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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Foams for Aquifer Remediation: Two Flow Regimes and Its Implication to Diversion Process
Kam, Seung-Ihl ; Jonggeun Choe ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 1~11
Foam reduces the mobility of gas phase in porous media to overcome gravity override and to divert acid into desired layers in the petroleum industry and to enhance the efficiency of environmental remediation. Recent experimental studies on foam show that foam exhibits a remarkably different flow rheology depending on the flow regime. This study, for the first time, focuses on the issues of foam diversion process under the conditions relevant to groundwater remediation, combining results from laboratory linear-flow experiments and a simple numerical model with permeability contrasts. Linear flow tests performed at two different permeabilities (k = 9.1 and 30.4 darcy) confirmed that two flow regimes of steady-state strong foams were also observed within the permeability range of shallow geological formations. Foam exhibited a shear-thinning behavior in a low-quality regime and near Newtonian rheology in a high-quality regime. Data taken from linear flow tests were incorporated into a simple numerical model to evaluate the efficiency of foam diversion process in the presence of permeability contrasts. The simple model illustrated that foam in the high-quality regime exhibited a successful diversion but foam in the low-quality regime resulted in anti-diversion, implying that only foam in the high-quality regime would be applicable to the diversion process. Sensitivity study proved that the success of diversion process using foam in the high-quality regime was primarily controlled by the limiting capillary pressures (
) of the two layers of interest. Limitations and implications are also discussed and included.
Accumulation Property in Human Body of Benzene Derived from Groundwater According to Exposure Pathway
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 12~27
The contamination pattern of indoor air was simulated when groundwater dissolving benzene was used for household activities. Indoor exposure scenario consisted of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to analyze how benzene exposed to human body was distributed in internal organs. Main exposure pathways contributing total internal dose were inhalation and ingestion while the contribution of dermal absorption was very small. Man showed higher exposure rate than woman due to his higher breath rate. For a short-term exposure, benzene concentration in venous blood of SPT, RPT and liver changed rapidly while slowly did in venous blood of adipose tissue at a low concentration. For a long-term exposure, woman accumulated about 2.1 times higher than man. Most of benzene exposed to human body was removed by exhalation and metabolism at lung and liver, respectively. For inhalation and ingestion, the benzene removals by exhalation were 69.8 and 48.4%, respectively. Relative importance of removal mechanism was different according to the inflow displacement of benzene. The results obtained from this study would help understand exposure, distribution, and removal phenomena and make plans for the reduction of the health risk associated with the contaminated groundwater by various organic compounds.
Uncertainty Analysis of a Pharmacokinetic Modeling for Inhalation Exposure of Benzene from the Use of Groundwater at Dwelling
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 28~38
This study presents the result of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a pharmacokinetic model which describes the distribution and removal of benzene at each organ when an indivisual inhales indoor contaminated air with benzene originated from groundwater. The pharmacokinetic model simulates the distribution of benzene deposited in organs of human body through inhalation of contaminated indoor air as well as degradation-metabolism in liver. This study focused on the uncertainty problem induced from the use of the single values for blood flow, partition coefficient, degradation constant, volume, etc. of each organ which was due to a lack of knowledge about these parameters or their measurements. To solve this problem, uncertainty analysis on the pharmacokinetic model was conducted simultaneously which would help understanding the risk assessment associated with VOCs.
Remediation of the Diesel Contaminated Soils Using Thermally Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction Process with Microwave Heating
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 39~46
Removal efficiencies for diesel fuel and diesel hydrocarbons (
) using microwave-enhanced SVE process were evaluated with dry and moist soil, respectively. Diesel removal rates of microwave-enhanced SVE process were 7 times for dry soil and 1580 times for moist soil as great as those of the SVE process without microwave heating. High dielectric property of water contents may accelerate the absorption of microwave energy into soil and thus vaporized the diesel fuel components drastically. The diesel removals were 67.7∼78.4% for
, and 0∼18.5% for
for dry and moist soil with SVE process only. On the other hand, dry soil with microwave-enhanced SVE process showed 89.3∼99.4% removal for
and 35.6∼67.0% for hydrocarbons over
. All hydrocarbons (
) studied were significantly removed (93.6∼99.8%) for moist soil with microwave-enhanced SVE process.
Electrokinetic-Fenton Process for Removal of Phenanthrene
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 47~53
Feasibility of electrokinetic process combined with Fenton-like reaction was investigated for the removal of phenanthrene from contaminated soil. Transport of hydrogen peroxide by electroosmosis and decomposition of phenanthrene by Fenton-like reaction were observed in a model system. Electrical potential gradient and electroosmotic flow (EOF) at 10 mA were higher than those at 5 mA. High accumulated EOF resulted in high removal efficiency of phenanthrene because the large amount of hydrogen peroxide was transfered through the soil. Removal efficiency of phenanthrene by water washing was 8.5% for 7 days. The highest removal efficiency including phenanthrene decomposition was 95.6% for 14 days. After the operation, soil samples with removal efficiency of 95.6% showed low concentrations of phenanthrene and its intermediates. From this result, it was presumed that phenanthrene was decomposed to small molecules or mineralized to water and carbon dioxide due to continuous supply of hydrogen peroxide by electroosmotic flow.
The Effect of Flushing Solutions on ElectroKinetic Remediation of Ferrous Soil Contaminated by Lead
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 54~62
In order to enhance the efficiency of removal a series of ElectroKinetic Remediation (EKR) tests on ferrous soil contaminated by lead are carried out using acids, chelates and surfactant as flushing agents. The test results indicate that pH in the electrolyte rapidly reached at steady state as the introduce of flushing solution of the lower pH, the type of flushing solution have no effect the distribution of electrical voltage within the sample but the increasing of solution concentration increases it at x/L=0.9. In the distribution of the residual lead in the sample SDS is the highest. Also, the removal efficiency for acetic acid concentration of 1mM Is the highest but the concentration of acetic acid significantly have no effect.
Removal of Arsenite and Arsenate by a Sand Coated with Colloidal Hematite Particl
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 63~69
Hematite-coated sand was examined for the application of the PRB (permeable reactive barrier) to the arsenic-contaminated subsurface in the metal mining areas. The removal efficiency of As in a batch and a flow system was investigated through the adsorption isotherm, removal kinetics and column experiments. Hematite-coated sand followed a linear adsorption isotherm with high adsorption capacity at low level concentrations of As (＜1.0 mg/L). In the column experiments, high content of hematite-coated sand enhanced the removal efficiency, but the amount of the As removal decreased due to the higher affinity of As (V) than As (III) and reduced adsorption kinetics in the flow system. Therefore. the amount of hematite-coated sand, the adsorption affinity of As species and removal kinetics determined the removal efficiency of As in a flow system.
Spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils and groundwater at the 2000 Olympic Games site, Sydney, Australia
Suh, Jeong-Yul ;
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 70~78
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the hydrogeochemical implications of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) in both soils and groundwater in reclaimed lands of Sydney's 2000 Olympic Games site at Homebush Bay in Port Jackson, Sydney. The Olympic Games site can be divided into three areas, i.e. 'reclaimed areas' were previously estuarine, and were filled with waste materials and are now above present high tide level, whereas 'landfill areas' are areas where deposition of waste materials occurred above sea level. No deposition of waste took place in 'non-infilled areas'. 4513 soil core samples and 101 groundwater samples were analyzed for Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn. The mean heavy metal (Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations in soils of the study area revealed the order of reclaimed (greatest), landfill and non-infilled area (smallest), whereas in groundwater it is all shown the order of landfill, reclaimed and non-infilled area, except for Pb. Mean Pb concentration in soils derived from the three land types at the Olympic Games site revealed the order of reclaimed area(174
/g), landfill area (102
/g) and non-infilled area (48
/g). Results reveal that soils contaminated by Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in reclaimed/landfill areas are associated with dumped materials. No relationship could be established between soil and groundwater concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) in the landfill, reclaimed and non-infilled areas of the Olympic site, probably due to the varied nature of the materials deposited at the Olympic site.
Application of the Homogenization Analysis to Calculation of a Permeability Coefficient
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 79~86
Hydraulic conductivity along rock fracture is mainly dependent on fracture geometries such as orientation, aperture, roughness and connectivity. Therefore, it needs to consider fracture geometries sufficiently on a fracture model for a numerical analysis to calculate permeability coefficient in a fracture. This study performed new type of numerical analysis using a homogenization analysis method to calculate permeability coefficient accurately along single fractures with several fracture models that were considered fracture geometries as much as possible. First of all, fracture roughness and aperture variation due to normal stress applied on a fracture were directly measured under a confocal laser scaning microscope (CLSM). The acquired geometric data were used as input data to construct fracture models for the homogenization analysis (HA). Using the constructed fracture models, the homogenization analysis method can compute permeability coefficient with consideration of material properties both in microscale and in macroscale. The HA is a new type of perturbation theory developed to characterize the behavior of a micro inhomogeneous material with a periodic microstructure. It calculates micro scale permeability coefficient at homogeneous microscale, and then, computes a homogenized permeability coefficient (C-permeability coefficient) at macro scale. Therefore, it is possible to analyze accurate characteristics of permeability reflected with local effect of facture geometry. Several computations of the HA were conducted to prove validity of the HA results compared with the empirical equations of permeability in the previous studies using the constructed 2-D fracture models. The model can be classified into a parallel plate model that has fracture roughness and identical aperture along a fracture. According to the computation results, the conventional C-permeability coefficients have values in the range of the same order or difference of one order from the permeability coefficients calculated by an empirical equation. It means that the HA result is valid to calculate permeability coefficient along a fracture. However, it should be noted that C-permeability coefficient is more accurate result than the preexisting equations of permeability calculation, because the HA considers permeability characteristics of locally inhomogeneous fracture geometries and material properties both in microscale and macroscale.
Sorption of ο-Cresol by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Abiotic Transformation on GAC Surface
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 87~94
The effects of pretreatment of GAC and dissolved oxygen (DO) on the sorption capacity for ο-cresol were investigated using pretreated GAC under oxic and anoxic conditions. Virgin GAC was used with pretreated GACs by
, acid and base as sorbents. Sorption capacity of GAC was dependent on the oxygen conditions according to the pretreatment methods. Virgin GAC showed increased sorption capacity when DO was present in the solution, while
-pretreated GAC did not show any considerable capacity change. Acid- and base-pretreated GACs were relatively more influenced by presence of DO as compared with virgin GAC. Both acid and base-pretreated GACs showed a rapid sorption rate at the initial stage, but as contact time became longer the sorption was slower. Sorbed ο-cresol was extracted with micro-Soxhlet extraction apparatus using the GAC separated from the rate experiments. Within 1 hour both acid and base-pretreated GACs showed the decrease in extraction efficiencies under both oxic and anoxic conditions. After 1 hour such a trend (the increase as contact time was longer) was not observed and showed relatively constant efficiencies of 35∼50%. According to the results of this study
contacted with GAC before sorption as well as DO present in the solution during sorption could influence the GAC sorption capacity.
A Study on the Adsorption of Organophosphorus Pesticides Applying Sewage Sludge to Soil Amendment
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 95~103
This study has been assessed the influence of applying sewage sludge to soil amendments on the sorption properties, and leaching potential of three commonly used organophosphorus pesticides, Diazinon, Fenitrothion, and Chlorpyrifos. A sandy soil with a low content of organic carbon was treated with sewage sludge with a ratio sandy soil sludge ratio of 30:1. The sorption was determined with the batch equilibrium technique. The sorption isotherms could be described by Freundlich equation. The Freundlich constant, K value which measures sorption capacity, were 3.97, 9.94, 22.48 for Diazinon, Fenitrothion, Chlorpyrifos in non-amended soil. But in amended soil, K value was 12.58, 28.47, and 61.21 for Diazinon, Fenitrothion, and Chlorpyrifos. The overall effect of sewage sludge addition to soil was to increase pesticides adsorption, due to the high sorption capacity of the organic matter. The effect of sludge on the leaching of pesticides in the soil was studied using packed soil columns. Total recoveries of pesticides in soil and leachate with leaching in soil column, were in the range of about 73∼84%, was reduced with the passage of time. Diazinon moved more rapidly than Chlorpyrifos in the unamended soil due to greater sorption and lower water solubility of Chlorpyrifos. Total amounts of pesticides leached from the sewage sludge amended soils were significantly reduced when compared with unamended soils. This reduction may be mainly due to and increase in sorption in amended soils, as a consequence of the increase in the organic matter content.
Application of Soil Washing Technology for Arsenic Contaminated Soil
Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment, volume 9, issue 1, 2004, Pages 104~111
Several tests were conducted to optimize design parameters of soil washing technique for arsenic contaminated tailings and soils. Arsenic contaminated tailings and soils have been sampled from the N nine, Kwangwondo and the K mine, Kyungsangbukdo, respectively. According to the result of sequential extraction procedure, total arsenic concentrations were 21,028
7, and 37
3 mg/kg, for mine tailings, dry field, and river sedimentary soil, respectively. The subtotal of weakly bonded and easily releasable arsenic concentrations which were 2,284
100 (10.9%), 151
5 (34.0%), 15
3 (39.5%)mg/kg for mine tailings, dry field, and river sedimentary soil, respectively. Kinetics of arsenic extraction using NaOH showed that arsenic was extracted more than 90% after 6 hours for all samples. The optimized concentration of NaOH were 200 mM for all samples while the optimized dilution ratio were different to have 1:10 (mine tailings) and 1:5 (dry field, river sedimentary soil), respectively. Results of sequential soil washing tests using NaOH showed that arsenic concentrations obtained by Korean Standard Test Procedure were decreased to meet the regulation for both river sedimentary soil and dry field while they were not decreased largely for mine tailings, even though NaOH had much higher efficiencies of arsenic extraction than other extractants.