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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
The Comparison of the Relationship between the Gunfire Shot and Its Resulting Heavy Metal Pollution Rate
Hong, Sung Tae ; Hyun, Jae Hyuk ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.001
The following research was initiated in order to compare the relationship between the amount of gunfire shot and its resulting heavy metal pollution rate. The research was conducted at two firing ranges located inside a military unit stationed in the rear strategical area, where one full distance firing range is used by soldiers in active service, and the other is used by recruits and reserves. The heavy metal pollution rate was measured also on water sample collected from the target zone while raining. Based on values such as the real amount of gunshot fired, amount of heavy metal in the soil of the target zone, and the degree of heavy metal pollution for each firing range, the research showed that although pollution rate was higher when more gunshots were fired, there was no close correlation between the two. The water samples showed that this might result from the soils containing heavy metals eroded and transported by rain due to the target zone having no vegetation.
The Current Status of Strong Acids Production, Consumption, and Spill Cases in Korea
Shin, Doyun ; Moon, Hee Sun ; Yoon, Yoon Yeol ; Yun, Uk ; Lee, Yunho ; Ha, Kyoochul ; Hyun, Sung Pil ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 6~12
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.006
We reviewed literature focusing on the amounts of domestic production, distribution, and consumption of strong acids and their spill cases. In particular, we investigated the chemistry and toxicity of four strong acids classified as "accident preparedness substances," including hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and hydrofluoric acid. We recommend sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid as the chemicals of priority control based on the amounts used and toxicity. An advanced prevention/response system needs to be established along with an improved human and social infrastructure to prevent and efficiently respond to chemical accidents. Understanding the behavior and transport of spilled strong acids in the soil and groundwater environments requires a multi-disciplinary approach since they go through a variety of chemical and biogeochemical reactions with complex geomedia. However, no such research has been done in this area in Korea to the best of our knowledge. We expect the results of this study to contribute as basic data to future research.
Remediation of benzo[a]pyrene Contaminated Soil using Subcritical Water
Shin, Moon-Su ; Islam, Mohammad Nazrul ; Jo, Young-Tae ; Park, Jeong-Hun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 13~17
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.013
Subcritical water acts like an organic solvent at elevated temperature in terms of its physicochemical properties. Taking into account this advantage, the remediation experiments of benzo[a]pyrene contaminated soil (8.45 mg/kg of initial concentration) were conducted using subcritical water extraction apparatus. The effect of operating factors on the removal efficiency was studied at the varying the conditions of the water temperature ranging
, extraction time 30~90 min, and flow rate 0.3~2.0 mL/min. 12 g of benzo[a]pyrene contaminated soil was inserted into the extraction cell and placed into the reactor and then the subcritical water was driven through the cell. In this study, the removal efficiency of benzo[a]pyrene was increased from 55.1 to 98.1% when the temperature increased from 200 to
. The removal efficiency was decreased from 97.0 to 77.0% when the flow rate increased from 0.3 to 2.0 mL/min, suggesting that the extraction is limited by intra-particle diffusion. The 30 min reaction time was determined as an effective treatment time at
. Based on the results, the optimum condition for the remediation of benzo[a]pyrene contaminated soil was suggested to be
, 30 min, and 0.3 mL/min.
The study on the BTEX Concentration of Soil in Gas Station
Shin, Joung-Nam ; Roh, Sung-Hyeuk ; Jung, Sang-Rak ; Oh, Gil-Rok ; Kim, Mi-Kyoung ; Yook, Woon-Soo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 18~23
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.018
The BTEX contamination of soil around gas station in Korea was investigated in 53 gas stations in 2013 by official test method on soil pollution. Each gas station was divided into oil tank area, line area, and surrounding area. The concentration of BTEX in 1066 sites of 53 gas stations was N.D.~ 3437.36 mg/kg. The order of average concentration for area was as follows: line area (
) > tank area (
) > surrounding area (
). It was the number of sampling site exceeding regulatory levels at surrounding area the most at all. The average concentration of xylene was the highest, while that of ethylbenzene was the lowest.
Establishment of Non-drinking Groundwater Quality Standards: General Contamination Substances
An, Youn-Joo ; Nam, Sun-Hwa ; Jeong, Seung-Woo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 24~29
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.024
To data, there was no systematic basis for establishing the content and allowed levels of general contamination substances in the Korean groundwater quality standards for non-drinking water. Recently, use of specific procedures for deriving valid groundwater quality standards have become mandatory. This study first investigated the methodology for deriving groundwater quality standards in the European Commission (EC), considering background groundwater quality and domestic and international standards related to water quality. Furthermore, this study investigated the existing specified procedure of standards related to water quality (e.g. surface water, drinking water, and wastewater). Our findings showed that EC and Member States presented the methods for deriving groundwater threshold values for general chemicals. Finally, we have proposed the following procedures of deriving Korean groundwater quality: (1) Selection of groundwater pollutant population, (2) selection and monitoring of priority substances, (3) monitoring, (4) selection of groundwater quality standard candidates, (5) selection of new substances and values for groundwater quality standards.
The Estimation of Soil Loss in the Buffer Zone of Guem River using a Simulation of Future Climate Change
Lee, Dal-Heui ; Chung, Sung-Lae ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 30~36
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.030
The objective of this study is to estimate soil loss in the buffer zone of Guem river with future climate change simulation. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was used for the estimation of soil loss at the buffer zone of Guem river. As results of simulations, the area of the maximum soil loss potential was estimated as the Cheongsung-myeon Okchun-gun Chungcheongbuk-do. The soil losses were estimated to be 106.67 and 103.00 ton/ha/yr for the 2020 segi (2015-2025) and 2040 segi (2035-2045) in the Cheongsung-myeon area, respectively. Also, the estimated average values of soil losses in the Cheongsung-myeon with future climate change was 110.78 ton/ha/yr.
Application of Rhizofiltration using Lettuce, Chinese Cabbage, Radish Sprouts and Buttercup for the Remediation of Uranium Contaminated Groundwater
Han, Yikyeong ; Kim, Seyoon ; Heo, Hyojin ; Lee, Minhee ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 37~48
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.037
Lab scale rhizofiltration by using four plants was performed to investigate the uranium removal efficiency from groundwater. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.), radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) and buttercup (Oenanthe javanica) were cultivated during 3 weeks in the phytotron. Glass jar (
for each), containing 350 ml of the artificially uranium contaminated solution was used for 72 hours of the rhizofiltration. In experiments with different initial uranium concentration (
) in solution, more than 70% of the initial uranium were removed by using lettuce, Chinese cabbage and radish sprouts and the residual uranium concentration in solution maintained lower than USEPA water tolerance limit (
). From the rhizofiltration experiments at various pH conditions, the highest uranium removal for all four plants was acquired at pH 3 in solution. Rhizofiltration experiments testing two field samples of groundwaters having high uranium concentrations (
) were duplicated and more than 83% of the initial uranium were removed from the groundwater within 72 hours of rhizofiltration by using radish sprouts, which, suggests that the rhizofiltration can be a useful process to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater in the field. After the rhizofiltration experiment, the SEM and EDS analyses for the root surface of the radish sprouts were conducted, suggesting that the main mechanism of the rhizofiltration for the removal of uranium from groundwater would be surface precipitation on the root surface of the plant.
A Study on the Development of Soil-based PTMs for Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene - Focusing on the Evaluation of Homogeneity and Stability for the Certification of Benzo[a]pyrenecandidate Reference Materials -
Lee, Minhyo ; Lee, Guntaek ; Joo, Changkyu ; Kim, Yonghun ; Lee, Bupyoel ; Choe, Sunghun ; Kim, Myeongock ; Hong, Sukyoung ; Kim, Gumhee ; Lee, Wonseok ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 49~58
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.049
This study was implemented as a part of the experiment to develop two kinds of soil-based Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) proficiency testing materials (PTMs) for soil analysis. A test was carried out for the check of solubility of the reference material (high purity reagent) using several solvents. Another test was also conducted for the evaluation of homogeneity and stability of two kinds of candidate soil reference materials. The test analysis of BaP in terms of the candidate materials was conducted according to the Standard Soil Analytical Methods by Ministry of Environment. Dissolution of the reference material was shown to vary depending on solvent type and was higher in the order of Dichloromethane > Acetone > Acetone/MeOH (9 : 1) > N-hexane. In addition, the slope on calibration curve for BaP standard solutions was largest on BaP standard solutions prepared with dichloromethane of the tested solvents. Such tendency appeared egually in the commercial BaP standard solution. Therefore, it is thought to be reasonable to use dichloromethane as the solvent in case of the standard stock solution that is used for the measurement of BaP concentration in soil. ISO 13528 and IUPAC protocol were used for verification of homogeneity on the two kinds of soil candidate materials, Both candidate materials were sufficiently homogeneous. Stability assessment of the two candidate materials was made according to ISO Guide 35 and the result showed that both batches did not have any long-term and short term stability issues that might occur during shipping. However, monitoring results of BaP concentration in soil showed that BaP concentration of the two batches measured at 15 days after the sample preparation was reduced by about 24~37% compared with that of the samples measured on 0 day of the sample preparation. Identification was done with several treatments such as irradiation and sterilization etc. The major cause was shown to be irradiation to the samples.
The Influence of Land Use on the Concentration Levels and Distribution Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Korea
Noh, Hoe-Jung ; Yoon, Jeong Ki ; Yun, Dae-Geun ; Yu, Soon-Ju ; Kim, Tae Seung ; Lee, Jai-Young ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 59~71
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.059
We investigated soil contamination depending on the land use by examining the contamination levels and distribution characteristics of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the national soil. Total PAHs (the sum of 16 PAH concentrations) and carcinogenic PAHs (the sum of seven carcinogenic PAH concentrations) were
, respectively. The concentration of benzo(a)pyrene, one of the contaminants regulated by the soil quality standard in the nation, was
. Its maximum value of
was detected in railroad (Region 3) and is approximately 13% of the standard value for Region 3 (i.e., 7 mg/kg). We also investigated the characteristics of contamination sources of PAHs in soil of the upland, forests, roads, and railroads, examining the fraction distribution of PAHs concentration by the number of benzene rings against the total PAHs concentration. The results demonstrate that the mean fraction of 4~6-ring PAHs against total PAHs concentration in soil was in the range of 51.8~80.7% with relative abundance of high-molecular PAHs, showing that the origin of contamination is under the category of combustion sources. When the molecular indices (Flu/(Flu/Pyr), Ant/(Ant+Phe), InP/(InP+BP), and BaA/(BaA+Chr)) were applied, they were also categorized as petroleum-based combustion sources. The individual PAH concentrations in soil by the land use were grouped into Regions 1, 2, and 3, which are statistically treated and are the parts of the national category system of soil quality standard. As a result, the concentration level of 16 PAHs was
in Region 1,
in Region 2, and
in Region 3. The concentration level of 6 carcinogenic PAHs was 14.2~320.4% against that of benzo(a)pyrene in Region 3 and sites of recycling waste sleepers. Considering that there were similarities among PAHs in terms of structures and toxicities, it would be recommended to review other types of carcinogenic PAHs together with benzo(a)pyrene when developing the soil quality standards in the nation.
Removal Characteristics of Organic Contaminants by Ultrasonic Soil Washing
Lim, Chan-Soo ; Kim, Seog-Ku ; Kim, Weon-Jae ; Ko, Seok-Oh ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 72~79
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.072
Cavitation generated by ultrasonic irradiation can enhance the diffusional transport of organic contaminants from soil surfaces or pores. Therefore, ultrasound soil washing can be an alternative of traditional soil washing process. In this study, soil was artificially contaminated with n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane and phenanthrene. A plate type ultrasonic reactor at 25 kHz frequency and 1000W power was used for laboratory soil washing experiments. Ultrasonic soil washing efficiency was compared with those of traditional soil washing using mechanical mixing. Various operational parameter such as soil/liquid ratio, irradiation time, particle size, and soil organic matter content was tested to find out the optimum condition. It was found that ultrasonic soil washing demonstrates better performance than mechanical soil washing. Optimum soil:liquid ratio for ultrasonic soil washing was 1 : 5. Desorption of organic contaminants from soils by ultrasonic irradiation was relatively fast and reached equilibrium within 10 minute. However, decrease in the soil particle sizes by ultrasonic irradiation results in re-adsorption of contaminants to soil phase. It was also observed that soil particle size distribution and soil organic matter content have significant effects on the efficiency of ultrasonic soil washing.
Field Study on Application of Reactive Zone Technology Using Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles for Remediation of TCE-Contaminated Groundwater
Ahn, Jun-Young ; Kim, Cheolyong ; Hwang, Kyung-Yup ; Jun, Seong-Chun ; Hwang, Inseong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 19, issue 6, 2014, Pages 80~90
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2014.19.6.080
The laboratory and field studies were conducted to identify an optimal injection concentration of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVI) and to evaluate the applicability of NZVI-based reactive zone technology to the site contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) DNAPL (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid). The laboratory test found an optimal injection concentration of NZVI of 5 g/L that could remove more than 95% of 0.15 mM TCE within 20 days. Eleven test wells were installed at the aquifer that was mainly composed of alluvial and weathered soils at a strong oxic condition with dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.50 mg/L and oxidation-reduction potential of 301 mV. NZVI of total 30 kg were successfully injected using a centrifugal pump. After 60 days from the NZVI injection, 86.2% of the TCE initially present in the groundwater was removed and the mass of TCE removed was 405 g. Nonchlorinated products such as ethane and ethene were detected in the groundwater samples. Based on the increased chloride ion concentration at the site, the mass of TCE removed was estimated to be 1.52 kg. This implied the presence of DNAPL TCE which contributed to a higher estimate of TCE removal than that based on the TCE concentration change.