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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Engineering Geology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Engineering Gelolgy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
The Correlation between Groundwater Level and Moving Average of Precipitation in Nakdong River Watershed
Yang, Jeong-Seok ; Ahn, Tae-Yeon ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 507~510
The correlation between groundwater level(GWL) and the moving average of precipitation was analyzed based on the observation data in Nakdong river watershed. The precipitation data was compared and analyzed with the GWL data from adjacent observation point to the precipitation gauge station. The correlation between the moving average of precipitation with several averaging periods and GWL were analyzed and we could choose the averaging period that produces maximum correlation. A severe drawdown was observed from December to April. The maximum correlations between GWL and the moving average of precipitation were occurred from 20-day to 80-day averaging period.
The Shear Wave Velocity Analysis using Passive Method MASW in the Center of the Metropolis, Gyeongsan
Lee, Hong-Gyu ; Kim, Woo-Hyuk ; Jang, Seung-Ik ; Lee, Seog-Kyu ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 511~516
Active method MASW(Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves), which is one of the surface wave exploration methods, has the difficulties to supply enough shear wave velocity log, caused by short spread length and lack of low frequency energy. To make up this defect, the passive method MASW survey is taked and analysised in Daeku subway construction site, Jungpyung-dong Gyeongsan city. The passive method MASW using the microtremor, improve the quality of the overtone record by applying the azimuth correction caused offline sources. And combing with active overtone record which is acquired by same geometry has the benefits of improve shallow depth resolution and extend possible investigation depth. To take the optimized acquisition parameters, the 2m, 4m, and 6m geophone spacing is tested. And 2m spacing overtone image could make the reliable shear wave velocity log.
Surface Geophysical Survey for Delineation of Weathered Zone of Chojeong Area and Investigation of Fault Fracture Zones
Kim, Ji-Soo ; Han, Soo-Hyung ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 517~523
Geophysical surveys(seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, and ground penetrating radar) were performed to delineate the weathering zone associated with vadose water in Chojeong area and investigate the fault related fracture zones. On the basis of seismic velocity structures, weathering layer for the southwestern part is interpreted to be deeper than for the northeastern part. The depth to bedrock(i.e., thickness of weathered zone) from seismic refraction data attempted to be correlated with drill-core data and groundwater level. As for the investigation of geological discontinuities such as fault related fracture zone, seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, and ground penetrating data are compositely employed in terms of velocity and resistivity structures for mapping of surface boundary of the discontinuities up to shallow depth. Surface boundaries of fracture zone are well indicated in seismic velocity and electrical resistivity structures. Accurate estimation of weathered zone and fracture zone can be successfully available for mapping of attitude of vadose water layer.
An Experimental Study on the Application of End-Expanded Soil Nailing Method
Lee, Sang-Eun ; Jang, Yun-Ho ; Moon, Chang-Yeul ; Jeong, Gyo-Cheol ; Park, Young-Sun ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 525~534
The peculiarity of end-expanded soil nailing method(EESNM) is in fixing the wedge-type steel body spreaded by collars and grouting its surroundings by cement milk within soils, after extending hole bottom over drilling hole diameter with top drill bit. The present study was done to establish the effect of this method. Laboratory model test were carried out to investigate the behavior characteristics with the performance of the pull-out test and failure experiment, after preparing soil test box having 1,300mm length, width 1,000mm, and height 1,100mm, and the same experimental condition was set up to compare with the general soil nailing method(GSNM). The pull-out force of about 23 percentage was increased, and the horizontal displacements 1.2 from 9.1 percentage in soil-nailed wall decreased in EESNM compare with GSNM. The axial force acting on nail increased considerably at load level over 7 ton in EESNM and 5 ton in GSNM. The predicted failure line from the maxima analyzed by axial tensile strain located at long distance from soil-nailed wall in EESNM. The EESNM demonstrated the superiority of reinforcement effect in comparison with GSNM from the results above mentioned.
Engineering Geological Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks at Ulsan Area
Kim, Kwang-Sik ; Kim, Kwang-Yeom ; Seo, Yong-Seok ; Kim, Chang-Yong ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 535~544
Discontinuities developed in a sedimentary rock mass are the most important factor to determine mechanical properties of the rock mass. Parameters described discontinuities in rock mass generally connote heterogeneity and uncertainty. In this study, probabilistic statistics method was used to determine parameters of discontinuities quantitatively and objectively. The field survey was conducted at 33 sedimentary rock slopes in Ulsan area, according to the suggested methods for the quantitative description of discontinuities in rock mass(ISRM, 1978). The engineering geological characteristics of the sedimentary rocks at Ulsan area was determined as probability distribution function deduced by analyzing parameters of discontinuities.
Analysis on the Influence of Groundwater Level Changes on Slope Stability using a Seismic Refraction Survey in a Landslide Area
Lee, Kyoung-Mi ; Kim, Hyun ; Lee, Jae-Hyuk ; Seo, Young-Seok ; Kim, Ji-Soo ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 545~554
Landslides is mainly induced by a heavy rainfall, earthquake ground motion, and some other factors like soil mechanics, morphological-geological factors etc. Since the starting point of the failure seemed to be originated at a construction site in the study, it is meaningful to find out the relationship between the landslide and the construction. For this study, the slope failure factor was examined carefully to see that the original natural slope had vulnerability and that the complex ground had unstability changed by construction. A field survey was conducted on the original ground surface and filled-up ground. A laboratory test was also conducted to determine the geomechanical properties of soil samples. 2D and 3D limit equilibrium analysis with changing groundwater level were conducted at the failure depth using a seismic refraction survey. The result shows that the factor of safety is similar stability under all condition, but unstable under saturated condition.
Suggestion of Regression Equations for Estimating RMR Factor Rating by Geological Condition
Kim, Kwang-Yeom ; Yim, Sung-Bin ; Kim, Sung-Kwon ; Kim, Chang-Yong ; Seo, Yong-Seok ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 555~566
In general, RMR classification system is used for the support design of a tunnel. Face mapping during excavation and RMR-based rock classifications are conducted in order to provide information for complementary changes to preliminary survey plans and for continuous geological estimations in direction of tunnel route. Although they are ever so important, there are not enough time for survey in general and sometimes even face mapping is not available. Linear regression analysis for the estimation of mediating RQD and condition of discontinuities, which require longer time and more detailed observation in RMR, was performed and optimum regression equations are suggest as the result. The geological data collected from tunnels were analyzed in accordance with three rock types as sedimentary rock, phyllite and granite to see geological effects, generally not been considered in previous researches. Parameters for the regression analysis were set another RMR factor.
Measurement of Tunnel 3-D Displacement using Digital Photogrammetry
Kim, Kwang-Yeom ; Kim, Chang-Yong ; Lee, Seung-Do ; Seo, Yong-Seok ; Lee, Chung-In ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 567~576
In order to assess the on-site applicability of 3D absolute displacement monitoring of tunnel using digital photogrammetry, the displacement of the optical target placed at the measurement section was investigated, as planned in the OO tunnel construction site. The targets on 3 measurement lines only were considered for each point of measurement for the reconstruction of 3D cubic model for the digital vision monitoring. For each 3D model, 3 or more images have to be obtained at each point. On the last 2 measurement lines, 6 targets (crown, left and right walls) were continuously overlapped to construct 3D models so that 6 or more apices can be shared by 2 3D models. In order to compare the measurement methods of 3D absolute displacements in tunnel excavation, i. e, total station and digital image measurement, both the digital image measurement and optical measurement were conducted for 10 times in the same work section. The time and measurement results of both methods were compared.
A Case Study on Stability Evaluation of Road Slope based on Geological Condition
Park, Chal-Sook ; Kim, Jae-Hong ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 577~587
The length of study area was about 450m, and it was shown the geological condition of distinguished change of rock by cutting slope. In order to establish a slope stability, we carried out an engineering geological investigations about rock constituent, rock structure and a direction of discontinuous plane. The study area was divided into six section considered by direction of cutting slope, height of slope and geological condition. Analysis of cutting slope stability was carried out with stereo-graphic projection method by DIPS program which was feasible of stability analysis with geometrical correlation for a direction of discontinuous plane and direction of cutting slope. From analysis of cutting slope stability considered by construction, stability and economical efficiency, the slope stability countermeasures such as a high tensile wire net, slope protection method and enhanced retaining wall were established and operated which minimized effect caused by lower end of road on a relaxation of huge rock.
Petrographic Study(ASTM C 295) on the KEDO Concrete Aggregates
Jeong, Ji-Gon ; Kim, Kyung-Su ; Lee, Chol-Woo ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 589~599
For the preliminary judgement on the chemical stability of concrete aggregates mixed with cement paste, ASTM C 295 method can be applied prior to the long-term chemical test methods. By using this standard test method, the petrographic study on the appropriateness of natural KEDO aggregates for concrete was carried out. With the natural gravel and sand aggregates, the polarized microscope, stereoscopic microscope, and X-ray diffractometer were used for examination. The result shows the 23% of gravel aggregates and 5.1% of sand aggregates are chemically unstable. To select the favorable KEDO concrete aggregates, it is required to exclude the highly metamorphosed rocks, acidic volcanic rocks, highly foliated rocks, and expansive rocks identified from mortar-bar test. Further chemical test and mortar-bar test method integrated with this study is recommended for the suitability assessment of natural KEDO concrete aggregates.
Analysis of the Behavior of Reinforced Earth Retaining Walls Constructed on Soft Ground Using the Replacement Method
Ki, Wan-Seo ; Joo, Seung-Wan ; Kim, Sun-Hak ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 601~613
It is reported that factors affecting the behavior of reinforced earth retaining walls built on soft ground are not only basic physical properties but also the increase of load by the reinforced earth retaining walls, consolidation period, pore water pressure, etc. This study analyzed the behavior of reinforced earth retaining walls and soft ground using SAGE CRISP, a ground analysis program. First, we examined the effect of the replacement method, which was to prevent the excessive displacement of reinforced earth retaining walls, in improving the behavior of the walls. Second, we compared and analyzed how the behavior of ground is affected by the vertical interval of stiffeners on the back of reinforced earth retaining walls after the application of the replacement method. Lastly, we proposed the optimal replacement width and depth in the application of the replacement method. The results of this study proved that the replacement method is considerably effective in improving the behavior of reinforced earth retaining walls. In addition, the vertical interval of stiffeners on the back of reinforced earth retaining walls appeared effective in improving the horizontal displacement of the top of retaining walls but not much effective in improving the vertical displacement of the back of retaining walls. In addition, improvement in horizontal-vertical displacement resulting from the increase in replacement width was not significant and this suggests that the increase of replacement width is not necessary. With regard to an adequate replacement depth, we proposed the ratio of replacement depth to the height of retaining walls(D/H) according to the ratio of the thickness of the soft layer to the height of retaining walls(H/T).
Case Study of Geophysical Surveys for Investigating the Volume of Bed Sediments
Yoon, Jong-Ryeol ; Kim, Jin-Man ; Choi, Bong-Hyuck ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 615~621
Seismic refraction survey which is assumed to be effective for investigating of the amount of bed sediment was applied to two sites having different soil types. The ten lines of seismic surveys were carried out in the areas of the levee near the Wolchon Bridge, Yongin and the Damam levee, Yecheon. At the same time, two borehole data were obtained to be used in classifying geological formations on the inverted seismic sections. As the results of interpolating the depths of geological formations and the surface elevation values, it is possible to estimate the volume of the bed sediments at
in Yongin and Yecheon, respectively.
Data Analysis of Suspension P-S Velocity Logging in Banded Gneiss Area around Hanam, Gyeonggi Province
Yu, Young-Chul ; Song, Moo-Young ; Leem, Kook-Mook ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 623~631
In this paper, dynamic elastic module of banded gneiss were calculated on the basis of SPS velocity logging data obtained from a geotechnical test-hole in Pungsan-dong, Hanam, Gyeonggi Province, Korea. This study mainly focuses on the velocity analysis, Q factor calculation relative to attenuation factor, and generation of crack information and its relation with seismic velocity. As a result, P-wave and S-wave velocity of fresh hard rock was 5,559m/s and 3,063m/s, respectively, with Poisson's ratio being 0.28. With these results, dynamic modules were prepared, and crack information analyzed by acoustic televiewer was incorporated to identify the correlation among and between delay of first arrival by crack amplitude ratio, and velocity. The results of this study revealed that the analyzed logging hole mainly consisted of micro crack and a number of cracks and the size of crack aperture, functioned as a variable to seismic velocity in the micro crack area of this type of hard rock.
Study of Seismic Data Processing Method for Tunnel Detection
Suh, Baek-Soo ; Sohn, Kwon-Ik ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 633~642
Traveltime tomogram is generally used for interpretation of seismic tunnel data. In the field data, the first arrival traveltime is less dispersive with increasing source-receiver seperation compared to theoretical model data. So the result of calculation can be serious despite of small errors such as traveltime picking. In this study, amplitude method and error tomogram method are tried to overcome these problems. This method will help the interpretation of the data from the underground tunnel.
Analyses of Hydrology and Groundwater Level Fluctuation in Granite Aquifer with Tunnel Excavation
Chung, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Kang, Dong-Hwan ; Shim, Byoung-Ohan ; Cheong, Sang-Won ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 643~653
Average hydraulic conductivity was
average RQD was 78%, average porosity was 0.51%, and range of groundwater level was
by measured in 8 boreholes at the Surak Mt. tunnel area. Groundwater level of two peaks in the Surak Mt. tunnel area were estimated through linear regression analysis for groundwater level versus elevation. And, average horizontal hydraulic gradient in the Surak Mt. tunnel area was calculated 0.267. Minimum, maximum, and average hydraulic conductivities that estimated by field tests were
, respectively. Groundwater discharge rates per 1 meter that estimated using minimum, maximum, and average hydraulic conductivities and average horizontal hydraulic gradient were
, respectively. Pure groundwater recharge rate per unit recharge area was calculated 223.96 mm/yr through water balance analysis. Prediction simulation of groundwater level fluctuation with minimum, maximum, and average hydraulic conductivities were conducted. Discharge rate into the Surak Mt. tunnel for minimum hydraulic conductivity was small, but groundwaer drawdown was highly. Discharge rate into the Surak Mt. tunnel for maximum hydraulic conductivity was higher, but groundwaer level was recovered quickly.
Determination of Deformation Modulus of Rock Mass with Measured Tunnel Displacement
Park, Jae-Woo ; Park, Eun-Gyu ; Kim, Gyo-Won ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 655~664
The major geotechnical parameters employed in tunnel design are deformation modulus, Poisson's ratio, friction angle, cohesion, etc. Among these parameters, the deformation modulus is the most significant parameter in tunnel deformation. However, determination of the modulus for rock mass by means of tests is very difficult due to factors affecting including discontinuities and sample size, etc. Thus input values used in the numerical analysis are generally determined by empirical method. A numerical analysis on tunnel was conducted with geotechnical parameters determined through the geological field mapping, laboratory tests, and evaluation of boring data, and some discrepancy between the computed result and tunnel displacements measured was found. Thus, further analyses by changing the deformation modulus of rock mass were performed to determine a relationship between the modulus and computed displacement. Data from two tunnel sites were used to verify the applicability of the proposed method and a correlative equation between deformation modulus and tunnel displacement is proposed. The deformation modulus of rock mass was around 30-40% of young's modulus of intact rock in these cases.
Investigation of Soil Characteristics and Landslides Probability in East Island of Dok-Do
Song, Young-Suk ; Chae, Byung-Gon ; Cho, Yong-Chan ; Lee, Choon-Oh ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 665~671
In this study, the soil characteristics and the landslide probability are investigated in East Island of Dok-do. The distribution and depth of soil layer were investigated and the soil samples were taken from the soil layer in East Island. As the results of field investigation, the soil layer was partly distributed in specific location and the soil depth was ranged from 1cm to 50cm. Also, the soil depth was mainly ranged about 10cm in the large part of soil layer. The soils were classed as the weathered residual soils and involved many organic contents such as rotten roots and leaves. The average of water contents is 23.2%, and the average of liquid limits is 42.2%. Also, the soils is non-plastic condition. Also, the soils were mainly classed as the poor graded sand including loam contents. Meanwhile, the landslide probability was investigated through a survey of the soil layer distribution in East Island. The soil depth was very shallow in the large part of the soil layer, and the distribution area of soil layer was small. Therefore, it may predict that the landslide probability is very low due to the dissatisfaction of landslide occurrence condition.
A Study for Earthquake Parameter of Odaesan Earthquake
Kim, Jun-Kyoung ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 673~680
The seismic source parameters of the Odaesan earthquake on 20 January 2007, including focal depth, focal mechanism, magnitude, and source characteristics, are analysed using seismic moment tensor inversion. The Green's function for different 3 crust models representing the southern Korean Peninsula are used. Final results show that the event, considering 6 seismic moment tensor elements, is caused by the typical strike slip fault with nearly NNE strike. The focal depth is estimated to be about 11km and 6 seismic moment tensor elements with 7.2% CLVD value shows typical double couple seismic source. The consistent characteristics of the strike and epicenter of the event with Odaesan fault imply that Odaesan earthquake is mainly caused by movement of the Odaesan fault.