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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network in Korea
Lee, Byung Sun ; Kim, Young In ; Choi, Kwang-Jun ; Song, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Jin Ho ; Woo, Dong Kwang ; Seol, Min Ku ; Park, Ki Yeon ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.4.001
Rural groundwater monitoring network has been managed by Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC) since 1998. The network consists of two kinds of subnetworks; rural groundwater management network (RGMN) and seawater intrusion monitoring network (SIMN). RGMN has been operated to promote a sound and sustainable development of rural groundwater within the concerned area for groundwater quality and quantity. SIMN has been operated to protect the crops against hazards by the saline water in coastal areas in which the shortage of irrigation water become a main problem for agriculture. Currently, a total of 283 monitoring wells has been installed; 147 wells in 79 municipalities for RGMN and 136 wells in 52 ones for SIMN, respectively. Two subnetworks commonly monitor three hydrophysical properties (groundwater level, temperature, and electric conductivity) every hour. Monitored data are automatically transferred to the management center located in KRC. Data are opened to the public throughout website named to be the Rural Groundwater Net (www.groundwater.or.kr). Annual reports involving well logging and hydrochemical data of RGMN and SIMN have been published and distributed to the rural water management office of each municipalities. In addition, anyone who concerns about RGMN an SIMN can freely download these reports throughout the Rural Groundwater Net as well.
Evaluation of Goundwater Flow Pattern at the Site of Crystalline Rock using Time Series and Factor Analyses
Lee, Jeong-Hwan ; Jung, Haeryong ; Yun, Si-Tae ; Kim, Jee-Yeon ; Cho, Sung-Il ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 12~22
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.4.012
This study evaluated the pattern of groundwater fluctuation in cyrstalline rock using time series and factor analyses. From the results, groundwater level for the 18 wells was classified into 4 types reflecting the hydrogeological properties and rainfall event. Type 1 (DB1-5, DB1-6, DB2-2, KB-10, KB-13) was significantly influenced by groundwater flow through water-conducting features, whereas type 2 (DB1-3, DB1-7, KB-1~KB-3, KB-7, KB-11, KB-14, KB-15) was affected by minor fracture network as well as rainfall event. Type 3 (DB1-1, DB1-2) was mainly influenced by surface infiltration of rainfall event. Type 4 (DB1-8, KB-9) was reflected by the irregular variation of groundwater level caused by anisotropy and heterogeneity of crystalline rock.
Development of the Autoregressive and Cross-Regressive Model for Groundwater Level Prediction at Muan Coastal Aquifer in Korea
Kim, Hyun Jung ; Yeo, In Wook ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 23~30
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.4.023
Coastal aquifer in Muan, Jeonnam, has experienced heavy seawater intrusion caused by the extraction of a substantial amount of groundwater for the agricultural purpose throughout the year. It was observed that groundwater level dropped below sea level due to heavy pumping during a dry season, which could accelerate seawater intrusion. Therefore, water level needs to be monitored and managed to prevent further seawater intrusion. The purpose of this study is to develop the autoregressive-cross-regressive (ARCR) models that can predict the present or future groundwater level using its own previous values and pumping events. The ARCR model with pumping and water level data of the proceeding five hours (i.e., the model order of five) predicted groundwater level better than that of the model orders of ten and twenty. This was contrary to expectation that higher orders do increase the coefficient of determination (
) as a measure of the model's goodness. It was found that the ARCR model with order five was found to make a good prediction of next 48 hour groundwater levels after the start of pumping with
higher than 0.9.
Comparative Analysis of Subsurface Estimation Ability and Applicability Based on Various Geostatistical Model
Ahn, Jeongwoo ; Jeong, Jina ; Park, Eungyu ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 31~44
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.4.031
In the present study, a few of recently developed geostatistical models are comparatively studied. The models are two-point statistics based sequential indicator simulation (SISIM) and generalized coupled Markov chain (GCMC), multi-point statistics single normal equation simulation (SNESIM), and object based model of FLUVSIM (fluvial simulation) that predicts structures of target object from the provided geometric information. Out of the models, SNESIM and FLUVSIM require additional information other than conditioning data such as training map and geometry, respectively, which generally claim demanding additional resources. For the comparative studies, three-dimensional fluvial reservoir model is developed considering the genetic information and the samples, as input data for the models, are acquired by mimicking realistic sampling (i.e. random sampling). For SNESIM and FLUVSIM, additional training map and the geometry data are synthesized based on the same information used for the objective model. For the comparisons of the predictabilities of the models, two different measures are employed. In the first measure, the ensemble probability maps of the models are developed from multiple realizations, which are compared in depth to the objective model. In the second measure, the developed realizations are converted to hydrogeologic properties and the groundwater flow simulation results are compared to that of the objective model. From the comparisons, it is found that the predictability of GCMC outperforms the other models in terms of the first measure. On the other hand, in terms of the second measure, the both predictabilities of GCMC and SNESIM are outstanding out of the considered models. The excellences of GCMC model in the comparisons may attribute to the incorporations of directional non-stationarity and the non-linear prediction structure. From the results, it is concluded that the various geostatistical models need to be comprehensively considered and comparatively analyzed for appropriate characterizations.
Applicability of Soil Washing with Neutral Phosphate for Remediation of Arsenic-contaminated Soil at the Former Janghang Smelter Site
Im, Jinwoo ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Yang, Kyung ; Nam, Kyoungphile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 45~51
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.4.045
In accordance with the view on remediated soil as a resource, this study assessed the applicability of soil washing with the neutral phosphate for remediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated soil. Three soil samples of different land uses (i.e., rice paddy, upland field and forest land) were collected from the study site, and the aqua regia-extractable As concentrations were 59.2, 30.8 and 53.1 mg/kg, respectively. Among the neutral phosphate reagents, ammonium phosphate showed the highest As washing efficiency. The optimized washing condition was 2-hr washing with 0.5M ammonium phosphate solution (pH 6) and soil to liquid ratio of 1 : 5. The extraction efficiencies of As did not guarantee the residual soil As concentrations to satisfy the Korea soil regulatory level (i.e., Worrisome level) in the three soil samples. To enhance washing efficiency, the As-contaminated soil was submerged in washing solution (1 : 1, w/v) for 24 hr and 1-hr washing with 0.5M ammonium phosphate solution was tested. As extraction efficiencies of 36.1 (rice paddy), 21.4 (upland field) and 26.4% (forest land) were attained, which satisfied the Worrisome level for Region 1 (25 mg/kg of As) in rice paddy, but not in upland field and forest land.
Determination of Human Health Risk Incorporated with Arsenic Bioaccessibility and Remediation Goals at the Former Janghang Smelter Site
Yang, Kyung ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Im, Jinwoo ; Nam, Kyoungphile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 52~61
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.4.052
Metal concentrations in the former Janghang smelter area were determined and human health risk of arsenic (As) with bioaccessibility was investigated. Site investigation of the area within 1.5 km from the Janghang smelter showed the As concentrations of 4.8~169.8 mg/kg (avg. 37.8 mg/kg). For 85 samples out of 126 samples, As concentrations were higher than the Worrisome Level of the Korean Soil and Environment Conservation Act, and seven samples exceeded the Countermeasure Standard. Risk assessment for As incorporated with the bioaccessibility revealed that potential human health risk of the carcinogenic (
) was above the acceptable risk range (
) while the risk of the non-carcinogenic was not found. Remediation goals based on risk incorporated with bioaccessibility of As ranged from 10.8 to 20.0 mg/kg. Such difference in the remediation goals resulted from various bioaccessibility of As (i.e., between 8.7~66.3%) at the study site.
Evaluation of Natural Attenuation by Addition of Fumarate as Carbon Source and Gene Analysis in Groundwater Sample
Park, Sunhwa ; Kim, Hyun-Gu ; Kim, Sohyun ; Lee, Min-Kyeong ; Lee, Gyeong-Mi ; Kim, Young ; Kim, Moon-Su ; Kim, Taeseung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 62~69
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.4.062
In the results of monitoring nitrate concentration in more than 8,000 groundwater wells around agro-livestock, the average and maximum nitrate concentration was 9.4 mg/L and 101.2 mg/L, respectively. Since about 31% of the monitoring wells was exceed the quality standard for drinking water, nitrate control such as remediation or source regulation is required to conserve safe-groundwater in South Korea. Typical nitrate-treatment technologies include ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological denitrification. Among the treatment methods, biological denitrification by indigenous microorganism has environmental and economic advantages for the complete elimination of nitrate because of lower operating costs compared to other methods. Major mechanism of the process is microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen gas. Three functional genes (nosZ, nirK, nirS) that encode for the enzyme involved in the pathway. In this work, we tried to develop simple process to determine possibility of natural denitrification reaction by monitoring the functional gene. For the work, the functional genes in nitrate-contaminated groundwater were monitored by using PCR with specific target primers. In the result, functional genes (nosZ and nirK) encoding denitrification enzymes were detected in the groundwater samples. This method can help to determine the possibility of natural-nitrate degradation in target groundwater wells without multiplex experimental process. In addition, for field-remediation application we selected nitrate-contaminated site where 200~600 mg/L of nitrate is continuously detected. To determine the possibility of nitrate-degradation by stimulated-natural attenuation, groundwater was sampled in two different wells of the site and nitrate concentration of the samples was 300 mg/L and 616 mg/L, respectively. Fumarate for different C/N ratio was added into microcosm bottles containing the groundwater to examine denitrification rate depending on carbon concentration. In the result, once 1.5 times more than amount of fumarate stoichiometry required was added, the 616 mg/L of nitrate and 300 mg/L of nitrate were completely degraded in 8 days and 30 days. The nitrite, byproduct of denitrification process, was also completely degraded during the experimental period.