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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Journal of Engineering Geology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Engineering Gelolgy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Mapping Submarine Bathymetry and Geological Structure Using the Lineament Analysis Method
Kwon, O-Il ; Baek, Yong ; Kim, Jinhwan ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 455~461
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.455
The Honam-Jeju, Korea-Japan, and Korea-China subsea tunnel construction projects have drawn significant attention since the early 2000s. These subsea tunnels are much deeper than most existing natural shallow sea tunnels linking coastal areas. Thus, the need for developing new technologies for the site selection and construction of deep subsea tunnels has recently emerged, with the launch of a research project titled "Development of Key Subsea Tunnelling Technology" in 2013. A component of this research, an analysis of deep subsea geological structure, is currently underway. A ground investigation, such as a borehole or geophysical investigation, is generally carried out for tunnel design. However, when investigating a potential site for a deep subsea tunnel, borehole drilling requires equipment at the scale of offshore oil drilling. The huge cost of such an undertaking has raised the urgent need for methods to indirectly assess the local geological structure as much as possible to limit the need for repeated borehole investigations. This study introduces an indirect approach for assessing the geological structure of the seafloor through a submarine bathymetry analysis. The ultimate goal here is to develop an automated approach to the analysis of submarine geological structures, which may prove useful in the selection of future deep subsea tunnel sites.
Monitoring of Non-point Source Pollutants Generated by a Flower Farm
Choi, Byoungwoo ; Kang, Meea ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 463~471
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.463
This paper considers the effect of rainfall on non-point source (NPS) pollutant loads. The impact of runoff on the occurrence of NPS pollutants was found to be influenced by rainfall amount, rainfall intensity, and the number of antecedent dry days (ADD), both independently and in combination. The close correlation (
= 0.9920) between rainfall and runoff amounts was demonstrated at the study site (a flower farm) over the period between January 2011 and December 2013. The relationships among pollutant levels, runoff, and rainfall was not satisfactory results except for the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (
). The correlation coefficients between
, and both runoff and rainfall, were greater than 0.92. However, the relationships of other pollutants, such as Suspended Solid (SS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (
), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP), with runoff and rainfall had correlation coefficients of less than 0.70. The roles of rainfall was different from rainfall categories on the occurrence of runoff. Instantaneous rainfall intensity was a principle factor on the occurrence of runoff following light rainfall events (total
). For rainfall of intermediate intensity (total precipitation 31-50 mm), the combined effect of both average rainfall intensity and ADD was found to influence runoff generation. We conclude that the control of NPS pollutants with the reflection of the climate change that makes the remarkable effect of amounts and forms on the rainfall and runoff.
Susceptibility Analysis for Rock Slope Hazard Using the Empirical Method
Kim, Jae Min ; Choi, Jung Chan ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 473~486
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.473
The objective of this study is to produce the rock slope hazard map on the Mt. Hwangryeong located at center of Busan Metropolitan City for evaluating the rock slope hazard susceptibility. The Mt. Hwangryoeng is located between Dongrae and Ilkwang faults and consists of various rocks such as sedimentary rock, andesitic volcanic rock, andesite, gabbro and granitic rocks. Thematic maps were carried out using ArcGIS for Database including the orientations and density of joints, strength of rock constructed through the field survey and results from previous studies. Also, rock slope hazard susceptibility for the Mt. Hwangryoeng area was studied using empirical method through checklists proposed by NDMI (National Disaster Management Institute). Results from using the empirical method indicated that rock slopes are evaluated from very stable to stable, but moderate stability has been partially presented along the edge of the mountain area.
Numerical Simulations for Optimal Utilization of Geothermal Energy under Groundwater-bearing Conditions
Kim, Jin-Sung ; Cha, Jang-Hwan ; Song, Sung-Ho ; Jeong, Gyo-Cheol ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 487~499
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.487
While the vertical open type of heat exchanger is more effective in areas of abundant groundwater, and is becoming more widely used, the heat exchanger most commonly used in geothermal heating and cooling systems in Korea is the vertical closed loop type. In this study, we performed numerical simulations of the optimal utilization of geothermal energy based on the hydrogeological and thermal properties to evaluate the efficiency of the vertical open type in areas of abundant groundwater supply. The first simulation indicated that the vertical open type using groundwater directly is more efficient than the vertical closed loop type in areas of abundant groundwater. Furthermore, a doublet system with separated injection and extraction wells was more efficient because the temperature difference (
) between the injection and extraction water generated by heat exchange with the ground is large. In the second simulation, we performed additional numerical simulations of the optimal utilization of geothermal energy that incorporated heat transfer, distance, flow rate, and groundwater hydraulic gradient targeting a single well, SCW (standing column well), and doublet. We present a flow diagram that can be used to select the optimal type of heat exchanger based on these simulation results. The results of this study indicate that it is necessary to examine the adequacy of the geothermal energy utilization system based on the hydrogeological and thermal properties of the area concerned, and also on a review of the COP (coefficient of performance) of the geothermal heating and cooling system.
Scenario-based Flood Disaster Simulation of the Rim Collapse of the Cheon-ji Caldera Lake, Mt. Baekdusan
Lee, Khil-Ha ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Choi, Eun-Kyeong ; Kim, Sung-Wook ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 501~510
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.501
Volcanic eruptions alone may lead to serious natural disasters, but the associated release of water from a caldera lake may be equally damaging. There is both historical and geological evidence of the past eruptions of Mt. Baekdusan, and the volcano, which has not erupted for over 100 years, has recently shown signs of reawakening. Action is required if we are to limit the social, political, cultural, and economic damage of any future eruption. This study aims to identify the area that would be inundated following a volcanic flood from the Cheon-Ji caldera lake that lies within Mt. Baekdusan. A scenario-based numerical analysis was performed to generate a flood hydrograph, and the parameters required were selected following a consideration of historical records from other volcanoes. The amount of water at the outer rim as a function of time was used as an upper boundary condition for the downstream routing process for a period of 10 days. Data from the USGS were used to generate a DEM with a resolution of 100 m, and remotely sensed satellite data from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used to show land cover and use. The simulation was generated using the software FLO-2D and was superposed on the remotely sensed map. The results show that the inundation area would cover about 80% of the urban area near Erdaobaihezhen assuming a 10 m/hr collapse rate, and 98% of the area would be flooded assuming a 100 m/hr collapse rate.
Stability Evaluation of failed Slope in Gohan, Korea using Numerical Analysis
Jang, Hyun-Sic ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Seo, Yong-Seok ; Jang, Bo-An ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 511~523
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.511
Limit equilibrium analysis and finite difference analysis were used to evaluate slope stability in the in Gohan, Korea, which is affected by large-scale tensile cracks and uplift. There is a thick colluvial layer in the study area and predicting ground behavior is problematic because the presence of clay makes it difficult to determine the strength parameters of the soil. Consequently, a numerical model able to reflect the collapse properties of the site was required that applied the modified boundary layer model and calculated the strength parameters using back analysis. The numerical simulation results that consider the strength parameter one does with the present situation the establishment of the pile is completed, and the simulation is able to asses ground stability in complex terrain in a reliable manner. Also the somewhat it judges with the fact that it will be able to provide the fundamental data which secures the stability of the segment where it is unstable.
Case Studies of Geophysical Mapping of Hazard and Contaminated Zones in Abandoned Mine Lands
Sim, Min-Sub ; Ju, Hyeon-Tae ; Kim, Kwan-Soo ; Kim, Ji-Soo ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 525~534
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.525
Environmental problems typically occurring in abandoned mine lands (AML) include: contaminated and acidic surface water and groundwater; stockpiled waste rock and mill tailings; and ground subsidences due to mining operations. This study examines the effectiveness of various geophysical techniques for mapping potential hazard and contaminated zones. Four AML sites with sedimentation contamination problems, acid mine drainage (AMD) channels, ground subsidence, manmade liner leakage, and buried mine tailings, were selected to examine the applicability of various geophysical methods to the identification of the different types of mine hazards. Geophysical results were correlated to borehole data (core samples, well logs, tomographic profiles, etc.) and water sample data (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and heavy metal contents). Zones of low electrical resistivity (ER) corresponded to areas contaminated by heavy metals, especially contamination by Cu, Pb, and Zn. The main pathways of AMD leachate were successfully mapped using ER methods (low anomaly peaks), self-potential (SP) curves (negative peaks), and ground penetrating radar (GPR) at shallow penetration depths. Mine cavities were well located based on composite interpretations of ER, seismic tomography, and well-log records; mine cavity locations were also observed in drill core data and using borehole image processing systems (BIPS). Damaged zones in buried manmade liners (used to block descending leachate) were precisely detected by ER mapping, and buried rock waste and tailings piles were characterized by low-velocity zones in seismic refraction data and high-resistivity zones in the ER data.
Geochemical Origins and Occurrences of Natural Radioactive Materials in Borehole Groundwater in the Goesan Area
Kim, Moon Su ; Yang, Jae Ha ; Jeong, Chan Ho ; Kim, Hyun Koo ; Kim, Dong Wook ; Jo, Byung Uk ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 535~550
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.535
The origins and varieties of natural radioactive materials, including uranium and radon-222, were examined in a drilled borehole extending to a depth of 120 m below the surface in the Goesan area. In addition to core samples, eight groundwater samples were collected at different depths, using a double packer system and bailer, and their geochemical characteristics were determined. Most of the rock samples from the drilled core consisted of granite porphyry, with sedimentary rocks (slate, carbonate, or lime-silicates) and pegmatite occurring in certain sections. The pH of samples varied from 7.8 to 8.4, and the groundwater was of a Na-
type. Uranium and thorium concentrations in the core were < 0.2-14.8 ppm and 0.56-45.0 ppm, respectively. Observations by microscope and an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) showed that the mineral containing the natural radioactive materials was monazite contained in biotite crystals. The uranium, which substituted for major elements in the monazite, appeared to have dissolved and been released into the groundwater in a shear zone. Concentrations of Radon-222 in the borehole showed no close relationship with levels of uranium. The isotopes of noble gases, such as helium and neon, would be useful for analyzing the origins and characteristics of the natural radioactive materials.
Hydrogeochemical Characteristics, Occurrence, and Distribution of Natural Radioactive Materials (Uranium and Radon) in Groundwater of Gyeongnam and Gyeongbuk Provinces
Cho, Byong Wook ; Choo, Chang Oh ; Yun, Uk ; Lee, Byeong Dae ; Hwang, Jae Hong ; Kim, Moon Su ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 551~574
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.551
The occurrence, distribution, and hydrogeochemical characteristics of uranium and radon in groundwater within different lithologies in Gyeongnam and Gyeongbuk provinces were investigated. A total of 201 groundwater samples from sedimentary rocks taking a large portion of the geology and from igneous rocks taking a small portion of the geology were analyzed and examined using factor analysis. Their radionuclide levels were used to construct detailed concentration maps. The groundwater types, defined using a Piper diagram, are mainly Ca-
with less Na-
. Among the samples, one site exceeds
of uranium (i.e., the maximum contaminant level of the USEPA) and three sites exceed 4,000 pCi/L of radon (i.e., the alternative maximum contaminant level). No samples were found to exceed the 15 pCi/L level of gross alpha or the 5 pCi/L level of radium. The concentration of uranium ranges from 0.02 to
, with a mean of
, a median of
, and a standard deviation of
. The mean concentrations of uranium for the different geological units increase in the following order: Shindong Group, Granites, Hayang Group, Yucheon Group, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The concentration of radon ranges from 2 to 8,740 pCi/L, with an mean of 754 pCi/L, a median of 510 pCi/L, and a standard deviation of 907 pCi/L. The mean radon concentrations for the investigated geological units increase in the following order: Granites, Yucheon Group, Tertiary sedimentary rocks, Hayang Group and Shindong Group. According to the factor analysis for each geological unit, uranium and radon behave independently of each other with no specific correlation. However, radionuclides show close relationships with some components. Regional investigations of radionuclides throughout the country require an integrated approach that considers the main lithological units as well as administrative districts.
Application of the Arrhenius Equation in Geotechnical Engineering
Yoon, Hyung-Koo ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 575~581
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.575
The reliable measurement of geotechnical properties in cold regions should account for their fluctuations with temperature. The objective of this paper is to introduce a chemical model based on the Arrhenius equation that can predict the properties of materials as their temperature changes. The model can monitor phases and reaction rates as they change with temperature. It has been already applied in the fields of geology, construction, chemistry, materials engineering, and food science. The application of the Arrhenius equation requires a reliable estimate of the activation energy. Therefore, this study also demonstrates several methods for evaluating activation energy in different contexts through summaries and reviews of previous research related to the Arrhenius equation. This paper may be of wide use in obtaining temperature-dependent parameters in geotechnical engineering.
Hydrogeological Characteristics of the Pyeongyang Area in the 1930s
Oh, Yun-Yeong ; Hamm, Se-Yeong ; Lee, Chung-Mo ; Liang, Wei Ming ; Kim, Gyoo-Beom ; Kim, MoonSu ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 583~595
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.583
The chemical properties and composition (pH, CaO, Fe,
) of groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) from the northern (non-carbonate bedrock) and southern (carbonate bedrock) sections of the Daedong River, Pyeongyang were analyzed and compared period of the 1930s. In the southern section, the GW and SW has a higher pH and
concentration, but lower
and Fe levels than in the north. This finding reflects a reaction that formed acid by replacing metal ions in inorganic salts by hydrogen, which resulted from the oxidation of organic material in a clay layer.
A Review of Recent Research into Coastal Groudwater Problems and Associated Case Studies
Chang, Sun Woo ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 597~608
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.597
It is widely assumed that climate change and other anthropogenically driven processes are having a serious impact on coastal environments. One such impact is saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers, which has resulted in the loss of groundwater resources. The pattern of saltwater intrusion is strongly dependent on regional hydrogeological characteristics. This study reviews recent qualitative and quantitative research into this problem, and considers relevant case studies. In addition, the characteristics of the aquifers from two representative volcanic islands (Jeju Island, Korea and Oahu Island, USA) are compared. The fundamental theory of density-dependent flow used to model saltwater intrusion processes and the programs that are widely used to simulate saltwater intrusion based on density-driven problems are also investigated. It is expected that the knowledge gained from this review of previous studies can be used to help improve groundwater management practices in Korea and also to inform future interdisciplinary studies.
Geological Safety Evaluation and Monitoring of Nuclear Facility Sites in South Korea
Lee, Hyunwoo ; Woo, Hyeon Dong ; Chun, Hyun Ju ; Im, Chang-Bock ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 609~613
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.609
The Korean Peninsula, located at the southeastern tip of the Eurasian Plate, is known to be tectonically stable, and no critical evidence has yet been found that would override the safety design of nuclear facilities in South Korea. Because a nuclear power plant, like other major social overhead capital facilities, could cause great damage to both the environment and society through an unexpected tectonic event, even one of extremely low probability, like the Fukushima accident, a defense-in-depth safety approach is required in geological and geotechnical site safety evaluation for nuclear projects. This paper introduces the regulatory procedures that are in place to confirm nuclear site safety and site monitoring (e.g., earthquakes and groundwater) systems applied to nuclear facilities in order to reduce inherent uncertainties within the site safety review of geological and seismological issues related with a NPP project.
Strategy of Technology Development for Landslide Hazards by Patent Analysis
Bae, Khee Su ; Sawng, Yeong-Wha ; Chae, Byung-Gon ; Choi, Junghae ; Son, Jeong Keun ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 615~629
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.615
This study analyzed existing patents related to real-time monitoring and detection technology for landslides on natural terrain. The purpose of patent analysis is to understand landslide hazard technology trends and to develop new advanced technology. This study searched patent data using key words related to landslide monitoring and detection in Korea, the USA, Japan, China (Hong Kong), Europe, and Taiwan. The patents were divided into five main categories and five to seven subcategories in each main category and analyzed by year, country, and applicants. The results were utilized to derive a portfolio of promising technologies for each country. The analysis results will also contribute to the development of more effective research strategies and to categorize research findings from previous studies on landslide hazards.
Classification of Groundwater Level Variation Types Near the Excavated Area of the Temporary Gulpocheon Discharge Channel
Kim, Chang-Hoon ; Lee, Su-Gon ; Hahn, Jeong-Sang ; Kim, Nam-Ju ; Jeon, Byeong-Chu ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 631~641
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.631
Characteristics of water-level changes in the Temporary Gulpocheon Discharge Channel were identified by observing and analyzing changes in the subterranean water level induced by hydrological stresses the underground aquifer. The subterranean water level refers to the level at which the pressure of subterranean water passing through the corresponding position has an equipotential value that is in equilibrium with the atmospheric pressure at that location. This water level is not fixed but changes in response to hydrological stress. It can be identified by repeatedly measuring the distance from the observation point to the surface of the subterranean water. The subterranean water-level change equation and the variance range of the hydrological curve of subterranean water over 24 hours at the Gimpo-Gimpo National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN) were used as assessment factors. The variance characteristics of the subterranean water at the 18 monitoring system locations were classified into three impact, observational wish, and non-impact. The impact type accounted for 50% of the subterranean water of and accurately reflected the water-level changes due to hydrological stress, showing that distance is the major controlling factor. The observational wish type accounted for 27.8% of the subterranean water, and one of the two assessment factors did not meet the assessment factors. The nonimpact type accounted for 22.2% of the subterranean water. This type satisfied the two assessment factors and represents subterranean water-level changes response to precipitation.
Prediction of the Fractures at Inexcavation Spaces Based on the Existing Data
Hwang, Sang-Gi ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 643~648
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2014.4.643
Understanding of fracture networks and rock mass properties during tunnel construction is extremely important for the prediction of dangers during excavation, and for deciding on appropriate excavation techniques and support. However, rapid construction process do not allow sufficient time for surveys and interpretations for spatial distributions of fractures and rock mass properties. This study introduces a new statistical approach for predicting joint distributions at foreside of current excavation face during the excavation process. The proposed methodology is based on a cumulative space diagram for joint sets. The diagram displays the cumulative spacing between adjacent joints on the vertical axis and the sequential position of each joint plotted at equally spaced intervals on the horizontal axis. According to the diagram, the degree of linearity of points representing the regularity of joint spacing; a linear trend of the points indicates that the joints are evenly spaced, with the slope of the line being directly related to the spacing. The linear points which are stepped indicates that the fracture set show clustered distribution. A clustered pattern within the linear group of points indicates a clustered joint distribution. Fractures surveyed from an excavated space can be plotted on this diagram, and the diagram can then be extended further according to the plotted diagram pattern. The extension of the diagram allows predictions about joint spacing in areas that have not yet been excavated. To test the model, we collected and analyzed data during excavation of a 10-m-long tunnel. Fractures in a 3-m zone behind the excavation face were predicted during the excavation, and the predictions were compared with observations. The methodology yielded reasonably good predictions of joint locations.