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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Engineering Geology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Engineering Gelolgy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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A New Method for the Analysis of Measured Displacements during Tunnelling using Control Charts
Yim, Sung-Bin ; Seo, Yong-Seok ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 261~268
Tunnel measurements provide crucial information on the ground stability during the excavation, visualizing the ground behavioral characteristics with quantitative dada. Generally, the frequency of the measurements is greater during the early stage of the tunnelling process and reduced with time. However, there are no quantitative criteria established for either the activities, such as the time, location and frequency of the measurement or the management guidance, especially for the site of subtle and unexpected displacement during the excavation. It is, however, still challenging to assess behavioral characteristics of subtle and unexpected displacement after stabilization. In this study, we propose a new method to assess stability and to analysis the behavioral characteristics of subtle and unexpected displacement after stabilization using statistic control charts of displacements. We also present a test result on the applicability of control chart and CUSUM control chart to measured displacements.
Suggested Method for the Tunnel Instrumentation on the Lattice Girder from the Results of the Laboratory Test using Load Cells
Kim, Hak-Joon ; Park, Si-Hyun ; Lee, Ki-Se ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 269~275
The use of lattice girder is increased at the tunnel site in Korea recently for the substitute of H-steel rib. However, field measurements at the lattice girder are rarely performed at the tunnel site and the method of the measurement is not well established. The use of the vibrating wire strain gauges used for the H-steel rib was proven to be not suitable for the strain measurements of the lattice girder according to the previous research. The credibility of the load cell was investigated using laboratory compression tests for load cells, specially manufactured for the lattice girder far this study, installed at the specimen of the lattice girder. The method of the tunnel instrumentation for the lattice girder using the load cell is given from the interpretation of the compression test results.
Behavioral Characteristics of the Yangsan Fault based on Geometric Analysis of Fault Slip
Chang, Chun-Joong ; Chang, Tae-Woo ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 277~285
In order to assess the fault behavior by the geometric analysis of fault slip, the study area between Yangsan city and Shinkwang-myon, Pohang city along the strike of the Yangsan fault is divided into 5 domains(
domains) based on the strike change of main fault, the type of fault termination, the cyclic variation of fault zone width, deformation pattern of fault rocks and angular deviation of secondary shears. And, we would apply the relationship between the mode of fault sliding and the resultant deformation texture obtained from previous several experimental studies of simulated fault gouge to the study of the Yangsan fault. To understand sliding behavior of the fault we measured the data of fault attitude and fault slip, and analyzed relationships between the main fault and secondary Riedel shear along the Yangsan fault. The sliding behavioral patterns in each section were analyzed as followings; the straight sections of A, D and E domains were analyzed as the creeping section of stably sliding. In contrast, the curved section of B domain was analyzed as the locked section of stick-slip movement.
Analysis of Slope Stability at the End of OO tunnel being Distributed by Mica Schist
Lee, Byung-Joo ; SunWoo, Choon ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 287~294
To be design the slope, the area distributed the mica schist which was metamorphosed by shale or mudstone must carefully consider the stability. Mica schist is another unstable rock for slope by schistosity, cleavage, axial plane of a fold etc. In general mica schist contains the swelling clay minerals such as smectite, vermiculite and montmorillonite. These minerals make the slope unstable. At OO tunnel construction area for the rail way of the Kyungbu high speed train, the slope of mica schist is very unstable by the distribution phenomena of the discontinuous plane such as joints which are 1-5 cm spacing and thrust and strike-slip fault. By the drilling core of this area, most RQD have 0-20%.
Risk Assessment of Groundwater and Soil in Sasang Industrial Area in Busan Metropolitan City
Jeon, Hang-Tak ; Hamm, Se-Yeong ; Cheong, Jae-Yeol ; Ryu, Sang-Min ; Jang, Seong ; Lee, Jeong-Hwan ; Lee, Soo-Hyung ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 295~306
The risk assessment of groundwater and soil in Sasang industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City was carried out in order to estimate risks to human health and the environment. The carcinogenic risk (CR) of receptors to soil and air was not identified. However, the CRs for TCE and PCE were 6.7E-6 and 1.0E-5, respectively. Hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) did not appear through air exposure pathways. Yet the HQ and HI of soil were 3.4E-5 and 5E-5, respectively, and lower than the critical value (1.0). On the contrary, HQ and HI with respect to groundwater were calculated as 0.7 (not hazardous) and 1.4 (hazardous). The constituent reduction factor (CRF) for TCE in the study area was determined as 2.5, and thus remediation work is demanded. As a result of sensitivity analysis for 18 exposure factors, eight exposure factors (life time of carcinogens, age, body weight, exposure duration, exposure frequency, dermal exposure frequency, water ingestion rate, and soil ingestion rate) varied with the variation of risk.
Research on Groundwater Quality and Economic Expenses for Drinking in Daegu and Gyeongbuk Areas
Kang, Mee-A ; Jeong, Tae-Kyung ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 307~311
Agricultural is recognised as being the leading contributor to groundwater. As a consequence, the consumer have to has bear the high expenses of water supplied to be treated. Importantly, the cost of water supplied is a function of the water quality as well as the scale of drinking water treatments. The relationship between the consumer payment and water quality improvement was affected by the scale of drinking water treatments directly. Hence when we achieve the high quality and low cost in the case of groundwater treatment for drinking, it is needed to consider both water quality and plant scale.
The Correlation between Groundwater Level and the Moving Average of Precipitation considering Snowmelt Effect and Critical Infiltration in Han River Watershed
Yang, Jeong-Seok ; Kim, Nam-Ki ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 313~321
The relationship between precipitation and groundwater level and the correlation between the moving average of precipitation and goundwater level were analyzed for the Han river watershed in Korean peninsular. Fourteen regions in the watershed were selected and there were somewhat different patterns of seasonal fluctuation of groundwater level data. The groundwater level data tends to decrease in dry spell and increase in wet spell however the range between maximum and minimum values is quite different for each gauging point. We could have stronger correlation between groundwater level for fractured rock aquifer and the moving average of precipitation than the groundwater level for alluvial aquifer. The critical infiltration, which is the maximum daily infiltration averaged throughout watershed, value is turned out to have the range of 10 to 90 mm. We could have stronger correlation when we consider critical infiltration and modify the original precipitation data than we use original precipitation data. We also could have higher correlation coefficient when we consider snowmelt effect for the watershed that has considerable snow event.
Application Techniques of 2D-Resistivity Structure for Estimation of Inferred Fracture Zone in Weathered Slope
Kim, Jae-Hong ; Park, Chal-Sook ; Lee, Hyun-Jae ; Jeong, Gyo-Cheol ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 323~330
Electrical resistivity survey is applied for estimation of inferred fault and fractured zone in civil engineering and environment field. While 15 m diameter and 3 lines tunnels are excavated. It is recognized that core stone and fractured zone is existed in the weathered slope of the entrance to a tunnel. To make confirmation geological characteristics, dipole-dipole electric resistivity survey was carried out in weathered slope of the entrance to a tunnel. Core stone distribution and fracture zone characteristics are estimated by reverse analysis and 2D-resistivity structure using FDM.
Characteristics of Rainfall, Geology and Failure Geometry of the Landslide Areas on Natural Terrains, Korea
Kim, Won-Young ; Chae, Byung-Gon ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 331~344
Large landslides occurred since 1990 on natural terrain, Korea were reviewed with the existing data to characterize them in terms of the condition of rainfall, geology and geometry. Ten landslide areas over the nationwide are selected for this study. Among them, five areas consist of granite basement, four areas of granite and metamorphic rocks and the remaining an area of gabbro. The basement lithology on which landslides most dominantly occurred is granite, on which 58% of landslides among the total 3,435 are taken place, the next dominant one is metamorphic rocks where 24% of landslides are occurred, and the remaining 18% are on the areas of volcanic and sedimentary rocks which are partly distributed in some areas. The landslide occurrences may depend on the rainfall intensities rather than durations. We applied the theories of Caine's threshold and Olivier's final response coefficient to the Korean cases. The rainfall conditions at the landslide areas were all satisfied enough with the landslide triggering conditions suggested by Caine and Olivier. The triggering mechanism and type of landslides may largely depend on the weathering and geomorphic characteristics of basement lithology. The granite areas are characterized by being relatively shallow but consistent weathering profiles and almost no outcrop, and therefore, shallow translational slides are dominant. Whereas metamorphic areas are characterized by consisting of steep slope, weathered outcrops on ridges and partly on flanks and irregular weathering profiles, and relatively large debris flows are dominant.
A Case Study on Reinforcement of Slope in PAP Retaining Wall using Back Analysis
Kim, Jang-Deuk ; Kim, Yong-Ha ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 345~350
The endpoint of the Yangbuk tunnel constructed at the national road between Gyeongju and Gampo is composed of massive cutting because the road is driven through the sides of mountain. PAP(Prestressed Anchor and PC Pannel) retaining wall as a slope stability method was established over this section. Part of the anchor in PAP wall became broken after six months. We performed inverse analysis through its measurements obtained until that time. An geological investigation to confirm the condition of ground layering and the attraction force test to find as to whether some errors might be present in the anchor were made. According to the back analysis, it was turned out that the value with soil parameter 90% that was applied to the original design was pertinent. In the redesign, the permissible stress in the anchor body was changed from 306 kN to 591 kN and 784 kN and the fixation position was increased from 11.0 m to 23.0 m. Nevertheless, five months have passed since the exchange of the anchor, the measurement results validate that stable state has been maintained. This research is considered a case that the immediate maintenance helps prevent the slope accidents.
Joint Characteristics in Sedimentary Rocks of Gyeongsang Supergroup
Chang, Tae-Woo ; Son, Byeong-Kook ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 351~363
Two orthogonal joint sets develop well only in sandstone beds in the sandstone-mudstone sequences of Gumi and Dasa outcrops within Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin. And various joint data are similar in the beds of the same thickness in both outcrops, meaning that the joint sets were homogeneously produced by extensional deformation in the same regional stress field. Most of joints in the sandstone beds are orthogonal to, and confined by bed boundaries, which are believed to be formed by hydrofracturing during consolidation after burial. Two orthogonal joint sets are considered to be almost coeval on the basis of mutual abutting relationship which makes up fracture grid-lock and a product of rapid switching of
axes with constant
direction oriented to vertical. The joint sets in the sandstone beds show planar surfaces, parallel orientations and regular spacing, with joint spacing linearly proportional to bed thickness. The spacing distributions of the joints seem to correspond to log-normal to almost normal distribution in most of the beds. But multilayer joints do not display regular spacing and dominant size. Either joint set in this study is characterized by a high level of joint density and a saturated spacing distribution as indicated by the mode/mean ratio values and the Cv(coefficient of variance) values. Joint aperture tends to increase with the vertical length of the joints controlled by bed thickness.
Loading Characteristics of Non-Point Source Pollutants by Rainfall - Case Study with Sweet Potato Plot -
Kang, Mee-A ; Jo, Soo-Hyun ; Choi, Byoung-Woo ; Yoon, Young-Sam ; Lee, Jae-Kwan ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 365~371
This paper address the characteristics of loading pollutants caused by the unit agricultural area to establish an efficient management method in NPS (non-point source). The relationship between rainfall and runoff shows good coefficient with 0.92, when the event which shows relatively long antecedent dry days is excepted. The impact of runoff volume on the runoff coefficient can be described by the rainfall intensity strongly. The pollutant EMCs (event mean concentrations) in runoff increased by the increase of antecedent dry days due to dry soil conditions. As the similar pattern of pollutant's loads such as TSS, BOD, COD, TN and TP, it is cleared that other pollutants can be removed when TSS is removed. Therefore the system using only runoff coefficients is not sufficient for the prediction of pollutant loads. It is necessary to consider soil conditions such as rainfall, antecedent dry day, antecedent rainfall etc. for the prediction system.
Geological Approach for Use Interpretation of a Cultural Heritage Site at Gochon-ri, Busan
Lee, Min-Joo ; Han, Seung-Rok ; Paik, In-Sung ; Kim, Young-Seog ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 373~387
Many cultural heritages with various periods including the 'Three Kingdoms Period' were discovered in Chulmamyeon, Busan. Detailed geomorphological and geological investigation was performed due to archaeological importance of the study area. Aerial photographic analysis for geomorphology and analysis of vertical sedimentary sections to interpret the sedimentary characteristics were carried out. Many pebbles with specific features were discovered during the investigation. The characteristics and origin of the pebbles are analysed based on their size, rock type and shape. The study area is located in a relatively low and gentle slope compared with neighboring regions. The strong N-S trending lineaments may influence the topographic features and the distribution of wells discovered in this area. The exposed sections during excavation are divided into several layers depending on colors and materials included. Some of the layers may be developed not by nature but by human activities. The similarity of the pebbles indicates that these pebbles may artificially be collected or produced for a specific purpose. This study shows that geomorphology and geology can be important in location and development of archaeological sites. The analysis and interpretation for the origin of the pebbles indicates that geological studies can be helpful to interpretation of archaeological studies.
Iron and Manganese Removal through Well Development at River Bank Filtration Site
Kim, Gyoo-Bum ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Shin, Seon-Ho ; Park, Joon-Hyeong ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 389~400
Iron and manganese contents are usually over the limit of drinking water standard (0.3 mg/L) in unconsolidated aquifer of river bank filtration site in Nakdong river. Surge block and air surging techniques used in this study are useful tools to remove the slime within gravels and pebbles, to increase permeability of aquifer, to provide oxygen into aquifer, and to discharge iron and manganese oxides from a well. Surging activity brought about
times decreases in
contents, and also 10 times decrease in
contents compared to non-surging condition, respectively. Additionally, iron oxide and manganese oxide increased up
times after surging. This result shows that air injection into the aquifer can help iron and manganese content decreased and in-situ treatment technology needs to be introduced in river bank filtration project in South Korea.
A Case Study on the Field Investigation and Stability Analysis of the Collapsed Cut-Slope in Tunnel Portal, Danyang
Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Koo, Ho-Bon ; Kim, Seung-Hee ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 401~408
Old national Road No. 59 that connects Danyang and Gagok has 35 dangerous cut slopes. It is relatively narrow and has a poor alignment. The torrential rains in 2002 and 2006 has caused numerous slope collapses, landslides and road settlements in this area. The old road's high risk level lead to the planning and construction of a new national road. During the construction of the new road in December 2006, the right side of Dugcheon Tunnel entrance has collapsed and tension cracks were observed on the district road above the tunnel. In order to determine the cause of failure, intensive field investigation and monitoring cracks were performed together with Lower Hemisphere Projection Analysis, Limit Equilibrium Analysis and Finite Difference Analysis.
Prediction of Permeability in Cohesive Soils
Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Moon-Se ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 409~415
Kozeny-Carman equation has been generally applied to prediction of permeability for soil. The Kozeny-Carman equation has indicated fairly good results in prediction of sandy soils, but it is known that the equation is not appropriate for fine-grained soils such as cohesive soils. Therefore, a theoretical equation based on Kozeny-Carman equation is proposed to predict of permeability for cohesive soils in this paper. To develop the theoretical equation, soil properties of cohesive soil existed in the coastal areas and compacted cohesive soil used for the core of a dam were investigated and analyzed. As the results of this limited study, the most related factors between soil properties and permeability were #200 passing percentage for compacted cohesive soil, and clay content for cohesive soil at the coast areas.
A Study on Experimental Method of Blasting Vibration in Curing Concrete
Kim, Jang-Deuk ; Kim, Yong-Ha ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 19, issue 3, 2009, Pages 417~422
Tunnels that have recently been constructed are characterized by longer length than ever before and furthermore they frequently go through the ground area with poor conditions such as fractured zones. If ground strength is weak, plastic deformation of tunnel occurs, and occasionally a big fall may be brought about. Up to now, the construction work of tunneling has been executed as a sequential method placing the lining concrete after completion of excavation. Such a method requires a long time and much money to complete the tunnel. It is hard to ensure the stability of tunnel if tunnel is left undone for a long time after excavation in fracture zones or plastic grounds. For this reason, we tried to take simultaneous construction of tunnel excavation and lining concrete in order to not only shorten construction schedule but also stabilize the tunnel at the highly fractures zone as soon as possible. As preliminary consideration for simultaneous construction, in-situ tests are performed to calculate the isolation distance over which blasting vibration does not influence the strength of lining concrete. Improvement of ling form, placing method of concrete, ventilation using a dust collector, together with equipment arrangement, was made to assure the simultaneous construction work.