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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Enhanced Electrokinetic remediation of low permeability soil contaminated with phenanthrene
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 3~9
In this study, electrokinetic remediation tests were performed with spiked fine-grained soil by phenanthrene which is representative hydrophobic organic contaminant of petroleum hydrocarbon. And also, the enhanced method was used with surfactant concentration variation and elapsed time to achieve more higher removal efficiency than conventional electrokinetic treatment. In conventional electrokinetic treatment, most phenanthrene was not transported. But, in the enhanced method used by the surfactant, phenanthrene moved form anode to cathode region and accumulated in cathode region. Also, the transportation rate of phenanthrene was increased with surfactant concentration increasement and elapsed time.
An Analysis of Groundwater Flow in the Multi-aquifer System
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 10~16
The multi-aquifer system separated by semipervious leaky beds was analyzed. The finite difference scheme of the Crank-Nicolson method is applied to obtain the solution for this system. The solution of this scheme was compared with the analytical solution for two-layer aquifer systems with one-dimensional steady state. The results showed a good agreement between analytical and numerical solution for two-layer aquifer systems. So, the numerical scheme can be extended to multi-aquifer system. When the pumping is tried for single or multi aquifer, the computation of the groundwater heads was possible for each aquifer in the multi-aquifer with two-dimensional system. So, it might be helpful for the effective groundwater management.
Well Loss in Fractured Rock Formation with Radial Flow during Pumping Test
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 17~23
Pumping tests were carried out from seven wells in fractured rocks. The time-drawdown data were obtained from pumping wells and corrected for the elapsed time of step drawdown test using Cooper-Jacob's method. A statistical method. the least square of error, was used to yield the coefficient of aquifer losses, the coefficient of well losses, and the power which indicates the severity of the turbulence. The values of the power range from 1.65 to 6.48. The well losses result mainly from turbulent flow caused by radial flow nearby pumping wells. The turbulent flow depends on Reynolds number. Since the hydraulic characteristics of fractured rocks control the fluid velocity, the value of the power is an important factor to understand the aquifer system of fractured rocks.
Adsorption Characteristics of Lead on Kaolinite
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 24~30
The laboratory adsorption batch tests were performed to investigate the adsorption characteristics of Pb on kaolinite. The characteristics such as adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption capacity, adsorption isotherm were studied, and also the effects of pH and the mixing ratio on the adsorption of Pb on kaolinite were investigated. Test results show that the adsorption equilibrium state was reached within 24 hours, and the adsorbed amount of Pb increased, but the adsorption efficiency over the initial concentration of 198 mg/l decreased, with increasing the initial concentration of Pb. And the adsorption constant, 1/n was obtained 0.9584 by Freundlich isotherm equation. Regardless of the initial concentration of Pb. the adsorbed amount of Pb as well as the adsorption efficiency were increased with increasing pH values and converged to a certain constant value above 8 of pH values. And also the adsorbed amount of Pb increased with the mixing ratio, but its efficiency increased with the mixing ratio up to 8 and then showed the decreasing tendency above that.
Treatment of Contaminated Sediment for Water Quality Improvement of Small-scale Reservoir
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 31~39
Pollutants from industry, mining, agriculture, and other sources have contaminated sediments in many surface water bodies. Sediment contamination poses a severe threat to human health and environment because many toxic contaminants that are barely detectable in the water column can accumulate in sediments at much higher levels. The purpose of this study was to make optimal treatment and disposal plan o( sediment for water quality improvement in small-scale resevoir based on an evaluation of degree of contamination. The degree of contamination were investigated for 23 samples of 9 site at different depth of sediment in small-scale J river. Results for analysis of contaminated sediments were observed that copper concentration of 4 samples were higher than the regulation of hazardous waste (3 mg/L) and that of all samples were exceeded soil pollution warning levels for agricultural areas. Lead and mercury concentration of all samples were detected below both regulations. Necessary of sediment dredge was evaluated for organic matter and nutrient through standard levels of Paldang lake and the lower Han river in Korea and Tokyo bay and Yokohama bay in Japan. The degree of contamination for organic matter and nutrient was not serious. Compared standard levels of Japan, America, and Canada for heavy metal, contaminated sediment was concluded as lowest effect level or limit of tolerance level because standard levels of America and Canada was established worst effect of benthic organisms. The optimal treatment method of sediment contained heavy metal was cement-based solidification/stabilization to prevent heavy metal leaching.
Prevention of Soil Contamination from Underground Storage Facilities of Petroleum Product and Hazardous Chemical Compounds
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 40~47
The practices of the construction and management of the petroleum and hazardous chemical compound storage facilities in Korea were investigated extensively, and the problems were identified. The advanced technologies in the U.S.A were comparatively studied. Considering the effectiveness of leak prevention and applicability, the following measures were suggested. To prevent corrosion of a tank, a clad tank, an interior lining tank, or a double-wall tank were thought to be the most cost effective. For piping. use of non-metalic materials was suggested. A catchment basin seemed to be effective for preventing spills. For monitoring of leaks, constructions of more than one of detection systems, such as an automatic leak detection device. a vapor detection system, a groundwater monitoring system, or a double-wall monitoring system, were recommended.
Laboratory-scale fluorescence spectroscopic method using UV for monitoring soils contaminated with petroleum produce
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 48~58
As a pilot experiment for developing the monitoring system for oil spill from storage tank, previous approach of monitoring contaminated oil from mixed soil sample had the limitation that it cannot reflect the real situations of the contamination. In this study, more realistic contamination condition and water contents were considered. Fluorescence intensity was not affected by water contents. To acquire the stability of media, sand, Ca-bentonite, alumina, Fe-oxide, bead and silica were tested. Only sand was suitable to our system. These results should provide basic information for constructing reliable monitoring system.
Change of Seawater Intrusion Range by the Difference of Longitudinal Dispersivity in Hydrodynamic Modeling
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 59~67
As a parameter for hydrodynamic modeling to define the range of seawater intrusion, dispersivities are frequently determined from pre-experiments or theoretical studies because field experiments need a lot of time and expenses. If the dispersivities are inadequate for an aquifer, the numerical results may have some errors. We examined the validity of longitudinal dispersivities by comparing the ranges of seawater intrusion with numerical modeling, field data and apparent resistivity sections. In the numerical modeling the TDS distributions simulated by the Xu's longitudinal dispersivity are more similar to the values of TDS measured at monitoring wet]s and boreholes than those by the Neuman's longitudinal dispersivity. The ranges of seawater intrusion by numerical simulations using Xu's longitudinal dispersivity show that the contour line of 1000 ㎎/L. as TDS is located at 480 m from the coast in May, while at 390 m in July. The difference is originated from the shift of the interface between seawater and fresh water. It moved toward the coast in July because of the seasonal increase of hydraulic gradient according to rainfall. A contour line of 15 ohm-m was used to define the range of seawater intrusion in apparent resistivity sections. From this criterion on the interface between seawater and fresh water, the range of seawater intrusion is located at 450 m from the coast. This result is similar to the range of seawater intrusion simulated by the numerical modeling using Xu's dispersivity. Therefore the range of seawater intrusion shows the difference due to the dispersivities used for the hydrodynamic modeling and the dispersivity generated by the Xu's equation is considered more effective to decide the range of seawater intrusion in this study area.
Neutralization of Acid Rock Drainage from the Dongrae Pyrophyllite Deposit: A Study on Behavior of Heavy Metals
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 68~76
In this study, we have investigated the geochemical behavior and fate of heavy metals in acid rock drainage (ARD). The ARD was collected from the area of the former Dongrae pyrophyllite mine. The Dongrae Creek waters were strongly acidic (pH : 2.3~4.2) and contained high concentrations of
, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd, due to the influence of ARD generated from weathering of pyrite-rich pyrophyllite ores. However, the water quality gradually improved as the water flows downstream. In view of the change of mole fractions of dissolved Fe, Al and Mn, the generated ARD was initially both Fe- and AA-ich but progressively evolved to more Al-rich toward the confluence with the uncontaminated Suyoung River. As the AR3 (pH 2.3) mixed with the uncontaminated waters (pH 6.5), the pH increased up to 4.2, which caused precipitation of
-rich Fe hydroxysulfate as a red-colored, massive ferricrete precipitate throughout the Dongrae Creek. Accompanying the precipitation of ferricrete, the Dongrae Creek water progressively changed to more Al-rich toward downstream sites. At the mouth of the Dongrae Creek, it (pH 3.4) mixed with the Suyoung River (pH 6.9), where pH increased to 5.7, causing precipitation of Al hydroxysulfate (white precipitates). Neutralization of the ARD-contaminated waters in the laboratory caused the successive formation of Fe precipitates at pH<3.5 and Al precipitates at higher pH (4~6). Manganese compounds were precipitated at pH>6. The removal of trace metals was dependent on the precipitation of these compounds, which acted as sorbents. The pHs for 50% sorption (
) in Fe-rich and Al-rich waters were respectively 3.2 and 4.5 for Pb, 4.5 and 5.8 for Cu, 5.2 and 7.4 for Cd, and 5.8 and 7.0 for Zn. This indicates that the trace metals were sorbed preferentially with increasing pH in the general order of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn and that the sorption of trace metals in Al-rich water occurred at higher pH than those in Fe-rich water. The results of this study demonstrated that the partitioning of trace metals in ARD is not only a function of pH, but also depends on the chemical composition of the water.
Surfactant Enhanced In-Situ Soil Flushing Pilot Test for the Soil and Groundwater Remediation in an Oil Contaminated Site
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 77~86
Surfactant enhanced in-situ soil flushing was performed to remediate the soil and groundwater at an oil contaminated site, where had been used as a military vehicle repair area for 40 years. A section from the contaminated site (4.5 m
6.0 m) was selected for the research, which was composed of heterogeneous sandy and silt-sandy soils with average
cm/sec. Two percent of sorbitan monooleate (POE 20) and 0.07% of iso-prophyl alcohol were mixed for the surfactant solution and 3 pore volumes of surfactant solution were injected to remove oil from the contaminated section. Four injection wells and two extraction wells were built in the section to flush surfactant solution. Water samples taken from extraction wells and the storage tank were analyzed on a gas-chromatography (GC) for TPH concentration in the effluent with different time. Five pore volumes of solution were extracted while TPH concentration in soil and groundwater at the section were below the Waste Water Discharge Limit (WWDL). The effluent TPH concentration from wells with only water flushing was below 10 ppm. However, the effluent concentration using surfactant solution flushing increased to 1751 ppm, which was more than 170 times compared with the concentration with only water flushing. Total 18.5 kg of oil (TPH) was removed from the soil and groundwater at the section. The concentration of heavy metals in the effluent solution also increased with the increase of TPH concentration, suggesting that the surfactant enhanced in-situ flushing be available to remove not only oil but heavy metals from contaminated sites. The removal efficiency of surfactant enhanced in-situ flushing was investigated at the real contaminated site in Korea. Results suggest that in-situ soil flushing could be a successful process to remediate contaminated sites distributed in Korea.
A Study on the Basic Characteristics of In-situ Soil Flushing Using Surfactant
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 7, issue 4, 2002, Pages 87~91
Lab scale batch and column tests were performed to investigate the treatability of petroleum contaminated soil using the in-situ soil flushing method. The pyrex column (4.5
25 cm) was used to investigate optimal washing agent, surfactant concentration, mixing ratio, and inlet velocity. The miked surfactant of
and SDS were determined as ideal systems for the batch tests. From the results of preliminary tests, mixed surfactant was found to be more harmful for microorganisms. So
were chosen as the surfactant system for the batch study. The washing efficiency for the diesel contaminated soil was increased until 1 %, and decreased after l %. When applied as selected mixed surfactant, the ideal mixed ratio was recognized as 1:1. Therefore we selected miked surfactant
, surfactant concentration 1%, and mixed ratio 1:1 for the remediation of diesel contaminated soil. In column tests, the total removal efficiency was improved as the flux of washing agent was increased. At the same pore volume, small flux showed better removal efficiency.