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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Ground-Water Sampling Techniques for Analysis of Chlorofluorocarbons
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 1~8
Two types of ground-water sampling techniques for CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) analysis, the cold-welded copper tube method and flame-sealed borosilicate glass ampule method, were compared and evaluated. CFCs concentrations by the copper tube method showed a poor reproducibility among triplicates whereas those by the glass ampule method showed a good agreement and relative standard deviations of triplicates were less than 5%. The poor reproducibility of the copper tube method appears to be attributed to the incomplete sealing in connection between faucets of wellhead and the sampling apparatus. The copper tube method also showed higher CFCs concentrations than the glass ampule method, which is more pronounced for CFC-11 than for CFC-12. The plastic tubings and rubber gasket of faucets in case of the copper tube method possibly contaminated the samples with CFC-11 and CFC-12. The potential of CFCs contamination for the glass ampule method was eliminated by using stainless steel and Nylon only and by connecting the sampling equipment directly to the main discharge pipe of wellhead. The validity of the glass ampule method were also verified by detecting very low level of CFCs for the ground-water sample which is old enough to have negligible CFCs.
The Contamination of Groundwater by Acid Mine Drainage in the Vicinity of the Hanchang Coal Mine and the Efficiency of the Passive Treatment System
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 9~18
Sampling of waters from each stage of treatment system (Successive Alkalinity Producing System; SAPS), tailings seepage, and spring near the Hanchang coal mine of Kangwon Province were carried out seasonally and analyzed to evaluate the source and possible path of groundwater contamination by acid mine drainage (AM). Sulfur isotope compositions were measured to identify the origin of groundwater contaminations and the sulfate reduction processes in the SAPS. Low pH and high metal concentration of spring water indicates possibility of the groundwater contamination by AMD. Removal efficiency of acidity of the SAPS was 18.17 g/
/day on an average and the metal removal efficiency was almost 100%, which was higher than those of other treatment systems. However, no appreciable decrease of sulfur content and almost similar sulfur isotope compositions of water from each stage of the treatment system may suggest incomplete or very poor sulfate reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria. Chemical and sulfur isotope compositions showed that spring water was contaminated by seepage from mine tailings. And seepage of stonewall, a part of treatment system was affected by both tailings seepage and mine adit drainage. In this study site, the treatment system was constructed for the only AMD from mine adit not for tailings seepages, which resulted in the groundwater contamination from tailing seepages. Similar situation is expected in other abandoned coal mine areas.
Spatial variability of heavy metal contamination of urban roadside sediments collected from gully pots in Seoul City
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 19~35
In order 새 investigate the spatial and seasonal variations of heavy metal pollution in heavily industrialized urban area, urban roadside sediments were collected for five years from gully pots in Seoul City. A series of studies have been carried out concerning the physicochemical characteristics of the sediments in order to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Roadside sediments and uncontaminated stream sediments were analyzed for total metal concentrations using acid extraction. The roadside sediments are characterized by very high concentrations of Zn (2,665.0
/g), Cu (445.6
/g), Pb (214.3
/g) and Cr (182.1
/g), indicating an artificial accumulation of these metals to the sediment chemistry. Comparing with average contents of uncontaminated stream sediments, roadside sediments were shown zinc 14 times (up to 64.4), copper 9 times (up to 181.7), lead 6 times (up to 63.7), cobalt 6 times (up to 168.7), nickel 4 times (up to 98.4), cadmium 2 times (up to 12.8) and chrome 2 times (up to 40.2) high content. The relative degree of heavy metal pollution for roadside sediments collected from each district in Seoul City is evaluated using the “geoaccumulation index”. As a result, heavy-metal contamination is highest centering the oldest residential district and industry area, and contamination level decreases as go to outer block of the city. The factor analysis results indicate that the levels of Cu, Ni, Fe and Cr are strongly related to numbers of factories, whereas the concentrations of Cr, Zn and Cd dependant on pollution index, indicating artificial contamination due to site-specific traffic density.
Characteristics of Nitrate Removal Using Micellar-enhanced Ultrafiltration
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 36~43
Feasibility of micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration far the removal of nitrate was investigated using cationic surfactants, cetylpyridinium chloride and octadecylamine acetate. The removal of nitrate increased as the molar ratio of surfactant increased. With the molar ratio of 3, at least 80% of nitrate was removed, while > 98% of nitrate was removed at the surfactant molar ratio of 10. Octadecylamine acetate showed higher removal efficiency of nitrate and higher rejection of surfactant than cetylpyridinium chloride because of the accessibility of nitrate to surfactant micelles due to head group of surfactant. Octadecylamine acetate turned out to be a better surfactant than cetylpyridinium chloride for micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration to remove nitrate from groundwater.
Evaluation of Surfactant Addition for Soil Remediation by Modeling Study : II. Bioremediation Process
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 44~54
A kinetic model for evaluating effects of surfactant on the biodegradation of HOC(hazardous organic chemicals) in soil-slurry systems was developed. The model includes the partition of HOC and surfactant, the dissolved-, micellar-, and sorbed-phase biodegradation, the enhanced solubilization of HOC by surfactant addition, and the mass transfer of HOC. Phenanthrene as HOC and Trition X-100, Tergitol NP-10, Igepal CA-720, and Brij 30 were used in the model simulations. The biodegradation rate was increased even with a small micellera-phase bioavailability. The biodegradation was not greatly enhanced due to decreased aqueous HOC concentration by increasing surfactant dose in both cases with and without micellar-phase bioavailability. The effect of sorbed-phase biodegradation on total biodegradation rate was not highly important compared to aqueous- and micellar-phase biodegradation. The model can be applied for surfactant screening and optimal design of surfactant-based soil bioremediation process.
Removal of Nitrate in Column Reactors Using Surfactant Modified Zeolite
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 55~61
The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of nitrate removal by conducting the column test in order to see the performance of surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) as a permeable reactive barrier material. The prediction of nitrate removal was tested using the one-dimensional advective-dispersive model fitted to the experimental breakthrough curve. A methodology for scaling up to in-situ permeable reactive barrier was also proposed. The breakthrough of nitrate in the column packed with SMZ was well predicted using linear equilibrium adsorption model. The breakthrough time and half-life obtained by breakthrough experiment with variation of flowrates were decreased with the increase of flowrates. When 10㎥/day of groundwater containing the 50 mg/l of nitrate is to be treated to satisfy the potable water quality criteria (10 mg/l) by SMZ reactive barrier, 300 tons of SMZ and about 6 years of breakthrough time will be required, suggesting that 165 million wons are needed as barrier material expenses in each 6 years besides the initial design and construction expenses and the minimal monitoring and maintenance expenses.
A Study on Leaching Characteristics of
in Cement Grout Materials
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 62~69
The aim of research is the evaluation of the
emission features of the liquid injection through emission experiments in varying conditions, based on a field-mixing ratio. The results showed that the content of
content in cement measured had an Ordinary Potland Cement (OPC) of 25.3 mg/kg, which constitute the largest portion among the other materials. Likewise, the emission experiment of homo-gel and sand-gel generally satisfied the standard of KSLT (Korea Standard Leaching Test) in waste of 1.5 mg/L, but in case of the standard of KSLT in soil the emission of OPC
of 4.85 mg/kg. These conditions is a little exceeded the criteria in the ‘Ga’ area in terms of Korea Soil Environmental Preservation Law. In addition, results generated by the mock-up injection facilities revealed that
emission increased as Water/Cement and injection pressure increased. At injection pressure higher than 4 kg/㎤,
emission exceeded the water preservation standard of 0.5 mg/L. Similarly, a pattern experiment of C
emission according to pH was conducted, in order to evaluate the
emission features of grout materials in leachate below pH 5 such as pH 4 acid rain or landfill. Results show that
emission dramatically increased in high acidic or basic state. It indicates that
emission will probably increase in an environment where grout materials are injected. On the other hand, concentration of leachate was determined in areas where grout materials are used. The results show that the concentration of emission in an ultra purity condition does not manifest intensity, and is affected in the OPC>MC>SC order. It means that the pollutants or
emission increases with decreasing concentration. As such,
emission will probably exceed the countermeasure criteria according to the types of gout materials. Similarly, high pressure or injection will cause increased
emission. Therefore, the selection of materials or mixing ratio should be considered in general as well as according to specific industries, based on the strength and pH of
Theoretical Estimation of Stoichiometry for Biodegradation of Hazardous Organic Compounds
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 70~77
Theoretical estimation of overall stoichiometry for the microbial degradation of hazardous organic compounds is described. Half-reaction method based on microbial energetics was used in the theoretical estimation. In addition to the half-reaction method, other theoretical methods such as intermediate formation, oxygenation reaction, and estimation of the standard free energy of formation by group contribution theory were also applied. As a case study, the application of these methods was demonstrated for the estimation of microbial kinetics in the biodegradation of phenanthrene which was chosen as a model hazardous organic compound along with glucose and hexadecane. The cell yield, oxygen requirement, nitrogen requirement, and mineralization ratio could be estimated from the overall stoichiometry. It is believed that these theoretical estimation methods are useful tools for practical design and assessment of bioremediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with hazardous organic compounds.
The Landfill Using A Concept of the Bio-Reactor Systems
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 78~86
Heavy Metal Distributions of Soils in the Vicinity of Shi-Hwa Industrial Complex Region
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 87~91
This study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal distributions of soils in the vicinity of Shi-Hwa industrial complex region, where the air pollutants from industrial area could affect the soil environment of near residential and green areas. The ranges of contents of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils were 0.58~3.81, ND~0.91, 0.15~6.33, ND~l.86, 0.14~110.27, ND~l.17, 0.04~10.59, 1.16~86.48 and 1.83~212.65 mg/kg, respectively. For all industrial, residential and green areas, the heavy metal contents were much lower than the standard of Korean Soil Environmental Preservation Act or the critical concentration which phytotoxicity is considered to be possible. Mean values of contents of As were similar in industrial, residential and green areas. However, the mean values of contents of Cd and Cr in industrial area were higher 10 and 5 times than those in residential and green area, respectively. And also the mean values of contents of Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in industrial area were higher 2~3 times than those in residential and green area.