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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System
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The Korean Society for Geospatial Information System
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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An Improvement of Efficiently Establishing Topographic Data for Small River using UAV
Yeo, Han Jo ; Choi, Seung Pil ; Yeu, Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 3~8
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.003
Due to the recent technical development and the enhancement of image resolution, Unmanned Airborne Vehicles(UAVs) have been used for various fields. A low altitude UAV system takes advantage of taking riverbed imagery at small rivers as well as land surface imagery on the ground. The bathymetric data are generated from the low altitude UAV system. The accuracy of the data is analyzed along water depths, comparing GPS observations and a DSM generated from UAV images. It is found that the depth accuracy of the geospatial data below 50 cm depth of water satisfies the regulation(
spatial accuracy) of bathymetric surveying. Therefore this research shows that the geospatial data generated from UAV images at shallow regions of rivers can be used for bathymetric surveying.
Micro-scale Public Transport Accessibility by Stations - KTX Seoul Station Case Study -
Choi, Seung U ; Jun, Chul Min ; Cho, Seong Kil ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.009
As the need of eco-friendly transportation systems for sustainable development increases, public transport accessibility has been considered as an important element of transportation system design. When analyzing the accessibility, shortest path algorithms can be utilized to reflect the actual movement and we can obtain high resolution accessibility for all other stations on the network with shortest distance and time. This study used the algorithm improved by reflecting the penalty of number of transfers and waiting time of overlapped routes to get the accessibility. KTX Seoul Station is a target place and this algorithm is applied to multi-layer subway bus network of Seoul to calculate the accessibility, therefore this study presented the accessibility of KTX Seoul station by stations.
Causual Analysis on Soil Loss of Safety Class Oryun Tunnel Area in Landslide Hazard Map
Kim, Tae Woo ; Kang, In Joon ; Choi, Hyun ; Lee, Byung Gul ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 17~24
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.017
At present, summer cloudburst and local torrential rainfalls have increased in this country, because of climatic change. Therefore, studies on prevention of soil loss have been actively proceeded, and Korea Forest Service has offered landslide hazard map. Landslide hazard map divides risks into 5 classes, by giving weight with 9 kinds of elements. In August 25 2014, soil loss occurred in the whole Oryun Tunnel, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, because of local torrential heavy rain. As a result of comparing with landslide hazard map, the area where soil loss occurred in reality is a safety zone on hazard map. Rainfall, soil map, geological map, forest type map, gradient, drainage network, watershed, basin shape, and efflux of the whole Oryun Tunnel where soil loss occurred were analyzed. As a result of an analysis, it is judged that soil, forest type, much efflux and peak discharge, degree of water network and basin shape of a place where landslide occurred are causes of soil loss. It is judged that efflux, peak discharge, and basin shape by the localized rainfall that is not considered in landslide hazard map of them are the biggest causes of soil loss. It is judged that efflux, peak discharge, degree of water network and basin shape by the rainfall are important through a study on a causual analysis on soil loss in the whole Oryun Tunnel where is one of occurrence area where a lot of propertywere lost by the record local torrential rainfalls. A localized torrential downpour should be prepared by considering these elements on judgement of a landslide hazard area.
A Study on Scale Effects of the MAUP According to the Degree of Spatial Autocorrelation - Focused on LBSNS Data -
Lee, Young Min ; Kwon, Pil ; Yu, Ki Yun ; Huh, Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 25~33
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.025
In order to visualize point based Location-Based Social Network Services(LBSNS) data on multi-scaled tile map effectively, it is necessary to apply tile-based clustering method. Then determinating reasonable numbers and size of tiles is required. However, there is no such criteria and the numbers and size of tiles are modified based on data type and the purpose of analysis. In other words, researchers` subjectivity is always involved in this type of study. This is when Modifiable Areal Unit Problem(MAUP) occurs, that affects the results of analysis. Among LBSNS, geotagged Twitter data were chosen to find the influence of MAUP in scale effects perspective. For this purpose, the degree of spatial autocorrelation using spatial error model was altered, and change of distributions was analyzed using Morna`s I. As a result, positive spatial autocorrelation showed in the original data and the spatial autocorrelation was decreased as the value of spatial autoregressive coefficient was increasing. Therefore, the intensity of the spatial autocorrelation of Twitter data was adjusted to five levels, and for each level, nine different size of grid was created. For each level and different grid sizes, Moran`s I was calculated. It was found that the spatial autocorrelation was increased when the aggregation level was being increased and decreased in a certainpoint. Another tendency was found that the scale effect of MAUP was decreased when the spatial autocorrelation was high.
Determination of the Optimal Height using the Simplex Algorithm in Network-RTK Surveying
Lee, Suk Bae ; Auh, Su Chang ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.035
GNSS/Geoid positioning technology allows orthometric height determination using both the geoidal height calculated from geoid model and the ellipsoidal height achieved by GNSS survey. In this study, Network-RTK surveying was performed through the Benchmarks in the study area to analyze the possibility of height positioning of the Network-RTK. And the orthometric heights were calculated by applying the Korean national geoid model KNGeoid13 according to the condition of with site calibration and without site calibration and the results were compared. Simplex algorithm was adopted for liner programming in this study and the heights of all Benchmarks were calculated in both case of applying site calibration and does not applying site calibration. The results were compared to Benchmark official height of the National Geographic Information Institute. The results showed that the average value of the height difference was 0.060m, and the standard deviation was 0.072m in Network-RTK without site calibration and the average value of the height difference was 0.040m, and the standard deviation was 0.047m in Network-RTK with the application of the site calibration. With linearization method to obtain the optimal solution for observations it showed that the height determination within 0.033m was available in GNSS Network-RTK positioning.
The Risk Assessment of the Fire Occurrence According to Urban Facilities in Jinju-si
Bae, Gyu Han ; Won, Tae Hong ; Yoo, Hwan Hee ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 43~50
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.043
Urbanization in Korea has increased significantly and subsequently, various facilities have been concentrated in urban areas at high speed in accordance with a growing urban population. Accordingly, damages have occurred due to a variety of disasters. In particular, fire damage among the social disasters caused the most severe damage in urban areas along with traffic accidents. 44,432 cases of fire occurred in 2015 in Korea. Due to these accidents, 253 were killed and property damage of 4,50 billion won was generated. However, despite the efforts to reduce a variety of damage, fire danger still remains high. In this regard, this study collected fire data, generated from 2007 to 2014 through the Jinju Fire Department and the National Fire Data System(NFDS) and calculated fire risk by analyzing the clustering of fire cases and facilities in Jinju-si based on the current DB of facilities, offered by the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs. As a result, the risk ratings of fire occurrence were classified as four stages under the standards of the US Society of Fire Protection Engineers(SEPE). Business facilities, entertainment facilities, and automobile facilities were classified as the highest A grade, detached houses, Apartment houses, education facilities, sales facilities, accommodation, set of facilities, medical facilities, industrial facilities, and life service facilities were classified as U grade, and other facilities were classified as EU grade. Finally, hazardous production facilities were classified as BEU grade, the lowest grade. In addition, in the case of setting the standard with loss of life, the highest risk facility was the hazardous production facilities, while in the case of setting the standard with property damage, a set of facilities and industrial facilities showed the highest risk. In this regard, this study is expected to be effectively utilized to establish the fire reduction measures against facilities, distributed in urban space by calculating risk grades regarding the generation frequency, casualties, and property damage, through the classification of fire, occurred in the city, according to the facilities.
Floating Photovoltaic Plant Location Analysis using GIS
Lee, Ki Rim ; Lee, Won Hee ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 51~59
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.051
Global consumption of fossil fuels continues to increase. As developing countries use fossil fuel as much as the existing fossil fuel using countries, the total amount of fossil fuel consumed has risen. The finite fossil energy depletion insecurity have become serious. In addition, fossil energy is caused by environmental pollution, economic and social problems remain in assignments that need to be addressed. Although solar power is clean and has many benefits, there are several problems in the process of installing a solar power plant. To solve these problems, floating photovoltaic plants has emerged as an alternative. This floating photovoltaic plants location analysis has not been made yet. In this study, the conditions of the floating photovoltaic plants location is analyzed with the Analytic Hierarchy Process using the terrain and climate factors. The score is assigned to the attribute information of each factor by the classification table. After multiplied by the weight the result is analyzed by visualization of the score. As the result, the score of the northen part of Gyeongsangbuk-do province is higher than the southern part of Gyeongsangbuk-do province. Especially Andongho lake in Andong City and the reservoir in Yeongyang-Gun are extracted as the optimal location. The score of the river boundary is low not the center of the river stream. It is expected that this study would be a more accurate floating solar power plant location analysis.
Analysis of Spatial Resolution Characteristics for DMC/UlatraCamXp/ADS80 Digital Aerial Image Based on Visual Method
Lee, Tae Yun ; Lee, Jae One ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 61~68
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.061
Digital aerial images have been commonly used in a large scale map production owing to their excellent geometry, and high spatial and radiometric resolution in recent years. However, a quality verification process for acquired images should be preceded in order to secure the high precision and reliability of produced results. Several experimental studies to verify digital imaging systems have been vigorously researched by constructing permanent test field in abroad. On the other hand, it is urgently necessary to suggest a practical scheme for an image quality verification, because this related study and experiment are still in its early stage at home. Hence, this study aims to present an easy method to measure the spatial resolution of the image in a visual way using a portable Siemens star. The images used in the study were obtained with three different cameras, two frame array sensors of DMC, UltraCamXp and a linear array sensor of ADS80. The Siemens star target appeared in every image is extracted and then the spatial resolution of image is compared with theoretical GSD(Ground Sample Distance) by a visual method. In addition, the change of spatial resolution depending on the location of the Siemens star from image center and flight direction and cross-flight direction is also compared and analyzed. As study results, while the theoretical GSDs of images taken with each camera are about 6~9cm, the visual resolutions are 1.2~1.3 times as great as the theoretical ones.
An Evacuation Route Assignment for Multiple Exits based on Greedy Algorithm
Lee, Min Hyuck ; Nam, Hyun Woo ; Jun, Chul Min ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 69~80
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.069
Some studies were conducted for the purpose of minimizing total clearance time for rapid evacuation from the indoor spaces when disaster occurs. Most studies took a long time to calculate the optimal evacuation route that derived minimum evacuation time. For this reason, this study proposes an evacuation route assignment algorithm that can shorten the total clearance time in a short operational time. When lots of exits are in the building, this algorithm can shorten the total clearance time by assigning the appropriate pedestrian traffic volume to each exit and balances each exit-load. The graph theory and greedy algorithm were utilized to assign pedestrian traffic volume to each exit in this study. To verify this algorithm, study used a cellular automata-based evacuation simulator and experimented various occupants distribution in a building structure. As a result, the total clearance time is reduced by using this algorithm, compared to the case of evacuating occupants to the exit within shortest distance. And it was confirmed that the operation takes a short time In a large building structure.
Damage Analysis and Accuracy Assessment for River-side Facilities using UAV images
Kim, Min Chul ; Yoon, Hyuk Jin ; Chang, Hwi Jeong ; Yoo, Jong Su ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 81~87
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.081
It is important to analyze the exact damage information for fast recovery when natural disasters cause damage on river-side facilities such as dams, bridges, embankments etc. In this study, we shows the method to effectively damage analysis plan using UAV(Unmanned aerial vehicle) images and accuracy assessment of it. The UAV images are captured on area near the river-side facilities and the core methodology for damage analysis are image matching and change detection algorithm. The result(point cloud) from image matching is to construct 3-dimensional data using by 2-dimensional images, it extracts damage areas by comparing the height values on same area with reference data. The results are tested absolute locational precision compared by post-processed aerial LiDAR data named reference data. The assessment analysis test shows our matching results 10-20 centimeter level precision if external orientation parameters are very accurate. This study shows suggested method is very useful for damage analysis in a large size structure like river-side facilities. But the complexity building can`t apply this method, it need to the other method for damage analysis.
Automated Areal Feature Matching in Different Spatial Data-sets
Kim, Ji Young ; Lee, Jae Bin ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 89~98
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.089
In this paper, we proposed an automated areal feature matching method based on geometric similarity without user intervention and is applied into areal features of many-to-many relation, for confusion of spatial data-sets of different scale and updating cycle. Firstly, areal feature(node) that a value of inclusion function is more than 0.4 was connected as an edge in adjacency matrix and candidate corresponding areal features included many-to-many relation was identified by multiplication of adjacency matrix. For geometrical matching, these multiple candidates corresponding areal features were transformed into an aggregated polygon as a convex hull generated by a curve-fitting algorithm. Secondly, we defined matching criteria to measure geometrical quality, and these criteria were changed into normalized values, similarity, by similarity function. Next, shape similarity is defined as a weighted linear combination of these similarities and weights which are calculated by Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation(CRITIC) method. Finally, in training data, we identified Equal Error Rate(EER) which is trade-off value in a plot of precision versus recall for all threshold values(PR curve) as a threshold and decided if these candidate pairs are corresponding pairs or not. To the result of applying the proposed method in a digital topographic map and a base map of address system(KAIS), we confirmed that some many-to-many areal features were mis-detected in visual evaluation and precision, recall and F-Measure was highly 0.951, 0.906, 0.928, respectively in statistical evaluation. These means that accuracy of the automated matching between different spatial data-sets by the proposed method is highly. However, we should do a research on an inclusion function and a detail matching criterion to exactly quantify many-to-many areal features in future.
3D Visualization Techniques for Volcanic Ash Dispersion Prediction Results
Youn, Jun Hee ; Kim, Ho Woong ; Kim, Sang Min ; Kim, Tae Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 99~107
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.099
Korea has been known as volcanic disaster free area. However, recent surveying result shows that Baekdu mountain located in northernmost in the Korean peninsula is not a dormant volcano anymore. When Baekdu mountain is erupting, various damages due to the volcanic ash are expected in South Korea area. Especially, volcanic ash in the air may cause big aviation accident because it can hurt engine or gauges in the airplane. Therefore, it is a crucial issue to interrupt airplane navigation, whose route is overlapped with volcanic ash, after predicting three dimensional dispersion of volcanic ash. In this paper, we deals with 3D visualization techniques for volcanic ash dispersion prediction results. First, we introduce the data acquisition of the volcanic ash dispersion prediction. Dispersion prediction data is obtained from Fall3D model, which is volcanic ash dispersion simulation program. Next, three 3D visualization techniques for volcanic ash dispersion prediction are proposed. Firstly proposed technique is so called `Cube in the Air`, which locates the semitransparent cubes having different color depends on its particle concentration. Second technique is a `Cube in the Cube` which divide the cube in proportion to particle concentration and locates the small cubes. Last technique is `Semitransparent Volcanic Ash Plane`, which laminates the layer, whose grids present the particle concentration, and apply the semitransparent effect. Based on the proposed techniques, the user could 3D visualize the volcanic ash dispersion prediction results upon his own purposes.
Height Datum Transformation using Precise Geoid and Tidal Model in the area of Anmyeon Island
Roh, Jae Young ; Lee, Dong Ha ; Suh, Yong Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 109~119
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.109
The height datum of Korea is currently separated into land and sea, which makes it difficult to acquire homogeneous and accurate height information throughout the whole nation. In this study, we therefore tried to suggest the more effective way to transform the height information were constructed separately according to each height datum on land and sea to those on the unique height datum using precise geoid models and tidal observations in Korea. For this, Anmyeon island was selected as a study area to develop the precise geoid models based on the height datums land (IMSL) and sea (LMSL), respectively. In order to develop two hybrid geoid models based on each height datum of land an sea, we firstly develop a precise gravimetric geoid model using the remove and restore (R-R) technique with all available gravity observations. The gravimetric geoid model were then fitted to the geometric geoidal heights, each of which is represented as height datum of land or sea respectively, obtained from GPS/Leveling results on 15 TBMs in the study area. Finally, we determined the differences between the two hybrid geoid models to apply the height transformation between IMSL and LMSL. The co-tidal chart model of TideBed system developed by Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Agency (KHOA) which was re-gridded to have the same grid size and coverage as the geoid model, in order that this can be used for the height datum transformation from LMSL to local AHHW and/or from LMSL to local DL. The accuracy of height datum transformation based on the strategy suggested in this study was approximately
. It is expected that the results of this study can help minimize not only the confusions on the use of geo-spatial information due to the disagreement caused by different height datum, land and sea, in Korea, but also the economic and time losses in the execution of coastal development and disaster prevention projects in the future.
Accuracy Assessment of Supervised Classification using Training Samples Acquired by a Field Spectroradiometer: A Case Study for Kumnam-myun, Sejong City
Shin, Jung Il ; Kim, Ik Jae ; Kim, Dong Wook ;
Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information System, volume 24, issue 1, 2016, Pages 121~128
DOI : 10.7319/kogsis.2016.24.1.121
Many studies are focused on image data and classifier for comparison or improvement of classification accuracy. Therefore studies are needed aspect of the training samples on supervised classification which depend on reference data or skill of analyst. This study tries to assess usability of field spectra as training samples on supervised classification. Classification accuracies of hyperspectral and multispectral images were assessed using training samples from image itself and field spectra, respectively. The results shown about 90% accuracy with training sample collected from image. Using field spectra as training sample, accuracy was decreased 10%p for hyperspectral image, and 20%p for multispectral image. Especially, some classes shown very low accuracies due to similar spectral characteristics on multispectral image. Therefore, field spectra might be used as training samples on classification of hyperspectral image, although it has limitation for multispectral image.