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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of Sea Water Intrusion Using Geostatistical Analysis of Geophysical Surveys at the Southeastern Coastal Area of Busan, Korea
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 3~17
Data analysis of groundwater monitoring wells and geostatistical methods are used to identify the local characteristics of sea water intrusion and the range of sea water intrusion at the southeastern coastal area of Busan, Korea. Rainfall and groundwater level of two monitoring wells show a linear correlation because of the direct groundwater recharge by the precipitation. However, rainfall and electric conductivity have the inverse relationship because of the increase of groundwater. Electric conductivity rapidly increased at 24m depth and exceeded 20,000
/cm near 26m depth in the monitoring wells. The variations of groundwater level and electric conductivity show that the interface between sea water and fresh water tends to move upward when groundwater level goes down. In the cross correlation analysis, groundwater level versus rainfall represents the largest cross correlation coefficient in 0 time lag but the cross correlation coefficient of electric conductivity versus rainfall is the largest when the time lag is 9 days. This suggests that the fluctuations of groundwater level respond to rainfall in a short time, but the interface between sea water and fresh water respond very slow to rainfall. Horizontal extents of sea water intrusion are estimated to 14 m from the east of Line 1, and 25 m from the southeast end of Line 2 in the inversion of dipole-dipole profiling data of two survey lines. The data of VES by the Schulumberger array in May and July show lognormal distributions. In the kriged apparent resistivity and earth resistivity distributions, the resistivities of July are increased comparing to those of May. This reflects that the concentration of sea water in aquifer is reduced due to the increased groundwater recharge from the rainfall in June and July. In analyzing the vertical and horizontal apparent resistivities and earth resistivity distributions, the geostatistical methods are very useful to identify the variations of earth resistivity distributions at the coastal area
Watershed Classification Using Statistical Analysis of water Quality Data from Muju area
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 19~32
This study is objected to identify the relations between surface- and shallow ground-water and the seasonal variation of their qualities in watersheds near Muju area. The water type shows mainly Ca-
type. Heavy-metal contamination of surface water is locally detected, due to the mixing with mine drainage. In October nitrate concentration is especially high in densely populated area. Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis are implemented to interpret the complexity of the chemical variation of surface- and ground-water with large amount of chemical data. Based on the cluster analysis, surface-water was divided into five groups and ground-water into three groups. Principal Component Analysis efficiently supports the result of cluster analysis, allowing the identification of three main factors controlling the water quality. There are (1) hydrogeochemical factor, (2) anthropogenic factor and (3) heavy metal contaminated by mine drainage.
Identification of the Transmissive Fractures in the Vicinity of waterway Tunnel
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 33~44
A field technique for assessing the transmissive fractures in an aquifer was applied to a fractured rock formation in Youngchun area Korea. Geological mapping and detailed acoustic borehole teleview(BHTV) logging were performed to obtain information about the fractures. The study area consists predominantly of two types of fractures. The fracture sets of low angle partings such as bedding and sheeting plains have strike N70-80
SW and N3S
NE, respectively. In areas of high fractures, on the other hand, the major fracture sets show strike N80
W and dip 70
SE in sedimentry rocks, N40-50
SE, and N7
SW in granites and volcanic rocks. Injection tests have been performed to identify discrete production zones and quantify the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity. The calculated hydraulic conductivities range from 3.363E-10 to 2.731E-6, showing that the difference between maximum and minimum value is four order of magnitude. Dominant section in hydraulic conductivity is extensively fractured. Geophysical logging was carried out to clarify characterization of the distribution of fracture zones. Transmissive fractures were evaluated through the comparison of the results obtained by each method. The temperature logs appeared to be a good indicator that can distinguish a high transmissive fractures from a common fractures in hydraulic conductivity. In numerous cases, evidence of fluid movement was amplified in the temperature gradient log. The fracture sets of N70-80
SE, and N65-72
NW were idenfied as a distinct transmissive fractures through the results of each tests.
A Study on the Relation between Types and Recharges of Groundwater : Analysis on National Groundwater Monitoring Network Data
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 45~59
This study is objected to demonstrate the spatial variability of the ground-water recharge by classifying the types of ground-water hydrographs and assessing the recharge ratio(the ratio of the rise of ground-water level to cumulative precipitation) of each type using the National Ground-water Monitoring network data. A total of 5 types were identified by factor analysis on the ground-water hydrographs nationwide. The recharge ratio of each type were estimated to be 6.5% (TYPE I), 4.1 % (TYPE II), 9.2%(TYPE III), 5.8 %(TYPE IV), 15.3 %(TYPE V) in the confidence level of 95.44% and 6% variation was estimated site by site even in the same type. The recharges of Han, Nakdong, Keum, Youngsan·Seomjin river basins were estimated as 10.0 %, 6.1 %, 8.3 %. and 6.6 % respectively. These results were consistent with the results of the existing baseflow method.
Removal of PAHs and PCBs in artificially contaminated soils using electron beam irradiation
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 61~70
Direct electron beam irradiation experiments on artificially contaminated soil by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed to evaluate applicability of direct electron beam irradiation process for contaminated soil remediation. The removal efficiency of PAHs was about 97 % at 600 kGy and PCBs about 70 % at 800 kGy. PAHs were removed 27 % more, compared to PCBs although the absorbed dose was as low as 200 kGy. The contaminants decomposition was due predominantly to direct interaction of high-energy electrons and the target compounds rather than due to oxidation/reduction reaction by reactive intermediates. Radiolysis of electron beam may be able to decontaminate contaminated soil by toxic and recalcitrant organic compounds like as PAHs and PCBs effectively, but it may be economically uncompetitive. Thus, developments of post-treatment process of conventional site remediation technologies may be more practical and economical than direct radiolysis.
A study on Heavy metal of soil in the Vicinity of Nanjido
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 71~77
This research was carried out from 2001. 4 until 2001. 5 in order to examine the level of soil contamination in the vicinity of Nanjido. The sampling was done at near the Nanjido soil. At the each sampling site we did the sampling at different depth- surface(0~15cm deep), 1m deep, 2m deep, 3m deep. The contamination of Cd, Cu, Pb, As,
, and Hg were tasted and analysed by spectra AA. The examination showed that the average concentration level of the entire sampled soil was Cd, 0.229mg/kg, Cu 8.349mg/kg, Pb : 11.083mg/kg, As : 0.298mg/kg,
: 0.124mg/kg, and Hg : 0.134mg/kg. The concentration level of at the depth of 0-l5cm, came out to be Cd : 0.305mg/kg, Cu : 8.464mg/kg, Pb : 11 383mg/kg, As : 0.128mg/kg,
: 0.153mg/kg, and Hg : 0.092mg/kg. It shows that in the cases of Cd and C
the average concentration level of the whole sampled soil was about 80% of that of 0-l5cm depth. And as for Hg and As. the average concentration level of the entire sampled soil came out to be approximately twice as high as the sample soil from the depth surface, As for Cu and Pb, there was not much difference between the entire samples average concentration level and the concentration level of surface. It was hard to find much relationship between the depth of each site where sampling was done and the level of concentration, the concentration level of Pb and Cu at the sampling site C and E was quite high, which suggests that it has been affected by the polluted the hyang-dong stream and fill random up waste.
A Study on the Treatment of soil Flushing Effluent Using Electrofloatation
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 79~84
The optimal operation conditions, including voltage applied, reaction time, distance between electrodes. and electrode material. were investigated for the treatment of soil flushing effluent using electrofloatation. When 3V was applied for 1 hour, 88% oil-water separation efficiency was achieved. In case of 6V and above, 90% efficiencies were achieved. As reaction time and distance between electrodes were longer, separation efficiencies were higher and lower, respectively. Separation efficiencies for different anode materials were copper > aluminum > iron > titanium. It might result from the differences of their electrical conductivities.
Electrochemical Characteristics of Fine Soils in the Application of Electrokinetic Remediation
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 85~94
Overall objective of this study was to evaluate the electrochemical characteristics of fine soils during the electrokinetic(EK) remediation. Zeta potential of kaolinite as a function of solution pH and surfactant concentration was investigated to make a relationship with electroosmotic flow direction and rate. During the EK experiments, pH of pore solution, electroosmotic permeability(
), electric conductivity(
) and voltage distribution was measured, respectively, The point of zero charge(PZC) of kaolinite was estimated to be about 4.2 and the zeta potential of kaolinite above PZC was more negative as solution pH increased. Sorption of surfactants on the kaolinite altered the zeta potential of kaolinite. resulting from the variation of electrochemical characteristics of kaolinite surface. hs the EK experiment progressed, low pH was predominant over most of the kaolinite specimen and thus resulted in very low mass and charge flow. The
was also affected by the variation of voltage drop across the EK column with time. Results from this study implied that zeta potential of kaolinite affected by the pH variation of pore solution and voltage distribution in soil column played important role in the determination of mass and charge flow during EK process. It was also suggested that pH adjustment or addition of suitable sorbates could alter the electrochemical characteristics of soil surface and thus maintain high mass and charge flow rate with time.
Manganese Oxide Catalyzed Fenton-like Reduction of Chlorinated Compounds
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 95~102
Manganese oxide/ hydrogen peroxide(
) reactions were investigated as an alternative to Fenton-like reaction to reduce chlorinated organic compounds in groundwater This system showed high degradation of CT with low
294mM) at neutral condition, and CT degradation increased with increasing pH values. The rate of CT degradation was not so much dependent on increase in
concentration since increase in production of oxygen during the reaction obstructed reaction of
on the surface of
. These results show that
catalyzed Ponton-like reaction could be a potential alternative method for treating chlorinated organic compounds in groundwater.
Comparison of Particle-Size Distribution Models for Estimating Water Retention Characteristic
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 103~114
Knowledge of soil water retention characteristic is essential for many problems involving water flow and organic solute transport in unsaturated soils. A physico-empirical approach based on the translation of the particle-size distribution (PSD) into a corresponding water retention curve has been accomplished by others using the concept that the pore-size distribution is directly related to PSD. This approach implies that details of a PSD curve may affect the estimation of water retention characteristic (WRC). To determine whether the WRC estimation using the Arya-Paris model could be affected by the selection of a PSD model, four PSD models with one to four fitting parameters were used. The Jaky model with only one fitting parameter had greater WRC estimation ability than other models with greater number of fitting parameters. The better performance of the Jaky model may be explained by the effect of soil structure in field soils.
Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in Kwangiu City
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 3, 2002, Pages 115~132
To distinguish the anthropogenic inputs from the chemical weathering with water-rock interaction on the chemical compositons of groundwater in Kwangju city, four different water groups were established based on the landuse type, lithology and topology. The sample from greenbelt area belongs to Group Ⅰ, whereas those from green buffer zone, urban area and industrial area belong to Group II, Group Ⅲ and Group Ⅳ, respectively. The geology of this city mainly consists of biotite granite and granitic gneiss. The concentration of main cations is subject to the behavior of feldspars, micas and carbonate minerals. Cl
-/ and NO
-/ are supplied by anthropogenic inputs such as domestic sewage whose concentration of these anions is highest in the Group Ⅲ samples. With the Piper diagram, the groundwaters of Group Ⅲ are mainly plotted in CaSO
type, whereas those of other groups are plotted in Ca(HCO
type, The calculation for the activities of ions and saturation indices of some minerals shows that most of the minerals are undersaturated and plotted in the area of equlibrium with kaolinite. Three factors were extracted from the factor analysis for chemical data. Factor 1 controlled by HCO
2+/ and Na
+/, explains the dissolution of carbonate minerals. mica and plagioclase. Factor 2, controlled by Cl
-/ and NO
-/, explains the influence of artificial pollution. Factor 3, controlled by Mn, Fe and Zn is subject to the industrial waste water, but the evidence is not clear. Factor 1 is dominant in the Group I and II, indicating that those samples are subjected to natural chemical weathering, The higher scores of factor 2 in the Group Ⅲ samples indicate the potential artificial pollution.