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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Engineering Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Engineering Gelolgy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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Relations between Physical and Mechanical Properties of Core Samples from the Bukpyeong and Pohang Basins
Kim, Hyunjin ; Song, Insun ; Chang, Chandong ; Lee, Hikweon ; Kim, Taehee ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 329~340
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.329
A geologic survey of the Bukpyeong and Pohang basins, as candidate basins for the geological storage of
, was performed to evaluate storage capacity and security. To analyze the mechanical stability of the storage reservoir and cap rocks, we measured the porosity, seismic velocity, uniaxial strength, internal frictional angle, and Young's modulus of core samples recovered from the two basins. It is costly and sometimes impossible to conduct tests over the entire range of drill holes, and continuous logging data do not yield the mechanical parameters directly. In this study, to derive the mechanical properties of geologic formations from the geophysical logging data, we determined the empirical relations between the physical properties (seismic velocity, porosity, and dynamic modulus) and the mechanical properties (uniaxial strength, internal friction angle) of the core samples. From the comparison with our core test data, the best fits to the two basins were selected from the relations suggested in previous studies. The relations between uniaxial strength, Young's modulus, and porosity of samples from the Bukpyeong and Pohang basins are more consistent with certain rock types than with the locality of the basins. The relations between the physical and mechanical properties were used to estimate the mechanical rock properties of geologic formations from seismic logging data. We expect that the mechanical properties could also be used as input data for a modeling study to understand the mechanical instability of rock formations prior to
Engineering Properties of Red Shale and Black Shale of the Daegu Area, Korea
Kwag, Seong-Min ; Jung, Yong-Wook ; Kim, Gyo-Won ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 341~352
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.341
The physical and mechanical properties of red shale and black shale exposed in the Daegu area were investigated in tests conducted to determine unit weight, absorption ratio, porosity, ultrasonic velocity, unconfined compressive strength, point load strength, slake durability index, and deterioration characteristics. XRD, XRF, and SEM analyses were also performed on the shale specimens. While the unit weights of the two shales were similar, the absorption ratio and porosity were higher in the red shale than in the black shale. Despite the higher porosity of the red shale, the ultrasonic velocity, compressive strength, and point load strength were higher in the red shale, which is an unexpected result that may be due to the presence of fine laminations in the black shale. The deterioration rate, as determined from the point load strength and the slake durability index, increased with increasing immersion time and with the acidity of the immersion liquid. The deterioration rate was higher for the red shale than for the black shale because of the higher porosity of the former.
Application of Statistical Analysis to Analyze the Spatial Distribution of Earthquake-induced Strain Data
Kim, Bo-Ram ; Chae, Byung-Gon ; Kim, Yongje ; Seo, Yong-Seok ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 353~361
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.353
To analyze the distribution of earthquake-induced strain data in rock masses, statistical analysis was performed on four-directional strain data obtained from a ground movement monitoring system installed in Korea. Strain data related to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and two aftershocks of >M7.0 in 2011 were used in x-MR control chart analysis, a type of univariate statistical analysis that can detect an abnormal distribution. The analysis revealed different dispersion times for each measurement orientation. In a more comprehensive analysis, the strain data were re-evaluated using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) considering correlations among the various data from the different measurement orientations.
and Q-statistics, based on principal component analysis, were used to analyze the time-series strain data in real-time. The procedures were performed with 99.9%, 99.0%, and 95.0% control limits. It is possible to use the MSA data to successfully detect an abnormal distribution caused by earthquakes because the dispersion time using the 99.9% control limit is concurrent with or earlier than that from the x-MR analysis. In addition, the dispersion using the 99.0% and 95.0% control limits detected an abnormal distribution in advance. This finding indicates the potential use of MSA for recognizing abnormal distributions of strain data.
Behavior and Geochemical Characteristics of Au and Heavy Metals in the Water System at the Abandoned Bonjeong Gold Mine
Cho, Kang-Hee ; Kim, Bong-Ju ; Oh, Su-Ji ; Choi, Nag-Choul ; Park, Cheon-Young ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 363~373
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.363
This study investigates the dispersion and behavior of Au and heavy metals in the water system (soil, AMD and stream sediment) at the abandoned Bonjeong gold mine, based on XRD, aqua regia, sequential extraction, and physico-chemical analyses. The XRD analyses targeted quartz and kaolinite in the mine waste soil and quartz and goethite in stream sediment. The physico-chemical analyses of AMD with increasing distance from water system showed that pH increased from 3.00 to 3.19 and Eh decreased from 450 to 396 mV. The Au content in AMD ranged from 0.68 to 0.97 mg/L upstream, but was not detected downstream. The Au content of stream sediment was 13.76 to 22.85 mg/kg. Sequential extraction from stream sediment revealed 10.84% exchangeable (STEP I), 11.09% carbonates (STEP II), 25.53% Fe-Mn oxides (STEP III), 26.62% organic matter (STEP IV), and 24.61% residual (STEP V).
A Method of Estimating the Volume of Exploitable Groundwater Considering Minimum Desirable Streamflow
Chung, Il-Moon ; Lee, Jeongwoo ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 375~380
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.375
The concept of safe yield places an emphasis on balancing groundwater withdrawal with groundwater recharge but ignores naturally occurring groundwater discharge. Because streams and their alluvial aquifers are closely linked in terms of water supply and water quality, to be properly understood and managed they must be considered together. Therefore, some districts in Kansas have reevaluated their safe-yield policies to account for natural groundwater discharge and stream-aquifer interactions by amending their safe-yield regulations to include a portion of baseflow as the minimum desirable streamflow (MDS). This study proposes a modified safe-yield policy in which the drought flow is chosen as the MDS. Baseflow separation was conducted from streamflow hydrograph and the results are presented as a flow-duration curve. The exploitable groundwater can be determined by subtracting MDS from the cumulative baseflow. This method was tested in the Musimcheon watershed, which was validated for streamflow using the SWAT-K model. The annually averaged exploitable groundwater in the whole watershed was estimated to be 86 mm. The exploitable groundwater amounts were also estimated for each subwatershed in the Musimcheon watershed.
Development of a Hydrograph Triggered by Earth-Dam-Break for Compiling a Flood Hazard Map
Lee, Khil-Ha ; Kim, Sung-Wook ; Yu, Soonyoung ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Cho, Jinwoo ; Kim, Jin-Man ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 381~387
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.381
In compiling flood hazard maps for the case of dam-failure, a scenario-based numerical modeling approach is commonly used, involving the modeling of important parameters that capture peak discharge, such as breach formation and progress. In this study, an earth-dam-break model is constructed assuming an identical mechanism and hydraulic process for all dam-break processes. A focus of the analysis is estimation of the hydrograph at the outlet as a function of time. The constructed hydrograph then serves as an upper boundary condition in running the flood routing model downstream, although flood routing is not considered here. Validation was performed using the record of the Tangjishan dam-break in China. The results were satisfactory, with a coefficient of determination of 0.974, Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSC) of 0.94, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of
. The proposed model will contribute to assessments of potential flood hazards caused by dam-break.
Thermal Conductivity from an in-situ Thermal Response Test Compared with Soil and Rock Specimens under Groundwater-bearing Conditions
Kim, Jin-Sung ; Song, Sung-Ho ; Jeong, Gyo-Cheol ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 389~398
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.389
Studies of the thermal properties of various rock types obtained from several locations in Korea have revealed significant differences in thermal conductivities in the thermal response test (TRT), which has been applied to the design of a ground-source heat pump system. In the present study, we aimed to compare the thermal conductivities of the samples with those obtained by TRT. The thermal conductivities of soil and rock samples were 1.32W/m-K and 2.88 W/m-K, respectively. In comparison, the measured TRT value for thermal conductivity was 3.13W/m-K, which is 10% higher than that of the rock samples. We consider that this difference may be due to groundwater flow because abundant groundwater is present in the study area and has a hydraulic conductivity of 0.01. It is natural to consider that the object of TRT is to calculate the original thermal conductivity of the ground, following the line source theory. Therefore, we conclude that the TRT applied to a domestic standing column type well is not suitable for a line source theory. To solve these problems, values of thermal conductivity measured directly from samples should be used in the design of ground-source heat pump systems.
Occurrence of U-minerals and Source of U in Groundwater in Daebo Granite, Daejeon Area
Hwang, Jeong ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 399~407
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.399
Some groundwater in Korea contains high U concentrations, especially where two-mica granite occurs in the Daejeon area. The elemental U in the two-mica granite is lower than that in normal granites elsewhere in the world, and U-minerals have yet to be reported in the two-mica granite in the Daejeon area. This study focuses on investigating the occurrence of U-minerals serving as the U source in groundwater. In situ gamma ray spectrometry and mineralogical analyses using EPMA were performed. U-count anomalies were identified in a granitic dyke and in hydrothermally altered granite. Uraniferous granitic dykes occur along the contact zone between the two-mica granite and mica-schist. The uraniferous parts within the two-mica granite are developed in the hydrothermally altered zone, which contains numerous quartz veinlets within a fracture zone. Hydrothermal alteration is dominated by potassic and prophylitic alteration. Uraninite is a common U-mineral in granitic dykes and hydrothermally altered granite. Coffinite and uranophane occur in the hydrothermally altered granite. All of these U-minerals are commonly accompanied by hydrothermal alteration minerals such as muscovite, chlorite, epidote, and calcite. It is concluded that granitic dyke and hydrothermally altered granite are the main source rocks of U in groundwater.
Prediction of the Area Inundated by Lake Effluent According to Hypothetical Collapse Scenarios of Cheonji Ground at Mt. Baekdu
Suh, Jangwon ; Yi, Huiuk ; Kim, Sung-Min ; Park, Hyeong-Dong ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 409~425
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.409
This study presents a prediction of a time-series of the area inundated by effluent from Heavenly Lake caused by ground behavior prior to a volcanic eruption. A GIS-based hydrological algorithm that considers the multi-flow direction of effluent, the absorption and storage capacity of the ground soil, the storage volume of the basin or the depression terrain, was developed. To analyze the propagation pattern, four hypothetical collapse zones on the cheonji ground were set, considering the topographical characteristics and distributions of volcanic rocks at Mt. Baekdu. The results indicate that at 3 hours after collapse, for both scenarios 1 and 2 (collapses of the entire/southern boundary of cheonji), a flood hazard exists for villages in China, but not for those on the North Korean side of the mountain, due to the topographical characteristics of Mt. Baekdu. It is predicted that villages in both North Korea and China would be significantly damaged by flood inundation at 3 hours elapsed time for both scenarios 3 and 4 (collapses on the southern boundary of cheonji and on the southeastern-peak area).
Behavior of Refractory Organic Matter in Leachate from Landfill Contaminated by Foot-and-mouth Disease
Kang, Meea ; An, Yaesol ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 427~434
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.427
The leachate from landfill (Andong city) contaminated by foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) contains 44%-50% hydrophilic organic matter, compared with 22%-27% in natural water bodies such as ground water, lake water, and river water. In such natural water, the organic matter content is reduced by the metabolism of microbes in the water. However, in the case of leachate-1 and -2, the concentrations of RTOC (refractory total organic carbon) and RDOC (refractory dissolved organic carbon) were higher than the initial TOC and DOC after burial. According to time elapsed after burial, the concentrations of RTOC and RDOC were decreased below the initial TOC and DOC. In the case of leachate-6 (386 days after burial), RDOC made up 91% of RTOC. This result shows that organic matter in the leachate was composed dominantly of RDOM, most of which was not removed by the metabolism of microbes. Hence, the presence and characteristics of RDOM provide a valuable indication of the effect of leachate on the quality of surface water and ground water. Such information is useful in understanding leachate environments.
A Comparison Study of the Amplification Characteristics of the Seismic Observation Sites using Coda wave, Background Noise, and S-wave Energy from Fukuoka Earthquakes Series
Kim, Jun Kyoung ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 435~445
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.435
Since design response spectrum does not reflect local soil characteristics, site specific response spectrum of observed ground motions appears relatively higher than design response spectrum at high frequency range. These problems have been pointed out from the domestic seismic design industry. Among various estimation methods, this study used the method H/V ratio of ground motion for estimating site amplification. This method has been extended to background noise, Coda waves and S waves recently for estimating site amplification. This study applied this method to the background noise and Coda wave energy. This study analysed more than 267 background noises from 15 macro earthquakes including main Fukuoka earthquake (2005/03/20, M=6.5) and then compared to results from S waves, at 8 main domestic seismic stations. The results showed that most of the domestic seismic stations gave similar results to those from S waves. Each station showed its own characteristics of site amplification property in low, high and specific resonance frequency ranges. Comparison of this study to other studies using different method can give us much information about dynamic amplification of domestic sites characteristics and site classification.
Development of a Pipe Network Fluid-Flow Modelling Technique for Porous Media based on Statistical Percolation Theory
Shin, Hyu-Soung ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 447~455
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.447
A micro-mechanical pipe network model with the shape of a cube was developed to simulate the behavior of fluid flow through a porous medium. The fluid-flow mechanism through the cubic pipe network channels was defined mainly by introducing a well-known percolation theory (Stauffer and Aharony, 1994). A non-uniform flow generally appeared because all of the pipe diameters were allocated individually in a stochastic manner based on a given pore-size distribution curve and porosity. Fluid was supplied to one surface of the pipe network under a certain driving pressure head and allowed to percolate through the pipe networks. A percolation condition defined by capillary pressure with respect to each pipe diameter was applied first to all of the network pipes. That is, depending on pipe diameter, the fluid may or may not penetrate a specific pipe. Once pore pressures had reached equilibrium and steady-state flow had been attained throughout the network system, Darcy's law was used to compute the resultant permeability. This study investigated the sensitivity of network size to permeability calculations in order to find out the optimum network size which would be used for all the network modelling in this study. Mean pore size and pore size distribution curve obtained from field are used to define each of pipe sizes as being representative of actual oil sites. The calculated and measured permeabilities are in good agreement.
Identification of Subsurface Discontinuities via Analyses of Borehole Synthetic Seismograms
Kim, Ji-Soo ; Lee, Jae-Young ; Seo, Yong-Seok ; Ju, Hyeon-Tae ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 457~465
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.457
We integrated and correlated datasets from surface and subsurface geophysics, drilling cores, and engineering geology to identify geological interfaces and characterize the joints and fracture zones within the rock mass. The regional geometry of a geologically weak zone was investigated via a fence projection of electrical resistivity data and a borehole image-processing system. Subsurface discontinuities and intensive fracture zones within the rock mass are delineated by cross-hole seismic tomography and analyses of dip directions in rose diagrams. The dynamic elastic modulus is studied in terms of the P-wave velocity and Poisson's ratio. Subsurface discontinuities, which are conventionally identified using the N value and from core samples, can now be identified from anomalous reflection coefficients (i.e., acoustic impedance contrast) calculated using a pair of well logs, comprising seismic velocity from suspension-PS logging and density from logging. Intensive fracture zones identified in the synthetic seismogram are matched to core loss zones in the drilling core data and to a high concentration of joints in the borehole imaging system. The upper boundaries of fracture zones are correlated to strongly negative amplitude in the synthetic trace, which is constructed by convolution of the optimal Ricker wavelet with a reflection coefficient. The standard deviations of dynamic elastic moduli are higher for fracture zones than for acompact rock mass, due to the wide range of velocities resulting from the large numbers of joints and fractures within the zone.
Groundwater-use Estimation Method Based on Field Monitoring Data in South Korea
Kim, Ji-Wook ; Jun, Hyung-Pil ; Lee, Chan-Jin ; Kim, Nam-Ju ; Kim, Gyoo-Bum ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 467~476
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.467
With increasing interest in environmental issues and the quality of surface water becoming inadequate for water supply, the Korean government has launched a groundwater development policy to satisfy the demand for clean water. To drive this policy effectively, it is essential to guarantee the accuracy of sustainable groundwater yield and groundwater use amount. In this study, groundwater use was monitored over several years at various locations in Korea (32 cities/counties in 5 provinces) to obtain accurate groundwater use data. Statistical analysis of the results was performed as a method for estimating rational groundwater use. For the case of groundwater use for living purposes, we classified the cities/counties into three regional types (urban, rural, and urban-rural complex) and divided the groundwater facilities into five types (domestic use, apartment housing, small-scale water supply, schools, and businesses) according to use. For the case of agricultural use, we defined three regional types based on rainfall intensity (average rainfall, below-average rainfall, and above-average rainfall) and the facilities into six types (rice farming, dry-field farming, floriculture, livestock-cows, livestock-pigs, and livestock-chickens). Finally, we developed groundwater-use estimation equations for each region and use type, using cluster analysis and regression model analysis of the monitoring data. The results will enhance the reliability of national groundwater statistics.
Characteristics of Occurrence and Distribution of Natural Radioactive Materials, Uranium and Radon in Groundwater of the Danyang Area
Cho, Byong Wook ; Kim, Moon Su ; Kim, Tae Seung ; Yun, Uk ; Lee, Byeong Dae ; Hwang, Jae Hong ; Choo, Chang Oh ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 477~491
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.477
Natural radionuclides in groundwater in the Danyang area were investigated to characterize the behaviors of uranium and radon with respect to lithology and physico-chemical components, which can aid our understanding of their occurrence, properties, and origins. To this end, a total of 100 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed, and radionuclide levels were used to construct detailed concentration maps. The water type of the groundwater, assessed using a Piper diagram, is mainly Ca-Na-
. The concentrations of uranium range from 0.02 to
) and only 1% exceed USEPA's MCL (Maximum Contaminant Level). Uranium is enriched in groundwaters of Cretaceous granites and Precambrian metamorphic rocks, whereas it is depleted in groundwaters of sedimentary rocks. The concentrations of radon range from 13 to 28,470 pCi/L (average, 2397 pCi/L). Only 15% of the samples exceed AMCL (Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level) of 4000 pCi/L. The radon concentration is highest in groundwater of Cretaceous granites and lowest in groundwater of sedimentary rocks. In conclusion, the distribution and occurrence of radionuclides are intimately related to the basic geological characteristics of the rocks in which the radiogenic minerals are primarily contained. The behavior of uranium is only weakly related to that of radon (correlation coefficient = 0.15). There are also weak correlations between radionuclides and the main chemical components, pH, EC, Eh, and well depth. Of note, the correlation coefficient between radon and
is 0.68, and that between radon and
is -0.48. Factor analysis shows that radionuclides behave somewhat independently of each other because there are no significant factors that control the behavior of chemical components as well as radionuclides. The detailed concentration maps during this study will be used to establish useful database of radionuclide distribution and geological properties throughout Korea.
Design Parameters of Riverbed Filtration Estimated from Geochemical Data
Cho, Kang-Hee ; Kim, Bong-Ju ; Ahn, Joong-Hyuk ; Rhim, Ki-Sung ; Choi, Nag-Choul ; Park, Cheon-Young ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 493~502
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.493
This study investigates the design parameters for riverbed filtration (RBF) based on the geochemistry of river water and groundwater. The study area consists of alluvium, and the area is readily affected by non-point sources of chemical contaminants in the surface environment; this is expected to affect the design parameters for RBF. River and groundwater samples were collected at three points along the river flow and at nine points along a transect normal to the river, respectively. The geochemical data indicate that the sources of individual chemical contaminants are industrial facilities and agricultural activity near the study area. In addition, The samples are mainly Ca-Na-
, Ca-Cl, and Ca-
-Cl type waters. The design parameters of RBF in the study area should consider K,
, and Cl. We divided the study area into three regions based on the concentrations of stable nitrogen isotopes: Region A, the origin of the river and denitrification; Region B, denitrification in the flow direction of tributaries; and Region C, the origin of natural soil, sewage, and anthropogenic pollution.
Characterization of Shear Waves in Busan New Port Clay: Estimation of the Coefficients of Shear Wave Velocity
Lee, Jong-Sub ; Kim, Youngseok ; Hong, Seungseo ; Yoon, Hyung-Koo ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 503~510
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.503
Shear wave velocity is widely used as an parameter for investigating subsurface characteristics and for obtaining the design parameters based on theoretical equations. This study seeks to estimate the coefficient of shear wave velocity in Busan clay via laboratory tests. Eight specimens were extracted at depths of 10, 12, 15, 20, 22, 25, 30, and 31 m. The specimens were subjected to the consolidation test to determine the relationship between effective stress and shear wave velocity. The relationship shows a non-linear trend and is similar to the results of a previous study. The coefficient shows constant coverage and a relationship between
is suggested. The results demonstrate that this coefficient could be used as a reference value to determine engineering parameters based on the shear wave velocity.
Estimation of Consolidation in Soft Clay by Field Velocity Probe
Lee, Jong-Sub ; Kim, Youngseok ; Hong, Seungseo ; Yoon, Hyung-Koo ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 511~517
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2013.4.511
The Field Velocity Probe (FVP) has been widely applied to determine the various characteristics of soils. This study seeks to estimate soil consolidation characteristics using an FVP and to increase its application in the field. The specimens were extracted from depths of 3 and 6 m at the study site, an area of soft clay in Incheon. In laboratory testing, the specimens were placed in an improved oedometer cell to measure shear wave velocity, and statistical analysis was performed to compare the results of effective stress and shear wave velocity. FVP enables increased resolution in the field because it measures the shear wave velocity every 20 cm. To estimate the condition of consolidation, we compared the results of shear wave velocities between those obtained in the laboratory and those in the field. The field conditions are used to analyze overconsolidated and normally consolidated soils at depths of 3 and 6 m, respectively. The results show that FVP is a suitable method for estimating the degree of consolidation.