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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
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Analyses on Solute Transport with the Movement of an LNAPL on the Water Table
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 1~7
A modified model was developed for solute transport in porous media that can consider the movement of an LNAPL above the water table. From the results of sensitivity analyses with and without considering LNAPL movement, there are some differences according to the hydraulic gradient, the quantity of oil leakage and dispersivity. The mean deviation between the model in this study and a conventional model without LNAPL movement increases as the hydraulic gradient decreases and the quantity of oil leakage increases. Variation of dispersivity has no influence on the magnitude of the mean deviation. However, the spatial distribution of the deviation between the two models is wider as dispersivity increases. Furthermore, groundwater is at high risk of contamination in the vertical direction in the case that transverse dispersion value is large. A conventional model underestimates the concentration of solute in an aquifer where the movement of an LNAPL cannot be negligible: Based on the study results, it is important to understand how fast the LNAPL moves on the water table for realistic prediction of solute transport in an aquifer with the movable LNAPL on the water table.
Comparison of Contaminant Transport between the Centrifuge Model and the Advection Dispersion Equation Model
Young, Horace-Moo ; Kim, Tae-Hyung ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 8~12
The centrifuge test result on capped sediment was compared to the advection- dispersion equation proposed for one layered to predict contaminant transport parameters. The fitted contaminant transport parameters for the centrifuge test results were one to three orders of magnitude greater than the estimated parameters from the advection-dispersion equation. This indicates that the centrifuge model over estimated the contaminant transport phenomena. Thus, the centrifuge provides a non-conservative approach to modeling contaminant transport. It should be also noted that the advection-dispersion equation used in this study is a one layered model. Two layered modeling approaches are more appropriate for modeling this data since there are two layers with different partitioning coefficients. Further research is required to model the centrifuge test using two-layered advection-dispersion models.
Effect of Sediment Size On Air Injection and Flowing Aspect of Groundwater Saturated Zone
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 13~22
Laboratory scale study for an air injection and flowing aspect of groundwater saturated zone was conducted for three sediment grains (AMG 0.34, 1.38, 3.89 mm diameter). Air flow for AMG (Average Modal diameter Grains) 0.34 mm diameter grain size provides indication of pattern of channelized air flow in saturated zone and expansion state in above saturated zone. Maximum area of influence is approximately l5.2%/
for AMG of 0.34 mm diameter. For AMG of 1.38 mm and 3.89 mm modal diameter grains, air flow are pervasive air flow, forming a symmetrical cone of influence around the injection point. Maximum areas affected are 37%/
for AMG 1.38 mm diameter and 30%/
for AMG 3.89 mm diameter. AMG 1.38 mm and 3.89 mm diameter grains show onset of collapse and approach to steady state in above saturated zone, respectively. In this study, optimal sites for in situ air sparging, may be grain diameters between about AMG 1.5-2.5 mm diameter.
Influence of Inorganic Salts on Aqueous Solubilities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Yim, Soobin ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 23~29
Setschenow constants of six alkali and alkaline earth metal-based electrolytes (i.e., NaCl, KCl, CaCl
) for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e., naphthalene, pyrene, and perylene) were investigated to evaluate the influence of a variety of inorganic salts on the aqueous solubility of PAHs. Inorganic salts showed a wide range of K
s/ values (L/mol), ranging from 0.1108 (NaClO
) to 0.6680 (Na
) for naphthalene, 0.1071 (NaClO
) to 0.7355 (Na
) for pyrene, and 0.1526 (NaClO
) to 0.8136 (Na
) for perylene. In general, the salting out effect of metal cations decreased in the order of Ca
+/. The effect of SO
-/ was observed for anions of inorganic salts. The K
s/ values decreased in the order of perylene>pyrene>naphthalene for K
. However, the order of decreasing salting out effect for NaCl, KCl, CaCl
, and NaClO
was perylene>naphthalene>pyrene. Hydration free energy of the 1:1 and 2:1 alkali and alkaline earth metal-based inorganic salts solution was observed to have a meaningful correlation with Setschenow constants. Thermodynamic interactions between PAH molecules and salt solution can be of importance in determining the magnitude of salting out effect for PAHs at a given salt solution.
Effect of Humic Substances on the Simultaneous Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate in a Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF)
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 30~36
The effect of humic acid on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and phosphate was investigated in a micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF). At the low molar ratio of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) to contaminants, the removal of nitrate was lower to 50％ by 100 ppm of humic acid due to the competition for binding on micelles. At the molar ratio higher than 3, however, the removal of nitrate was over 80％. Phosphate was removed over 80% at the molar ratio higher than 1. The CPC and humic acid were rejected over 99 ％ by UF membrane. The flux did not decrease by 100 ppm of humic acid but rather slightly increased since the humic acid adsorbed on the membrane made the membrane more hydrophilic. As a result, humic acid did not diminish the performance of MEUF in the simultaneous removal of nitrate and phosphate.
A Study of Ground Tire as a Sorption Media for the Passive Treatment Wall: Sorption of MTBE (Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether)
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 37~44
Fuel oxygenates, such as Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) is additive in gasoline used to reduce air pollution. Gasoline components and fuel additives can leak: form underground storage tanks. MTBE is far more water soluble than gasoline hydrocarbons like BTEX then it travels at essentially the same velocity as groundwater. MTBE in drinking water causes taste and odor problems. Therefore, the purpose of the this study is to examine the ability of ground tire to sorb MTBE in water. The study consisted of running both batch and column tests to determine the sorption capacity, the required sorption equilibration time, and the flow through utilization efficiency of ground tire. The batch test result indicated that ground tire can attain equilibrium sorption capacities about 0.5 mg of MTBE. The result of column test indicate that ground tire has on the 36% utilization rate. Finally, it is clear that ground tire represented an attractive and relatively inexpensive sorption medium for a MTBE. Authors thought that to determine the economic costs of ground tire utilization, the cost to sorb a given mass of contaminant by ground tire will have to be compared to currently accepted sorption media. The cost comparison will also have to include regeneration and disposal cost.
A Study on Fractions and Leaching Potential of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Wastes
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 45~55
This study investigates the fractional composition and the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in polluted soils due to mining activities. The fractionated composition of heavy metals is classified into five fractions; adsorbed, carbonate, reducible, organic and residual fraction. The status of humic substances in mine wastes of most sites are polyhumic except tailing from Sangdong mine. According to the sequential extraction procedures (SEPs), leaching probabilities of Cd in coal wastes and tailing are relatively low due to high percentage of residual fraction. 46.4% of Ni in tailings from Sangdong mine is probably leached under oxidized environment, and 39.4% of Cu in these tailings is readily extracted under strongly oxidized environment by organic fraction. According to leaching condition of pH 3.0 and pH 5.6, the amount of heavy metals leached out of coal wastes and tailing increases to 1/2 hours. At pH 3.0 and pH 5.6, concentration of Ni in tailing increases up three times of the initial value. Heavy metals released from coal wastes and tailing were not influenced significantly by leaching time.
A Study on the Treatment of Soil Flushing Effluent Using Electrofloatation : Effects of Electrolyte and pH
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 56~60
The optimal operation conditions of electrofloatation for oil-water separation of soil flushing effluent including electrolyte and pH were investigated. The reactor (200
15 cm) for the experiment was constructed by using acrylic plate. Diesel concentration was 1,000 mg/L in the 1 % mixed surfactant solution (
1: 1). Titanium coated electrode was used as cathode and stainless steel electrode as anode. Reaction time was 62 minutes (reaction time: 60 min., flotation time: 2 min.) and voltage was 6 V. The separation efficiency of electrofloatation was improved to 40% by electrolyte addition. Furthermore, NaCl (1N) added as electrolyte was showed enhanced efficiency compared to NaOH (1N). While, the effect of both NaCl and NaOH was sequentially increased in the range of 0.2∼1.0% (0.02∼0.1 M). The equilibrium time was found as 20 min. in the range of 0.4∼1.0% (0.04∼0.1M) for both of them.
Optimal Surfactant Screening by Model Application for Soil Washing Process
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 61~73
A model describing the distribution of contaminants in soil/water systems for the application of soil-washing technology using surfactant was developed. The model simulation was conducted for screening the best surfactant, evaluating the effect of water dose, and optimizing soil-washing methodology. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene as target compounds and Triton X-l00, Tergitol NP-10, Igepal CA-720, and Brij 30 as surfactants were used in the model simulations. The washing efficiency was not greatly enhanced by increasing water dose with the same total surfactant dose. The approach of successive washings was more efficient than a single washing with the same amount of water and surfactant. Equal allotment of the amount of water and surfactant was the best condition for the successive washings. The model can be applied for the optimal design of the soil washing process without extra experimental efforts. modeling, PAR, soil, surfactant, washing
Improvement of Groundwater Well Recovery by Hydrofracturing
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 74~85
To increase the yield from groundwater wells in various rock types by hydrofracturing, tests of 12 wells were carried out as a part of sustainable groundwater development and artificial recharge project. Test wells are selected 5 wells in Jurassic granites, 2 wells in Cretaceous volcanics, 4 wells in Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and one well in Pre-Cambrian gneiss. The results show that specific capacity of II wells increased about 7% to 366%, while a well in Cretaceous sedimentary rock decreased about 43.4% owing to plugging of fault clay. Meanwhile, impact distances influenced due to hydrofracturing ranged from 5.4 m to 82.7 m from the test wells, actual drawdown data measured during the pumping test after hydrofracturing are more or less decreased and reveals balanced drawdown.