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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
Determination of Mercury Ion in Contaminated Soil by Rhodamine B Hydrazide
Kim, Kyungtae ; Park, Junboum ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.001
Rhodamine B Hydrazide as a novel fluorescent and colorimetric probe exhibiting remarkably selective fluorescence enhancement toward Hg
ion over other 16 metal ions is herein introduced. The probe reacts with Hg
ion followed by its spirolactam ring-opening to give a remarkable enhancement of absorption maximum at 550 nm as well as an enhanced fluorescence intensity at 580 nm in aqueous media. Upon titration with Hg
ion in various concentration of 10~200 uM, we found that the probe shows a marked color change from colorless to pink, enabling naked-eye detection toward mercury ion. In addition, in the presence of Hg
ion, the probe gave rise to change from non-florescence to strong orange fluorescence (Off-On) with a good linearity of R
=0.97. This preliminary results demonstrate that the fluorescent chemosensor we herein introduced can open a new strategy for marked selective and sensitive detection of mercury ions in contaminated soil containing various metal ions.
Effect of Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag used as Structural Filling Materials on the Subsurface Environment
Lee, Hosub ; Nam, Taekwoo ; Jho, Eun Hea ; Nam, Kyoungphile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 6~13
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.006
The effect of blast oxygen furnace (BOF) slag used as filling materials on the soil environment was studied using column tests that simulated the flow of the BOF slag leachate through the soil layer. The Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, and F contents of the leachate affected soil were similar to that of the controls (i.e., soils that were not affected by the leachate). The As, Cd, and Pb contents were lower in the leachate affected soils than the controls. The changes in these contaminants contents can be attributed to the interactions between anions such as alkalinity generating anions (e.g., CO
) or calcium ions with heavy metals or F, which consequently affected the fate of heavy metals and F in the leachate affected soils. The germination and growth of Spinapis alba in the soils affected by the leachate and the controls were also similar. However, the proportion of alkalophilic bacteria in the soils affected by the leachate significantly increased, and this can be explained by the increased soil pH due to the alkaline leachate. Overall, this study shows that the alkalinity of the BOF slag leachate, rather than the presence of heavy metals and F in the leachate, needs to be considered when the BOF slag is to be reused as structural filling materials.
The Study of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Remediation by Indirect Thermal Desorption
Lee, In ; Kim, Jong-Sung ; Jung, Tae-Yang ; Oh, Seung-Taek ; Kim, Guk-Jin ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 14~20
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.014
Remediation of crude oil contaminated soil is complicate and hard to apply traditional methods because of its persistency, durability, and high viscosity. Therefore, in this study, the efficiency of crude oil contaminated soil remediation was tested by developing a pilot-scale thermal desorption system using the indirect heating method with an exhaust gas treatment. Under optimal condition drawed by temperature and retention time, the remedial efficiency of crude oil contaminated soil and treatability of exhaust gas were analyzed. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of crude oil contaminated soil was decreased to 69.7 mg/kg on average and the remedial efficiency was measured at 99.60%. Through the exhaust gas, 86.0% of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) was degraded and 97.16% of complex malodor was reduced under the suggested optimum operation condition. This study provides important basic data to be useful in scaling up of the indirect thermal desorption system for the remediation of crude oil contaminated soil.
Comparative Application of Various Machine Learning Techniques for Lithology Predictions
Jeong, Jina ; Park, Eungyu ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 21~34
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.021
In the present study, we applied various machine learning techniques comparatively for prediction of subsurface structures based on multiple secondary information (i.e., well-logging data). The machine learning techniques employed in this study are Naive Bayes classification (NB), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression classification (LR). As an alternative model, conventional hidden Markov model (HMM) and modified hidden Markov model (mHMM) are used where additional information of transition probability between primary properties is incorporated in the predictions. In the comparisons, 16 boreholes consisted with four different materials are synthesized, which show directional non-stationarity in upward and downward directions. Futhermore, two types of the secondary information that is statistically related to each material are generated. From the comparative analysis with various case studies, the accuracies of the techniques become degenerated with inclusion of additive errors and small amount of the training data. For HMM predictions, the conventional HMM shows the similar accuracies with the models that does not relies on transition probability. However, the mHMM consistently shows the highest prediction accuracy among the test cases, which can be attributed to the consideration of geological nature in the training of the model.
Pore-scale Investigation on Displacement of Porewater by Supercritical CO
Injection Using a Micromodel
Park, Bogyeong ; Lee, Minhee ; Wang, Sookyun ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 35~48
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.035
A micromodel was applied to estimate the effects of geological conditions and injection methods on displacement of resident porewater by injecting scCO
in the pore scale. Binary images from image analysis were used to distinguish scCO
-filled-pores from other pore structure. CO
flooding followed by porewater displacement, fingering migration, preferential flow and bypassing were observed during scCO
injection experiments. Effects of pressure, temperature, salinity, flow rate, and injection methods on storage efficiency in micromodels were represented and examined in terms of areal displacement efficiency. The measurements revealed that the areal displacement efficiency at equilibrium decreases as the salinity increases, whereas it increases as the pressure and temperature increases. It may result from that the overburden pressure and porewater salinity can affect the CO
solubility in water and the hydrophilicity of silica surfaces, while the neighboring temperature has a significant effect on viscosity of scCO
. Increased flow rate could create more preferential flow paths and decrease the areal displacement efficiency. Compared to the continuous injection of scCO
, the pulse-type injection reduced the probability for occurrence of fingering, subsequently preferential flow paths, and recorded higher areal displacement efficiency. More detailed explanation may need further studies based on closer experimental observations.
Characterization and Emission Sources of PAHs for Industrial Complex Soils in Jeollanamdo
Park, Soo-Ho ; Lee, Woo-Bum ; Kim, Sung-Ug ; Kim, Jongo ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 49~57
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.049
This study investigated the 16 priority PAH concentrations and emission sources from two region (Southwest and East) soils in Jeollanamdo. National industrial complexes have been operated in these regions. PAH concentrations in east region were higher than southeast region, and 9.1 times higher for polluted area and approximately 8.5 times higher for industrial complex were observed. Individual PAH ratios and LMW/HMW ratio indicated that PAHs were emitted from pyrogenic sources in two regions. Average Ant/(Ant+Phe) ratios in southwest and east were 0.14 and 0.22, respectively. From a principal component analysis, it was concluded that PAHs were originated from vehicles and coal power plants.
Modality of Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil in Military Rifle Shooting Range
Lee, Kwang-Lyeol ; Hyun, Jae-Hyuk ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 58~63
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.058
The study examined the level of heavy metal contamination by dividing military rifle shooting ranges into the three areas, i.e firing, trajectory, and target. The target area was found to be contaminated at a level higher (Cu 845 mg/kg, Pb 30,487 mg/kg) than the Worrisome Level of Soil Contamination (hereinafter referred to as the “Worrisome Level”) The trajectory area was predicted to be free from contamination, but it did indicate contamination although it was pretty much lower (Cu 23 mg/kg, Pb 99 mg/kg) than Worrisome Level. This is attributed to the contamination spread when rearranging the soil of the target area during the maintenance of the shooting range. The firing area was also predicted to be free from heavy metal contamination, but the results analyzed indicated a contamination higher (Cu 201 mg/kg, Pb 2,286 mg/kg) than Worrisome Level. This is attributed to the fragments of the broken bullet scattering due to the pressure generated as the bullet leaves the muzzle. An examination of heavy metal contamination in the discharge area as well as gutters to prevent the intrusion of rain water from perimeter revealed a high level of contamination (Cu 298 mg/kg, Pb 6,497 mg/kg), which makes it necessary to take measures.
An Influence of Groundwater Flow on Performance of Closed Borehole Heat Exchangers (Part-1)
Hahn, Jeong Sang ; Hahn, Chan ; Yoon, Yun Sang ; Kiem, Young Seek ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 64~81
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.064
To analyze the influence of various groundwater flow rates (specific discharge) on BHE system with balanced and unbalanced energy loads under assuming same initial temperature (15℃) of ground and groundwater, numerical modeling using FEFLOW was used for this study. When groundwater flow is increased from 1 × 10
to 4 × 10
m/s under balanced energy load, the performance of BHE system is improved about 26.7% in summer and 22.7% at winter time in a single BHE case as well as about 12.0~18.6% in summer and 7.6~8.7% in winter time depending on the number of boreholes in the grid, their array type, and bore hole separation in multiple BHE system case. In other words, the performance of BHE system is improved due to lower avT in summer and higher avT in winter time when groundwater flow becomes larger. On the contrary it is decreased owing to higher avT in summer and lower avT in winter time when the numbers of BHEs in an array are increased, Geothermal plume created at down-gradient area by groundwater flow is relatively small in balanced load condition while quite large in unbalanced load condition. Groundwater flow enhances in general the thermal efficiency by transferring heat away from the BHEs. Therefore it is highly required to obtain and to use adequate informations on hydrogeologic characterristics (K, S, hydraulic gradient, seasonal variation of groundwater temperature and water level) along with integrating groundwater flow and also hydrogeothermal properties (thermal conductivity, seasonal variation of ground temperatures etc.) of the relevant area for achieving the optimal design of BHE system.
Effect of Aging on the Chemical Forms and Phytotoxicity of Arsenic in Soil
Yang, Woojin ; Jho, Eun Hea ; Im, Jinwoo ; Jeong, Seulki ; Nam, Kyoungphile ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 82~87
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.082
This study investigates effects of an aging period on arsenic (As) chemical forms in soils and phytotoxicity using artificially As-contaminated soils with a range of As concentrations (0-300 mg/kg) and aging periods (0 and 3 months). A sequential extraction procedure showed that the increasing As concentration in soils increased the ratio of non-specifically and specifically bound As, which are known to be bioavailable. This resulted in increasing As uptake by tomatoes with increasing As concentration (R
=0.87 for exponential fitting); however, the seed germination was not sensitive to the As concentrations of the soil samples. The seed germination was also statistically similar in the soils with 75 and 150 mg-As/kg regardless of the aging period. The time taken until the seed germination (i.e., lag phase), on the other hand, decreased from 10 d to 3 d with aging for 3 months. This can be attributed to the decreased amount of bioavailable As with aging. Overall, this study shows that when the toxic effects of the As-contaminated soils are assessed using tomato plants, it is better to use more sensitive methods than seed germination such as the As accumulation or the lag phase for seed germination.
A Study on Anaerobic Biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX by Indigenous Microorganisms
Chung, Woo-Jin ; Chang, Soon-Woong ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 88~94
DOI : 10.7857/JSGE.2016.21.3.088
The simultaneous biodegradation between MTBE (Gasoline additives) and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-benzene, o-Xylene, m-Xylene, p-Xylene) was achieved within a competitive inter-relationship, with not only electron accepters such as nitrate, sulfate, and iron(III) without oxygen, but also with electron donors such as MTBE and BTEX. Preexisting indigenous microorganisms from a domestic sample of gasoline contaminated soil was used for a lab-scale batch test. The result of the test showed that the biodegradation rate of MTBE decreased when there was co-existing MTBE and BTEX, compared to having just MTBE present. The growth of indigenous microorganisms was not affected in the case of the MTBE treatment, whereas the growth of the microorganisms was decreased in combined MTBE and BTEX sample. This may indicate that an inhibitor related to biodegradation when BTEX and MTBE are mixed will be found. This inhibitor may be found to retard the anaerobic conditions needed for efficient breakdown of these complex carbon chain molecules in-situ. Moreover, it is also possible that an unknown competitive reaction is being imposed on the interactions between MTBE and BTEX dependent on conditions, ratios of mixture, etc.