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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Screening of 2, 4, 6-trinitntoluene Tolerant Indigenous Herbaceous Piano
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 3~11
To select a suitable indigenous plant for the phytoremediation of TNT contaminated soil, eight representative species of native grasses were tested to identify TNT toxicity thresholds. The threshold was determined based on various factors including cumulative seed germination, root and shoot length, fresh biomass, and the amount of water uptake under various TNT concentrations. Phytotoxic effect of TNT on plants was increased with the increase in TNT concentration but the degree was varied between grass species. Concentrations up to 60-80mgTNT/liter did not affect germination of Abutilion avicennae, Echinochioa crusgalli var. frumentacea, and Aeschynomene indica. Phytotoxicity threshold inhibition (50%) of Abutilion avicennae, schinochioa crusgalli var. frumentacea, Aeschynomene indica were 5-40mgTNT/liter for root length, 50-73mg TNT/Liter for shoot length and 68-99mgTNT/Liter for fresh biomass during 14 days of seedling exposure. Root and shoot growth as well as fresh biomass decreased as TNT concentration increased. In addition, the amount of water uptake decreased with increasing TNT concentration in Abutilion avicennae and Aeschynomene indica. Comparison of toxicity thresholds for the tested grass species showed that sensitivity of plants to TNT was in the order of root length > shoot length > fresh biomass > germination rate. From these results, we concluded that Abutilion avicennae and Aeschynomene indica had tolerance to TNT among the species tested.
The Characteristics of pH Variations and Lead transport during Electrokinetic Remediation of soil Contaminated by Heavy Metal
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 13~23
In this study, the characteristics of pH variations and contaminant distribution in soil are investigated during electrokinetic treatment for the purpose of restoring contaminated soil with heavy metal. For these objects, laboratory test for the kaolin contaminated by lead was performed. During electrokinetic treatment, lead was transported from anode to cathode. And 75% of lead removed within 80% region of the specimen. Most lead, however, that transported from anode to cathode precipitated in the vicinity of cathode compartment, thus the amount of lead removed by electroosmosis was little. Electrokinetic treatment satisfied regulation criteria of Korean Soil Environment Conservation Law within almost region of the specimen. But enhancement methods can be regarded as inevitable requisite for the cathode region.
The heavy metal contaminations of sediments from some gully-pots : eastern part of seoul, Korea
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 25~40
In order to investigate the degree of heavy metal pollution, 280 urban gully-pot sediments were collected from 13 localities in eastern part of Seoul. The uncontaminated stream sediments were also studied for comparison. A series of studies have carried out concerning the physicochemical characteristics of the sediments and the distribution of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Total metal concentrations of gully-pot sediments and uncontaminated stream sediments were analyzed using acid extraction. After predigestion with
, the sample was digested with mixed acid (
). The gully-pot sediments were characterized by very high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these metals to the sediment chemistry Heavy metal concentrations in the gully-pot sediments were 1-329 times higher than the mean content of metals in the uncontaminated stream sediments, depending on the metals. In particular, the highest mean concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr were noticed in the gully-pot sediments from Yeouido, Junggu, Junggu, and Dongdaemungu, respectively. The mean value of total Zn concentration in the business and commercial areas is 2-3.5 times higher than that in industrial areas. This suggests that Zn is mainly derived from automobiles (rubber of automobile tires). The mean concentrations of Cu and Cr are significantly high in the commercial and industrial areas, indicating that industrial activities may cause the accumulation of Cu and Cr in the sediments. The Pb level in gully-pot sediments is comparatively low, due to the use of unleaded gasoline in automobiles since 1987.
Organobentonite as a dual sorbent for Chlombenzene and Lead
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 41~50
The use of clay has been the favored method of reducing or eliminating hazardous contaminants in the leachate from landfills. But, neither natural clays nor organoclays modified with surfactants are able to effectively sorb both heavy metals and organic contaminants. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the optimal amount of surfactant added on the clay mineral to effectively remove both of them. For this purpose, Na-Bentonite as the natural clay, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) as the cationic surfactant were used, Chlorobenzene and lead (
) were selected as representative contaminants. Experimental result showed that chlorobenzene sorption increased with increasing HDTMA to bentonite, ratios. On the contrary, the removal rate of lead decreased as the amount of HDTMA increased. The removal of chlorobenzene was influenced by the amount of HDTMA added to the bentonites rather than initial concentration of chlorobenzene, but the removal of lead was much more influenced by the initial concentration of lead. The adsorption of lead was not affected by chlorobenzene, and vice versa. The competitive sorption between the heavy metal and the organic contaminant was not present.
Study of Surfactant Enhanced Remediation Methods for Organic Pollutant(NAPL) Distributed over the Heterogeneous Medium
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 51~59
Column and box tests were performed to investigate the removal efficiency of NAPL using the surfactant enhanced flushing In heterogeneous medium. Homogeneous Ottawa sand and heterogeneous soil were used to verify the increase of remediation efficiency for the surfactant enhanced flushing in column test. Box tests with two different heterogeneous sub-structure were performed to quantify the capability of the surfactant enhanced flushing as a remediation method to remove NAPL from the heterogeneous medium. Two different grain size sand layers were repeated in the box to simulate the heterogeneous layer formation and the modified fault structure was built to simulate the fault system in the box. O-xylene as a LNAPL and PCE as a DNAPL were used and oleamide as a non-ionic surfactant. The maximum NAPL effluent concentration with 1% oleamide flushing in the homogeneous column test increased about 460 times compared to that with only water flushing and about 250 times increased in the real soil column test. In heterogeneous medium, the maximum effluent concentration increased about 150 times in 1% oleamide flushing and most of NAPL were removed from the box within 8 pore volume flushing, suggesting that the removal efficiency increased very much compared to in only water flushing. Results investigated the capability of the surfactant enhanced remediation method to remove NAPL even in heterogeneous medium.
A Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Conductivity in the Soil-Bentonite Mixed Soils with Compaction Energy and Swelling in the Landfill
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 61~72
A barrier liner system is placed at the bottom and side slope in landfill to protect a leaking of leachate that the hydraulic conductivity of this system should be less than It 107cm/sec. In this study, the soil-bentonite mixture for the bottom liner system was evaluated in two point of views : changing characteristics of the hydraulic conductivity according to the different mixing ratio of soil-bentonite with the effect of bentonite swelling and the difference method (A & D type) of compaction on the hydraulic conductivity. As the results, maximum dry density (
) of SC group mixture was higher than of CL group mixture. However, the result of optimum moisture contents(OMC) of both groups were the contrary. In case of
by different compaction method, D type was higher than A. But the OMC were the contrary. The difference of
according to the Compaction energy, “SC” group mixture W3S higher than the “CL” group. In case of OMC of “CL” group was higher than “SC” group. The effecting of swelling was a little bit different on the two factors. According to the result of compaction test, the use of site soil only could not meet the criteria on hydraulic conductivity, but could find a solution for the mixing ratio of bentonite mixture were satisfied to the standard of barriation. The increased in bentonite mixing ratio and degree of swelling, the values of hydraulic conductivity were decreased. Especially the “CL” group with “D” type compaction measured the lowest value with the same conditions. Also, the bentonite mixing ratio has more influenced on the hydraulic conductivity compare with swelling effect. The “SC” group mixture with “A” typo compaction got a big difference from others. The evaluation of economic for the construction cost on the two cases, the lower bentonite mixing ratio of soil-bentonite mixed soil is more economically because of bentonite cost.
Determination of Aquifer Parameters by the Improved Slope-Matching Method
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 73~81
With the development of industry and standard of living, the quantity of groundwater consumption has been increasing. For the analysis of groundwater, to determine the hydraulic parameters of aquifer is very important. Various numerical methods have been developed to solve aquifer tests and eliminate the subjectivity of traditional graphical type curve methods. The slope-matching method, which matches the slope of the Theis type curve to the slope of the field data, can be used to numerically solve pump tests for both leaky and nonleaky aquifers. A FORTRAN program on based slope-matching method was developed to obtain the transmissivity, storage coefficient, and leaky factor from pumping test data automatically. Results derived from published data show that the improved slope-matching method gives parameters close to the ones derived by the slope-matching method.
Chemical Characteristics and Pollution of Groundwater in the Ponchon Area, Kwangju
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 83~95
In this study, the contaminated status of groundwater under Ponchon Basin, Kwangju-city was analyzed by hydrogeological survey. Though the distribution of groundwater hydraulic head was similar with the ground elevation, the flow system of groundwater was changed due to overpumping in the industrial area. Paddy field and residential area which were located in the north part of the basin had relatively high concentrations of Cl, N
in the groundwater. Southern part of the basin which most industrial area occupied had relatively high concentrations of HC
and Zn. Groundwater was contaminated by C
due to the infiltration of domestic sewage and factory wastewater. In the Cl case, C
had a tendency of distribution over the water shed along with the contaminated source. The drawdown of groundwater due to overpumping caused more vertical movement of contaminant than lateral movement. If the overpumping continues in the industrial area, the groundwater flow system will be more affected and the groundwater will be lowered in the north part of basin. It is clear that contamination by C
due to domestic sewage and factory wastewater will spread through the whole basin area.rea.
A Study on Designation and Management of Groundwater Conservation Area Using Groundwater Classification Map
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 97~112
The Section 12 of Groundwater Law stipulates that groundwater conservation zone should be regulated by the designation of conservation area and development restricted area, The most important policy for groundwater conservation and protection is to estimate and designate groundwater conservation zone. The groundwater classification map is utilized to determine the prime groundwater conservation areas, which delineate the first and the second ranked conservation areas of the map. According to the classification method of the Ministry of Construction and Transportation in 2000, groundwater quality for groundwater classification is classified with 4 levels based on the following conditions : (1) the present groundwater quality; (2) the potential usage as drinking water at present and in the future; (3) hydrogeological characteristics, and (4) the existence of pollution sources and activities. Throughout the initial analysis, the groundwater conservation areas are represented about 57.1
in the groundwater classification map, which is 9.4% of Seoul Metropolitan Area. The management guidelines for groundwater conservation area are also developed referring to Cheju Province Groundwater Conservation Management Project and the guidelines by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation. But the specific administration and detailed technical survey should be prepared to efficiently manage the groundwater conservation area.