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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Dec 2015
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Nov 2015
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Analysis on the Risk-Based Screening Levels Determined by Various Risk Assessment Tools (III): Proposed Methodology for Lead Risk Assessment in Korea
Jung, Jae-Woong ; Nam, Kyoungphile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.001
The most critical health effect of lead exposure is the neurodevelopmental effect to children caused by the increased blood lead level. Therefore, the endpoint of the risk assessment for lead-contaminated sites should be set at the blood lead level of children. In foreign countries, the risk assessment for lead-contaminated sites is conducted by estimating the increased blood lead level of children via oral intake and/or inhalation (United States Environmental Protection Agency, USEPA), or by comparing the estimated oral dose to the threshold oral dose of lead, which is derived from the permissible blood lead level of children (Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM). For the risk assessment, USEPA employs Integrated-Exposure-Uptake-Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model to check whether the estimated portion of children whose blood lead level exceeds 10 µg/dL, threshold blood lead level determined by USEPA, is higher than 5%, while Dutch RIVM compares the estimated oral dose of lead to the threshold oral dose (2.8 µg/kg-day), which is derived from the permissible blood lead level of children. In Korea, like The Netherlands, risk assessment for lead-contaminated sites is conducted by comparing the estimated oral dose to the threshold oral dose; however, because the threshold oral dose listed in Korean risk assessment guidance is an unidentified value, it is recommended to revise the existing threshold oral dose described in Korean risk assessment guidance. And, if significant lead exposure via inhalation is suspected, it is useful to employ IEUBK Model to derive the risk posed via multimedia exposure (i.e., both oral ingestion and inhalation).
An Environmental Management Protocol for the Mitigation of Contaminants Migration from Military Operational Ranges
Jung, Jae-Woong ; Moon, Hee Sun ; Nam, Kyoungphile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 8~18
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.008
Pollutants such as heavy metals and explosives originating from the military operational ranges can be migrated to adjacent surface water body or offsite soil, and can affect to local residents and aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, Korea Ministry of the National Defense has established various guidelines for environmental management including the installation of pollutant migration prevention facilities (PMPFs) and monitoring methodologies for heavy metals in the operational range soil and effluent and sediment of PMPFs. However, current guidelines neither address the explosive compounds such as 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) nor suggest detailed environmental investigation protocol. This paper introduces the new “Environmental Management Manual for Military Firing Ranges”, which includes the environmental criteria for explosives as well as the detailed investigation protocol for the affected environmental media including soil, effluent and sediment of PMPFs.
Study on Determination of Permissible Soil Concentrations for Explosives and Heavy Metals
Kim, Moonkyung ; Jung, Jae-Woong ; Nam, Kyoungphile ; Jeong, Seulki ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 19~27
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.019
Permissible soil concentrations for explosives (i.e., TNT and RDX) and heavy metals (i.e., Cu, Zn, Pb, and As) heve been derived from human risk and ecotoxicity, respectively. For TNT and RDX, human risk based-permissible soil concentrations were determined as 460 mg-TNT/kg-soil and 260 mg-RDX/kg-soil. Ecotoxicity based-permissible soil concentrations for Cu and Zn were determined from species sensitivity distribution (SSD) and uncertainty factor of 1 to 5, yielding 18.0-40.0 mg-Cu/kg-soil and 46.0-100 mg-Zn/kg-soil. For Pb and As, ecotoxicity data were not enough to establish SSD so that a deterministic method was used, generating 13.8-30.8 mg-Pb/kg-soil and 2.10-4.60 mg-As/kg-soil. It is worth noting that the methodology used to derive permissible concentrations in soil can differ depending on ecotoxicity data availability and socio-economic situations, which results in different permissible concentrations. The permissible concentrations presented in this study have been derived from conservative assumptions for exposure parameters, and thus should be considered as soil standards. In the light of remediation and pollution management of a site of interest, the site-specific and receptor-specific permissible soil concentrations should be derived considering potential receptors, current and future land use, background concentrations, and socio-economic consultation.
Risk Evaluation of Monopotassium Phosphate (MKP) and Bentonite Application via the Mobility Reduction of Soil TNT and Heavy Metals
Jung, Jae-Woong ; Yu, Gihyeon ; Nam, Kyoungphile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 28~36
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.028
Simultaneous mobility reduction of explosives and heavy metals in an operational range by monopotassium phosphate (MKP) and bentonite spreading technology was investigated. Potassium ion and phosphate ion in MKP act as explosives sorption enhancer and insoluble heavy metal phosphate formation, respectively, while bentonite acts as the explosives adsorbent. Then, the decrease in surface water concentration of the pollutants and resulting risk reduction for local residents of the operational range, by MKP/bentonite application was estimated. Under untreated scenario, the noncancer hazard index (HI) exceeded unity on February, July and August, mainly due to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); however, MKP/bentonite treatment was expected to lower the noncancer hazard index by decreasing the surface water concentration of explosives and heavy metals (especially TNT). For example, on July, estimated surface water concentration and HI of TNT were 0.01 mg/L and 1.1, respectively, meanwhile the sorption coefficient of TNT was 3.9 mg
. However, by MKP/bentonite treatment, the TNT sorption coefficient increased to 113.8 mg
and the surface water concentration and HI decreased to about 0.002 mg/L and 0.2, respectively. Based on the result, it can be concluded that MKP/bentonite spreading is a benign technology that can mitigate the risk posed by the pollutants migration from operational ranges.
The Toxicity Assessment of Explosives Contaminated Soil using Soil Microbial Activity Tests
Kim, Moonkyung ; Jung, Jae-Woong ; Nam, Kyoungphile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 37~45
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.037
This study was conducted to determine the toxic effect of TNT and RDX on indigenous soil microbes by measuring enzymatic activity. Denitrification activity, dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, and fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activity were determined for military firing range, field, and paddy soils exposed to TNT, and RDX from 0 to 1,000 mg/kg and 0 to 4,000 mg/kg, respectively, for 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Soil microbial enzymatic activities decreased with higher TNT and RDX concentration and longer exposure time. Microbial enzymatic activities of firing range soil were higher than field and paddy soils, indicating that indigenous microbes in firing range might have been adapted to TNT and RDX due to pre-exposure of the explosives. In addition, the toxicity of TNT and RDX decreased with higher organic matter because TNT and RDX tend to absorb to soil organic matter. No Observable Effect Concentration (NOEC) values of each microbial enzymatic activity were derived by the geometric mean of NOECs from exposure times (2, 4, and 8 weeks) and soil types (firing range, field, paddy soil). The derived NOECs ranged from 45.3 to 55.2 mg/kg for TNT and 286 to 309 mg/kg for RDX.
Toxicity and Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) in Contaminated Soils to Eisenia fetida
Nurofik, Nurofik ; Choi, Jiyeon ; Oh, Sanghwa ; Shin, Won Sik ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 46~54
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.046
Toxicity and uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in three different soils (OECD soil, natural soil and loess) to earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were investigated at several different spiked concentrations of TNT (0 to 200 mg/kg for OECD and natural soils, and 0 to 35 mg/kg for loess) and for different exposure periods (7, 14, 21, and 28 d). The LC
values for 7 d exposure were 160.1, 159.4, and 28.81 mg/kg for OECD soil, natural soil, and loess, respectively. The LC
values for 14, 21, and 28 d exposure were almost the same as those for 7 d exposure, showing that 7 d exposure time was enough to decide the toxicity (LC
) of TNT to Eisenia fetida, because the highest concentration of TNT in earthworm body was observed within around 5 d. The LC
and uptake of TNT in loess were higher than those in OECD and natural soil. The uptake of TNT to the earthworm were correlated well with the initial concentration of TNT in the soil and TNT porewater concentration (R
> 0.9 in OECD, natural, and loess). The concentration of TNT in earthworm body decreased after 5 d, possibly caused by natural degradation of TNT by soil bacteria as well as earthworm.
A Study on Developing the Draft of International Standard for the Determination of Perchlorate in Soil Using Ion Chromatography
Choi, Cheon-il ; Lee, Goon-taek ; Park, Min-ki ; Jeong, Moon-ju ; Kim, Ji-yang ; Kang, Ji-young ; Ryu, Ji-young ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 55~61
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.055
Based on the literature study for the determination of perchlorate in soil we chose the ion chromatography as a measurement method and decided to use 70 mM KOH as an eluent to avoid the interference derived from the co-elution of pyrophosphate (P
), tripolyphosphate (P
). Also we proposed to use air dried soil through 0.15 mm sieve and distilled water as an extractant. Under the these basic concepts, we carried out the experiments to set up the detail procedure like solid to liquid ratio (S/L ratio), extraction time, device for extraction and indicating factors for quality control (e.g. precision, accuracy, MDL, LOQ). In case of time and device for extraction, 5 hours of mechanical shaking or 1 hour of centrifugation showed better precision and accuracy than that of sonication for 1 hour According to these results, we proposed the extraction method combining 5 hours of mechanical shaking with 1 hour of centrifugation. From the aspect of S/L ratio, the ratio of 1/2 or 1/3 showed resonable precision and accuracy. In case of the ratio of 1/2, there would be some problems in the separation process when the proportion of fine particle is high. Therefore, we proposed the extraction ratio of solid to liquid as 1/3 instead of 1/2. With the consideration of cost effectiveness and soil salinity, we proposed the use of cartridge for removing the interfering anions like chloride, sulfate and carbonate in specific sample such as saline soil.
Reduction of RDX in Ground Water by Bio-Regenerated Iron Mineral: Results of Field Verification Test at a Miliary Shooting Range
Gong, Hyo-young ; Lee, Kwang-pyo ; Lee, Jong-yeol ; Kyung, Daeseung ; Lee, Woojin ; Bae, Bumhan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 62~72
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.062
This study investigates the in-situ implementation of bio-regenerated iron mineral catalyst to remove explosive compounds in ground water at a military shooting range in operation. A bio-regenerated iron mineral catalyst was synthesized using lepidocrocite (iron-bearing soil mineral), iron-reducing bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and electron mediator (riboflavin) in the culture medium. This catalyst was then injected periodically in the ground to build a redox active zone acting like permeable reactive barrier through injection wells constructed at a live fire military shooting range. Ground water and core soils were sampled periodically for analysis of explosive compounds, mainly RDX and its metabolites, along with toxicity analysis and REDOX potential measurement. Results suggested that a redox active zone was formed in the subsurface in which contaminated ground water flows through. Concentration of RDX as well as toxicity (% inhibition) of ground water decreased in the downstream compared to those in the upstream while concentration of RDX reduction products increased in the downstream.
Selection of Tolerant Plant Species using Pot Culture for Remediation of Explosive Compounds Contaminated Soil
Lee, Ahreum ; Bae, Bumhan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 73~84
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.073
Nine plant species were selected through vegetation survey at three military shooting ranges at northern Gyeonggi Province. Plants were germinated in normal soil and three seedlings were transplanted to a bottom sealed pot containing sandy loam soils contaminated with either RDX (291 mg/kg) or TNT (207 mg/kg). Planted, blank (without plant), and control (without explosive compound) pots were grown in triplicate at a green house for 134 days. During cultivation, transplanted plants exhibited chlorosis and necrosis in flower and leaf by explosive toxicity and stress. Only three plants, Wild soybean, Amur silver grass, Reed canary grass, survived in TNT treated pot, while seven plant species except for field penny cress and jimson weed, thrived in RDX treated pot. Appreciable amount of TNT (61.6~241.2 mg/g-D.W.) was detected only in plant roots. Up to 763.3 mg/g-D.W. along with 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, an intermediate of TNT, accumulated in the root of wild soybean. In addition, azoxy compounds, abiotic intermediates of TNT, were detected in TNT treated soils. RDX absorbed average 1,839.95 mg/kg in shoot and 204.83 mg/kg in root. Most of TNT in plant was accumulated in underground part whereas RDX was localized in aerial part. Material balance calculation showed that more than 95% of the initial TNT was removed in the planted pots whereas only 60% was removed in the blank pot. The amount of RDX removed from soil was in the order of Amur Silver Grass (51%) > Chickweed (43%) > Evening primrose (38%). Based on the results of pot cultures, Amur silver grass and Reed canary grass are selected as tolerant remedial plants for explosive toxicity.
Removal of RDX using Lab-scale Plug Flow Constructed Wetlands Planted with Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth
Lee, Ahreum ; Kim, Bumjoon ; Park, Jieun ; Bae, Bumhan ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 85~94
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.085
RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) is the most important explosive contaminant, both in concentration and in frequency, at military shooting ranges in which green technologies such as phytoremediation or constructed wetlands are the best option for mitigation of explosive compounds discharge to the environment. A study was conducted with two identical lab-scale plug flow constructed wetlands planted with Amur silver grass to treat water artificially contaminated with 40 mg/L of toxic explosive compound, RDX. The reactor was inoculated with or without RDX degrading mixed culture to evaluate plant-microorganism interactions in RDX removal, transformation products distribution, and kinetic constants. RDX and its metabolites in water, plant, and sediment were analyzed by HPLC to determine mass balance and kinetic constants. After 30 days of operation, the reactor reached steady-state at which more than 99% of RDX was removed with or without the mixed culture inoculation. The major transformation product was TNX (Trinitroso-RDX) that comprised approximately 50% in the mass balance of both reactors. It was also the major compound in the plant root and shoot system. Acute toxicity analysis of the water samples showed more than 30% of toxicity reduction in the effluent than that of influent containing 40 mg/L of RDX. In the Amur silver grass mesocosm seeded with the mixed culture, the specific RDX removal rate, that is 1st order removal rate normalized to plant fresh weight, was estimated to be 0.84 kg
which is 16.7% higher than that in the planted only mesocosm. Therefore, the results of this study proved that Amur silver grass is an effective plant for RDX removal in constructed wetlands and the efficiency can be increased even more when applied with RDX degrading microbial consortia.
Study on Subcritical Water Degradation of RDX Contaminated Soil in Batch and Dynamic Mode
Choi, Jae-Heon ; Lee, Hwan ; Lee, Cheol-Hyo ; Kim, Ju-Yup ; Park, Jeong-Hun ; Jo, Young-Tae ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 95~102
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.095
The purpose of this study is to compare the degradation characteristics by subcritical water of RDX contaminated soil using batch mode and dynamic mode devices. First, upon application of RDX contaminated soil, RDX treatment efficiency was increased with increasing the temperature in both modes. At 150℃, the treatment efficiency was 99.9%. RDX degradation efficiency got higher with lower ratio of solid to liquid. However, the treatment efficiency in the dynamic mode tended to be decreased at a certain ratio of solid to liquid or lower. The treatment efficiency was increased when it took longer time for the reactions in both modes. As the results of analysis on concentration of treated water after subcritical water degradation, the RDX recovery rate of dynamic and batch modes at 150℃ was 10.5% and 1.5%, respectively. However, both modes showed very similar recovery rates at 175℃ or higher. RDX degradation products were analyzed in treated water after it was treated with subcritical water. According to the results, RDX degradation mechanism was mostly oxidation reaction and reduction reaction was partially involved. Therefore, it suggested that most of RDX in soil was degraded by oxidation of subcritical water upon extraction. According to this result, it was found that both batch and dynamic modes were very effectively applied in the treatment of explosive contaminated soil.
Determination of Optimum Operating Parameters for Enhanced Alkaline Hydrolysis of Soils Contaminated with TNT
Lee, Hwan ; Choi, Jae-Heon ; Lee, Cheol-Hyo ; Kim, Ju-Yup ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 103~110
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.103
Nitro-aromatic Compounds (NACs) of explosives are structurally non-degradable materials that have an adverse effect to humans and ecosystems in case of emissions in natural due to the strong toxicity. In this study, batch test in the laboratory-scale has been conducted to find some process parameters of alkaline hydrolysis by considering the characteristics of NACs which are unstable in a base status and field application evaluation have been performed on the batch test results. Based on the experimental results of both laboratory and pilot-scale test, the optimum conditions of parameters for the alkaline hydrolysis of soils contaminated with explosives were pH 12.5, above the solid-liquid ratio 1 : 3, above the room temperature and 30 minute reaction time. In these four process parameters, the most important influencing factor was pH, and the condition of above pH 12.0 was necessary for high contaminated soils (more than 60 mg/kg). In the case of above pH 12.5, the efficiency of alkaline hydrolysis was very high regardless of the concentrations of contaminated soils. At pH 11.5, the removal efficiency of TNT was increased from 76.5% to 97.5% when the temperature in reactor was elevated from room temperature to 80℃. This result shows that it is possible to operate the alkaline hydrolysis at even pH 11.5 due to increased reaction rate depending on temperature adjustment. The results found in above experiments will be able to be used in alkaline hydrolysis for process improvement considering the economy.
The Determination of Chemical Forms of Heavy Metals in Shooting Area Contaminated Soil Using Sequential Extraction Method
Moon, Gyeonghye ; Park, Hongki ; Yoo, Kyoungkeun ; Manis Kumar, Jha ; Richad Diaz, Alorro ; Kim, Ju Yup ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 111~116
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.111
The soil sample obtained from shooting area contaminated with Pb, Cu, and Zn was investigated to determine the chemical forms of heavy metals with Tessier’s sequential extraction method, which is constituted of five fractions such as ‘exchangeable’, ‘bound to carbonate’, ‘bound to oxide’, ‘bound to organic matter’, and residual fractions. The amount of organic matter was measured by loss on ignition (LOI) and then the results of ‘bound to organic matter’ and LOI were compared. The sequential extraction results show that 4.7%-45% of Pb, 6.2%-25.9% of Cu and 3.9%-15.3% of Zn belong to the ‘bound to organic matter’ fraction, but LOI result shows that only 1.0%-2.8% of organic matter exists in the soil sample. In heavy medium separation tests, because Pb and Cu extracted in ‘bound to organic matter’ and residual fractions were removed, the heavy metals in the fractions would exist as heavier forms. These results suggest that the part of heavy metal extracted in ‘bound to organic matter’ fraction would result from the oxidation of metallic forms by hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid used in the fraction, and, consequently, that the ‘bound to organic matter’ fraction should be investigated in detail to determine the removal method and treatment capacity when the Tessier’s sequential extraction method is used to examine heavy metal contaminants resulted from elemental metal like bullets.
Evaluation of Nanoscale Zero-valent Iron for Reductive Degradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX): Batch and Column Scale Studies
Lee, Chung-Seop ; Oh, Da-Som ; Cho, Sung-Heui ; Lee, Jin-Wook ; Chang, Yoon-Seok ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 117~126
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.117
Reductive degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was investigated to evaluate the feasibility of using it for in-situ groundwater remediation. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the kinetics and efficiency of RDX removal by nZVI, and to determine the effects of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and ionic strength on this process. Experimental results showed that the reduction of RDX by nZVI followed pseudo-first order kinetics with the observed rate constant (k
) in the range of 0.0056-0.0192 min
. Column tests were conducted to quantify the removal of RDX by nZVI under real groundwater conditions and evaluate the potential efficacy of nZVI for this purpose in real conditions. In column experiment, RDX removal capacity of nZVI was determined to be 82,500 mg/kg nZVI. pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and DO concentration varied significantly during the column experiments; the occurrence of these changes suggests that monitoring these quantities may be useful in evaluation of the reactivity of nZVI, because the most critical mechanisms for RDX removal are based on the chemical reduction reactions. These results revealed that nZVI can significantly degrade RDX and that use of nZVI could be an effective method for in-situ remediation of RDX-contaminated groundwater.
Production Method of Biochar-bead from Biochar Powder and Its Application for the Removal of Heavy Metal
Choi, Yu-Lim ; Roh, Hoon ; Lee, Kyu-Beom ; Shin, Bok-Su ; Joo, Wan-Ho ; Kim, Nam-Kook ; Kim, Jin-Hong ; Yang, Jae-Kyu ; Reddy Koduru, Janardhan ; Cho, Sung-Heui ; Chang, Yoon-Young ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 127~132
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.127
In this study, biochar-bead, prepared from biochar powder derived from woody biomass, was used for removal cadmium ion in aqueous solution. Various mixing ratios of alginate solution and biochar powder were used for the production of round shape biochar-bead. An optimum mixing ratio was selected as 1.5% alginate solution and 20 wt% biochar. The produced biochar-bead was characterized by SEM, FT-IR, and XRD analyses. The adsorption capacity of Cd(II) by biochar-bead was found to be 9.72 mg/g which was higher than that by GAC and PAC. According to this study, round shape biochar-bead is expected to be used as a media for reactive barrier or water filtration.
Application of TREECS Program to Predict the Fate of TNT and RDX from Firing Range
Yu, Gihyeon ; Jung, Jae-Woong ; Nam, Kyoungphile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 20, issue 6, 2015, Pages 133~139
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.6.133
Attention to munitions constituents such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in the firing ranges is increasing due to their toxicity and high mobility to the environment. It is helpful to use a systemic model to predict the amount of contaminants for the establishment of environmental management of firing ranges. This study employed Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS) program to estimate the mobility characteristics of TNT and RDX via groundwater leaching, soil erosion and surface water runoff. The prediction results of the TNT and RDX migration with TREECS showed that 68% of initial TNT and 21% of initial RDX were discharged through the soil erosion and the 20% of initial TNT and 54% of initial RDX ran out the firing range via the groundwater leaching. The rest of the initial TNT and RDX moved to adjacent surface water via surface runoff. The data suggest that soil erosion and surface runoff occupying 80% of TNT to the total amount are important migration pathways. On the other hand, groundwater leachning occupying 54% to the total amount was also important pathway for RDX.