MS) and precision as QA/QC performance, while performing investigation of soil contamination in mining areas. This study suggests that reliability establishing method of test result and management method of analysis process, through the QA/QC instance of testing agency.
Field-Scale Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage by Hybrid Electrolysis Process
Sung, Il-Jong ; Pak, Seung-Il ; Yang, Jae-Kyu ; Bae, Se-Dal ; Jin, Hai-Jin ; Choi, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 142~152
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.3.142
In this study, generic characteristics of the acid mine drainage (AMD), removal efficiency of iron, aluminium and manganese by chemical treatment, electrolysis and hybrid process using electrolysis after neutralization were evaluated. The pH of AMD was inversely proportional to the rainfall. In dry-season, the average pH of AMD was ranged from 4.5 to 5.5, showing slight variation. However, the pH of AMD was gradually decreased along with rainfall and dropped to 3.02 in September showing the greatest rainfall. Removal efficiency of heavy metals by chemical treatments using three different neutralizing agents or by electrolysis was low. However, a hybrid process performed with electrolysis after addition of neutralization shows higher removal capacity for heavy metal ions than neutralization-alone and electrolysisalone process.