Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
The Changes of Aperture Variation and Hydraulic Conductivity for Compression Variability
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 1~11
In order to measure aperture variation dependent on normal stress and to characterize on relationship between aperture variation and hydraulic conductivity this study measured apertures of rock fractures under a high resolution confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) with application of five stages of uniaxial normal stresses. From this method the response of aperture can be continuously characterized on one specimen by different loads of normal stress. The results of measurements showed a rough geometry of fracture bearing non-uniform aperture. They also revealed different values of aperture variations according to the load stages on each position along a fracture due to the fracture roughness. Laboratory permeability tests were also conducted to evaluate the changes of permeability coefficients related to the aperture variations by different loads. The results of permeability tests revealed that the hydraulic conductivity was not reduced at a fixed rate with increase of normal load. Moreover, the rates of aperture variations did not match to those of hydraulic conductivity. The hydraulic conductivity calculated in this study did not follow the cubic law, representing that the parallel plate model is not suitable to express the fracture geometry corresponding to the results of aperture measurements under the CLSM.
Developing a Numerical Model for Simulating In-Situ Biodegradation of an Organic Contaminant, TCE, in Biobarrier
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 12~20
This study presents a mathematical model for simulating the fate and transport of a reactive organic contaminant, TCE, degraded by cometabolism in dual-porosity soils during the installation of in situ biobarrier. To investigate the effect of dual-porosity on transport and biodegradation of organic hydrocarbons, a bimodal approach was incorporated into the model. Modified Monod kinetics and a microcolony concept were employed to represent the effects of biodegrading microbes on the transport and biodegradation of an organic contaminant. The effect of permeability reduction in biobarrier due to biomass accumulation on the flow field were examined in the simulation of a hypothetical field-scale in situ bioaugmentation. Simulation results indicate that the presence of the immobile region can decrease the bioavailability of biodegradable contaminants and that the placement of microbes and nutrients injection wells should be considered for an effective installation of biobarrier during in situ bioaugmentation scheme.
Estimation of Water Retention Characteristics Using Lognormal Distribution Model
Sang Il Hwang ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 21~26
Hwang and Powers (2003) developed a simple model for estimating water retention characteristic (WRC) directly from particle-size distribution (PSD) data, by applying a lognormal distribution law to both PSD and pore-size distribution. The objective of this work was to determine if the performance of the model developed by Hwang and Powers (2003) would be affected by soil texture. The results of this research proved that the performance of the model was indeed affected by soil texture. In particular, its performance diminished with increases in the fine particle fractions. Also, the nonlinear model, which assumes a nonlinear relation between particle-size and pore-size, performed better than the linear model, regardless of soil texture classes.
A case study of monitored natural attenuation at the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site: I. Site characterization
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 27~35
The study site located in an industrial complex has a Precambrian age gneiss as a bedrock. The poorly-developed, disturbed soils in the study site have loamy-textured surface soil (1 to 2 m) and gravelly sand alluvium subsurface (2 to 6 m) on the top of weathered gneiss bedrock. The depth of the groundwater table was about 3.5 m below ground surface and increased toward down-gradient of the site. The hydraulic conductivity of transmitted zone (gravelly coarse sand) was in the range of 5.0
-1/ cm/sec. The fine sand layer was in the range of 1.5
-3/ to 7.6
-3/ cm/sec. and the reclaimed upper soil layer was less than 10
-4/ cm/sec. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (TEX) was the major contaminant in the soil and groundwater. The average depth of the soil contamination was about 1.5 m in the gravelly sand alluvium layer. At the depth interval 2.4∼4.8 m, the highest contamination in the soil is located approximately 50 to 70 m from the suspected source areas. The concentration of TEX in the groundwater was highest in the suspected source area and a lesser concentration in the center and southwest parts of the site. The TEX distribution in the groundwater is associated with their distribution in the soil. Microbial isolation showed that Pseudomonas flurescence, Burkholderia cepacia, and Acinetobactor lwoffi were the dominant aerobic bacteria in the contaminated soils. The analytical results of the groundwater indicated that the concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, and sulfate in the contaminated area were significantly lower than their concentrations in the none-contaminated control area. The results also indicated that groundwater at the contaminated area is under anaerobic condition and sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal electron accepting process. The total attenuation rate was 0.0017 day
-1/ and the estimated first-order degradation rate constant (λ) was 0.0008 day
Site Suitability Analysis for Underground Dam Using Analytic Hierarchy Process
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 36~44
The lack of water resources is becoming a serious issue throughout the world. The water shortage in Korea is expected to increase dramatically through 2020. The amount of water shortage could amount to 1.8 and 2.6 billion cubic meters in 2011 and 2020, respectively. Groundwater can be a solution to this matter in some places. Especially, underground dams are known to be advantageous over conventional dams, evert if they have some drawbacks such as their limited location for development and small sizes. The analytic hierarchy process(AHP) is an analytical tool, supported by simple mathematics, which enables one to explicitly rank tangible and intangible factors against each other for the purpose of resolving conflicts or setting priorities. In order to check the applicability of AHP to the evaluation of underground dam sites, lour candidate locations were chosen. They have suffered from problems like water-supply shortage and delayed dam construction. The analysis results are compared with those of the previous study using a conventional method. It is believed that the developed method can provide central or local government with a basis for reasonable decision-making regarding underground dam development.
Cometabolic Biodegradation of Fuel Additive Methyl tert-Butyl Ether(MTBE) by Propane- and Butane-Oxidizing Microorganisms
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 45~52
A gas-substrate degrading bacterium, Nocardia SW3, was isolated from the gasoline contaminated aquifer using propane and butane as carbon and energy sources. We have examined the effects of substrate concentration, temperature and pH on the gas substrate degradation as well as MTBE cometabolic degradation. The result for the effect of substrate concentration showed that the maximum degradation rates of propane and butane were 30.6 and 25.4 (n㏖/min/mg protein) at 70
㏖, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for the degradation of gas substrate were
and 7, respectively. Substrate degradation activity, however, was still active in broad range of pH from 5 to 8 and temperature between
. The degradation activity of Nocardia SW3 for the MTBE was similar to the both substrates. The observed maximal transformation yields (
) were 46.7 and 35.0 (n㏖ MTBE degraded
㏖ substrate utilized), and the maximal transformation capacities (
) were 320 and 280 (n㏖MTBE degraded/mg biomass used) for propane and butane oxidizing activity on MTBE, respectively. And also, TBA was detected as by-product of MTBE and it was continuously degraded further.
Fraction and Soil Pollution Assesment Index of heavy metals in cultivated land soils near the abandoned mine
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 53~63
Objectives of this research were to fractionate heavy metals in soil samples in the upper Okdong River basin and to assess the potential pollution index of each metal fraction. Soil samples were collected from the cultivated land soils and analyzed for physical and chemical properties. pH of cultivated soils ranged from 5.2 to 7.6. Contents of total kelhaldal nitrogen and loss on ignition were in the ranges of 0.6∼2.5%, and 1.9∼12.9%, respectively. Heavy metals in the cultivated land soils were higher in the abandoned closed coal mine near field soils than those in the paddy soils. Total concentrations of metals in the cultivated land soils were in the orders of Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd, exceed the corrective action level of the Soil Environment Conservation Law and higher than the naturals were abundance levels reported from uncontaminated cultivated land soils. Mobile fractions of metals were relatively small compared to the total concentrations. Soil Pollution Assesment Index (SPAI) values of each fraction of metals were leveled from Non polluted to Moderately polluted based on total concentrations. SPAI values of mobil fractions were lower than those of immobile fractions. Results on metal fractions and SPAI values of the cultivated land soils indicate that field soils samples were contaminated with heavy metals and had potential to cause a detrimental effects on plants. A prompt countermeasure to prevent field soils in the abandoned closed coal mine near fields are urgently needed.
The Source Identification of Spilled Oil by Pristane/Phytane Ratio
Bae, Il-Sang ; Kweon Jung ; Oh, Hyun-Jung ; Shin, Ho-Sang ; Lee, Jae-Young ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 64~67
In order to identify the origin and nature of the spilled oil in the potential source, we analyzed the concentrations of specific fuel constituents in fuel standard and environmental samples. The ratios of pristane/phytane are virtually unaltered because these compounds have the same bolatility in environmental samples. These were useful to identify the source of the fuel oil and to assess the effect of microbial degradation and weathering of the fuel oil. We analyzed the ratios of pristane/phytane in neat white kerosene, boiler kerosene, JP-8 and diesel products from L and S gas station. The ratios of pristane/phytane in L-white kerosene and JP-8 was 3.10
0.03 and 1.77
0.01, respectively. Otherwise, the ratios of pristane/phytane in water phase after distribution of fuel oil and water was 2.97
0.02 in case of white kerosene and 1.65
0.02 in case of JP-8. It is apparent from the results that the ratios of pristane/phytane were as product-specific, especially between kerosene and JP-8, and therefore, can also be used for fuel type identification in free products and groundwater samples which were collected in monitoring wells.
A Study on the Characteristical Evaluation of Metals and Fluorine Concentrations in the Southern Part of Seoul
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 68~73
This study performed from 2002 October to 2003 April. The samples were taken at 66 sites, divided into the 6 sections functionally in the southern part of Seoul such as Yangchon-gu, Kangseo-gu, Kuro-gu, Yeongdengpo-gu, Kwanak-gu, Dongjak-gu, Seocho-gu, Kangnam-gu, Songpa-gu, and Kangdong-gu. The result of research showed that each property soil was pH 4.7∼9.5, Cd; 0.391 mg/kg (0.011∼l.081 mg/kg). Cu; 12.35 mg/kg (0.061∼73.62 mg/kg), Pb; 13.04 mg/kg (N.D.∼61.85 mg/kg), Hg; 0.0866 mg/kg (N.D.∼1.353 mg/kg), F; 206.8 mg/kg(47.1∼561.1mg/kg). The minimum and maximum of the concentration with functional soils were Cd; 0.632 mg/kg for multi-purposed soil,0.079 mg/kg for schools, Cu; 21.35 mg/kg for roadside, 2.159 mg/kg for schools, Pb; 24.70 mg/kg for roadside, 1.030 mg/kg for schools, Hg; 0.1780 mg/kg for multi purposed, 0.0087 mg/kg for schools. Especially F was the high concentration at the hills. Also the concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and F at school Zone was detected such as low. area of schools area was detected the low concentrations as the items of Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, and F. The average concentrations of metals and fluorine in the survey area were below the Preliminary Standard of the Soil Preservation Acts in Korea. To evaluate the soil quality of these area showed as a good qualified results. The results of SQPI (Soil Quality Pollution Index the qualified results as much as 86.4%.