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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Engineering Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Engineering Gelolgy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Hydrochemical characteristics in groundwater affected by reclamation
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 1~20
This study focuses on the hydrochemical characteristics in goundwater affected by reclamation at 2000 Sydney Olympic Games site, Sydney, Australia. The Olympic Games site can be divided into three areas, i.e. reclaimed areas; landfill areas and non-infilled areas. In the current work, 'reclaimed areas' were previously estuarine, and were filled with waste materials and are now above present high tide level, whereas 'landfill areas' are areas where deposition of waste materials occurred above sea level. No deposition of waste took place in 'non-infilled areas'. This study was also evaluated by three different types such as deep boreholes, shallow boreholes and standpipes. The hydrochemishy of groundwaters in reclaimed and non-in-filled areas is characterized by Mg- and Ca-enrichment, whereas groundwaters in landfill areas are elevated in K and NO₃. Na, K and Mg are the dominant cations in groundwater from reclaimed areas and Na and K are the dominant cations in groundwater in landfill areas. Na and Mg are the dominant cations in groundwater in deep boreholes, whereas Na and K are the dominant cations in groundwater in shallow boreholes and standpipes. There is no distinct trend in heavy metals with electrical conductivity in the groundwater between the re-claimed, landfill and non-infilled areas. Fe and Mn in landfill areas with respect to reclaimed areas and non-infilled areas show a distinct increase in concentration with declining pH. Mean electrical conductivity values in the deep and shallow boreholes are higher than that of standpipes, but the minimum and maximum value of electrical conductivity in groundwater in standpipes shows remarkably different value, probably due to perched pond. There is no correlation between Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr concentrations in groundwater with pH, from deep boreholes, shallow boreholes and standpipes, except for Fe and Mn, which demonstrate increasing concentrations with declining pH. The results revealed a close association between elevated concentrations in groundwater and the presence of fill materials at the site. Trace metals teachability from re-claimed soils adjacent to estuary plays a significant role in determining their potential environmental risk to surrounding environment.
Three-dimensional Resistivity Inversion Including Topographic Effect
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 21~28
Three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity inversion including a topographic effect can be considered theoretically to be the technique of acquiring the most accurate image in the interpretation of resistivity data, because it includes characteristic image that the actual subsurface structure is 3-D. In this study, a finite-element method was used as the numerical method in modeling, and the efficiency of Jacobian calculation has been maximized with sensitivity analysis for the destination block in inversion process. Also, during the iterative inversion, the resolution of inversion can be improved with the method of selecting the optimal value of Lagrange multiplier yielding minimum RMS(root mean square) error in the parabolic equation. In this paper, we present synthetic examples to compare the difference between the case which has the toprographic effect and the other case which has not the effect in the inversion process.
Scaling up of single fracture using a spectral analysis and computation of its permeability coefficient
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 29~46
It is important to identify geometries of fracture that act as a conduit of fluid flow for characterization of ground water flow in fractured rock. Fracture geometries control hydraulic conductivity and stream lines in a rock mass. However, we have difficulties to acquire whole geometric data of fractures in a field scale because of discontinuous distribution of outcrops and impossibility of continuous collecting of subsurface data. Therefore, it is needed to develop a method to describe whole feature of a target fracture geometry. This study suggests a new approach to develop a method to characterize on the whole feature of a target fracture geometry based on the Fourier transform. After sampling of specimens along a target fracture from borehole cores, effective frequencies among roughness components were selected by the Fourier transform on each specimen. Then, the selected effective frequencies were averaged on each frequency. Because the averaged spectrum includes all the frequency profiles of each specimen, it shows the representative components of the fracture roughness of the target fracture. The inverse Fourier transform is conducted to reconstruct an averaged whole roughness feature after low pass filtering. The reconstructed roughness feature also shows the representative roughness of the target subsurface fracture including the geometrical characteristics of each specimen. It also means that overall roughness feature by scaling up of a fracture. In order to identify the characteristics of permeability coefficients along the target fracture, fracture models were constructed based on the reconstructed roughness feature. The computation of permeability coefficient was performed by the homogenization analysis that can calculate accurate permeability coefficients with full consideration of fracture geometry. The results show a range between
, indicating reasonable values of permeability coefficient along a large fracture. This approach will be effectively applied to the analysis of permeability characteristics along a large fracture as well as identification of the whole feature of a fracture in a field scale.
The homogenization analysis for permeability coefficients by fracture aperture variations
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 47~60
The permeability coefficients were calculated by the homogenization analysis method with sufficient consideration of fracture geometry dependent on aperture change. According to the results of aperture measurements using a confocal laser scanning microscope, apertures on each measuring point display different magnitudes, indicating that fracture walls can not be assumed as parallel feature. After construction of fracture model based on the aperture values measured on each pressure level, the homogenization analysis was conducted to compute permeability coefficients. The calculated permeability coefficients distribute in the ranges of
. Most of the specimens show decreasing permeability coefficients with the increase of the applied pressure. However, the decreasing rates of permeability coefficients do not show a constant trend on each pressure level. This phenomenon is well matched to the observation results of Chae et al. (2003). It proves that aperture change strongly influences on permeability characteristics. Three sections of each specimen have all different values of permeability coefficient. It suggests that the variation of permeability coefficient depends sensitively on aperture magnitudes and characteristics of fracture geometry. It is very important to consider accurate fracture geometries for analysis of permeability characteristics in rock fractures bearing different aperture distribution. Therefore, it needs to consider sufficiently the fracture geometries for calculating the permeability coefficients of fractures.
Quality of Building Stones by Physical Properties
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 61~69
Building stones are used mainly as a material for making decoration and sculpture, and consequently they must have predominant physical properties extensively. Among various physical properties, the coefficient of pore dominates the usefulness of building stones, so the plans were made for establishing the quality classification of building stones with respect to the nature of pore. For this study, bore-hole core samples according to the depth of the biotite granites and the granitic gneiss were applicated. From the related chart between porosity and absorption ratio, Mungyeong granitic gneiss(
) shows the widest phase of distribution in the range of measurement values, and the values decrease in the order of Pocheon granite(
) and Mungyeong granite(
) in the range. The strength of each rock mass varies with the degree of alteration. Also in correlation between compressive strength and tensile strength, the range of measurement values decrease in the order of
. Porosity is adopted as a representative physical property for establishing the quality classification of building stones, and then relative evaluation was made with regard to various physical properties. From the related chart between porosity(n)-specific gravity(G), absorption ratio(Ab), compressive strength(
), tensile strength(
), shore hardness(Hs) and Young's modulus(
), standard of each grade is established.
The Stability and Characteristic Analysis of Cut Slope Behavior using Real-time Monitoring System
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 71~80
The failure of cut slopes frequently occurs particularly during the thawing season and the rain season in summer. This study interpreted data collected from site to which a real-monitoring system was applied in order to analyze the causes of ground behaviors and to forecast future slope failure. As for research methods, this study analyzed the size and mechanism of failure by integrating the results of field surveys and measurements. Furthermore, it analyzed data transmitted by the monitoring system installed in the a result, three times of ground displacement occurred as well as a number of partial tension cracks. The cut slope composed of sandstone and siltstone started its initial behavior as a result of torrential downpour and the loss of support of the substructure. For quantitative analysis of the characteristics of ground behavior, this study measured 5 lateral lines. According to the result of the measurement, displacement happened little in the section to which countermeasure had been applied, but displacement of maximum 400mm happened in the section to which countermeasure had not bee applied. The analysis of data on displacement and rainfall suggested a close relationship between ground behavior and rainfall. According to the result of stability interpretation along with the change of ground saturation, stability rate appeared to be less than 1.0 when ground saturation is over 55%. Although the current trend of ground behavior is at a stable stage falling within the range of tolerance, it is considered necessary to continue monitoring and data analysis because ground displacement is highly possible with the change of temperature during the winter.
Study on the Induced Interaction between Groundwater and Surface Water due to the Tunnel Construction
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 81~91
The objective of this study is the evaluation of the tunneling effect on the goundwater-surface water interaction. The designed tunnel line is laid beneath the Hapo-cheon, which runs throughout the study area. And, the pre-evaluation of the tunnel-influence on the Gapo-cheon is urgently needed. However, it is very difficult to find out the similar domestic and/or foreign cases. In this study, the numerical modeling technique was not considered because of the insufficient data. Instead of the numerical modeling, the measurement and analysis of the stream flow rates 5 different points were adopted to evaluate the influence of the tunnel construction on the Gapo-cheon. Based on the analysis of flow monitoring data, it can be concluded that 39% of flow rate in Gapo-cheon is contributed by the groundwater discharge, as baseflow and the construction of tunnel can seriously decrease the flow rate in Gapo-cheon.
Characterization of a groundwater system by subsurface hydrogeological investigation data
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 93~104
This paper intended to assess the hydro-structure characteristics of volcanic rocks based on the hydrogeological data obtained from the underground storage cavern during construction. The variation of groundwater levels was periodically measured from the 28 surface monitoring holes(NX size) and the hydraulic pressures and injection rates were daily monitored from the water curtain holes(95 horizontal holes and 63 vertical holes). The hydraulic interference tests were performed in whole water curtain holes. The distribution patterns of hydraulic pressure are closely related to the dip angles of fracture intersected to the water curtain holes. Three domains can be grouped by the distribution of hydraulic pressures in the horizontal water curtain holes. The initial hydraulic pressures measured immediately after drilling of water crutain holes are high in ascending order of the cavern C-2, C-1, and C-3. The priliminary hydrochemical data also indicate that the portions of the deep groundwater composition is relatively great in the cavern C-3 area. Some of the horizontal water curtain holes in the cavern C-3 show a steady higher groundwater pressure with the composition of shallow groundwater indicating the outer boundary as constant hydraulic boundary. The water curtain holes in the cavern C-2 is characterized as low initial hydraulic pressure and less injection rates, suggesting poor hydraulic connectivity to a shallow groundwater system. The results of the study can help to understand a hydraulic compartment concept in a fracture hydro-geology and be utilized during the surface investigation for a groundwater system.
Correlation of mineralogical and textural properties with mechanical qualities of granite dimension stone from the Namwon area, Korea
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 105~121
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between petrographical and engineering properties of granitic rocks, widely used as building and ornamental stones in Korea, at the Namwon are a. This area is one of the most famous area as a domestic dimension stone production. The granitic rocks were examined for grain sizes, modal compositions and then same samples were tested to determine specific gravity, water absorption, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasive hardness, P-wave velocity, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio. It is suggested that the influence of the grain size on the engineering properties is more important than that of the mode of mineralogical compositions. And quartz contents also significantly influence the engineering properties of granitic rocks.
A Short Note on Investigation and Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Soil in Korea
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 14, issue 1, 2004, Pages 123~130