Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Journal of Engineering Geology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Engineering Gelolgy
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Field Investigation of Debris Flow Hazard Area on the Roadside and Evaluating Efficiency of Debris barrier
Lee, Jong Hyun ; Lee, Jung Yub ; Yoon, Sang Won ; Oak, Young Suk ; Kim, Jae Jeong ; Kim, Seung Hyun ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 439~447
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.439
In this study, specific sections vulnerable to debris flow damage were selected, and a complete enumeration survey was performed for the sections with debris flow hazards. Based on this, the characteristics of the sections with debris flow hazards and the current status of actions against debris flow were examined, and an efficient installation plan for a debris flow damage prevention method that is required in the future was suggested. The results indicated that in the Route 56 section where the residential density is relatively higher between the two model survey sections, facilities for debris flow damage reduction were insufficient compared to those in the Route 6 section which is a mountain area. It is thought that several sites require urgent preparation of a facility for debris flow damage reduction. In addition, a numerical analysis showed that for debris barriers installed as a debris flow damage prevention method, distributed installation of a number of small-scale barriers facilities within a valley part was more effective than single installation of a large-scale debris barrier at the lower part of a valley.
FLO-2D Simulation of the Flood Inundation Zone in the Case of Failure of the Sandae Reservoir Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk
Go, Dae-hong ; Lee, Khil-Ha ; Kim, Jin-Man ; Kim, Sung-Wook ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 449~458
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.449
The compilation of a flood hazard map is an efficient technique in managing areas at risk of flooding in the case of a dam-break. A scenario-based numerical modeling approach is commonly used to compile a flood hazard map related to dam-break and to determine the model parameters that capture peak discharge, including breach formation and progress, which are important in the modeling method. This approach might be considered less reliable if an existing model is used without local validation. In this study, a dam-break model is linked to a routing model to identify flood-risk areas in the case of failure of the Sandae Reservoir Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk. Model parameters are extracted from a DEM, and maps of land use and soil texture. The simulation results are compared with on-site investigations in terms of inundation and depth. The model reproduces the inundation zone with reasonable accuracy.
Economic Feasibility Analysis of a Tunnel Section Enlargement Method That Does Not Halt Traffic Flow
Lee, Seung Soo ; Kim, Dong-Gyou ; Seo, Jong Won ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 459~472
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.459
A recently developed tunnel section enlargement method can maintain traffic flow during construction by using a protector. By keeping traffic flowing, it can minimize the lost time and costs associated with diversions and also the accompanying environmental pollution. On the other hand, installing the protector can lengthen the construction period and increase the direct cost. This paper presents a method for analyzing the economic feasibility of tunnel section enlargement methods considering the direct construction cost and the indirect social cost. The indirect costs are divided into categories of: vehicle driving cost, travel time delay cost, and environmental pollution cost. The economic efficiency of existing technology is compared with the new method in an case study of Namsan Tunnel 3.
Characteristics and Implications of Lava Tubes from Geophysical Exploration in Jeju Island
Jeon, Yongmun ; Ki, Jin Seok ; Koh, Su Yeon ; Kim, Lyoun ; Ryu, Choon Kil ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 473~484
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.473
Geophysical exploration using electric resistivity, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and impedance high-frequency (ZHF) surveys was conducted in Gujwa-eup, Jeju City, Jeju Island, an island in the Korea Strait, to confirm the existence of new caves near known caves. The exploration revealed a number of anomaly zones, presumed to be caves; 27 sites at suitable locations and depth ranges were selected for drilling and further surveys. However, contrary to predictions, most of the anomaly zones were clinker layers or paleosols intercalated with lavas. Only five boreholes intersected caves. The clinker layers and paleosols were possibly detected as anomalies owing to their different physical properties from the other rocks. Two of the five cave-finding boreholes penetrated Yongcheon Cave; a new cave was found at the other. The two boreholes that penetrated Yongcheon Cave were drilled in areas where the cave has not been previously reported, and thus helped correct an error in the cave distribution map. The cave newly discovered in this boring exploration is 180 m long, and it is connected to the upstream part of Dangcheomul Cave (110 m). The cave contains well-developed lava helictites, lava levees, and ropy structures; carbonate speleothems such as soda straws, stalagmites, columns, and curtain shawls are also well preserved. Notably, the unique shape of the carbonate speleothems is attributed to their growth in relation to the cavern water that flowed into the cave along plant roots.
Characteristics of Large-Scale Fault Zone and Quaternary Fault Movement in Maegok-dong, Ulsan
Cho, Jin-Hyuck ; Kim, Young-Seog ; Gwon, Sehyeon ; Edwards, Paul ; Rezaei, Sowreh ; Kim, Taehyung ; Lim, Soon-Bok ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 485~498
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.485
Structural analysis for a large-scale fault in Maegok-dong, Ulsan, was carried out based on filed-works to investigate the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the fault as well as its Quaternary slip. As results, a series of repeated stratigraphy, minor faults, fracture zones, and deformation band clusters are observed over a distance of about 100 m in the first studied site consisting of sedimentary rocks, which may indicate the damage zone of a large-scale fault in this site. In the second site, mainly composed of granitic clastic rocks, a large-scale thrust fault is expected based on low-angle dipping faults showing branched and/or merged patterns. Age of the last slip on this fault was restrained as after 33,275 ± 355 yr BP based on radiocarbon dating for organic material included in the gouge zone. Dimension of fault damage zone, dominant sense of slip, and age of the slip event associated with the fault suggest that these structures have a close relationship with the Ulsan Fault and/or Yeonil Tectonic Line, which are well-known large-scale neotectonic structural features around the study area. Therefore, it is necessary to study the characteristics of the faults in detail based on structural geology and paleoseismology in order to ensure seismic and geologic stability of the buildings under construction, and to prevent geologic hazards in this area.
Artificial Accelerated Weathering of Volcanic Rocks from Ulleungdo Island
Woo, Ik ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 499~510
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.499
Artificial accelerated weathering test evaluated rocks from near the circuit road of Ulleungdo island, approximately 120 km from east of the Korean Peninsula. The tests subjected rock specimens to conditions based on the climate of the island. The specimens (such as basaltic breccia, trachyte, volcanic breccia) were preliminarily classified using a TAS diagram (XRF data) and based on the constituent minerals (XRD data); they were further classified by weathering degree according to their absorption ratios. During the artificial accelerated weathering, the absorption ratio of most of the specimens increased, but the point-load strength did not decrease in most cases, except for the volcanic breccia. The greater initial absorption ratio of trachyte rock specimen in comparison with the other specimens led to a greater increase of its absorption ratio during the artificial accelerated weathering test. The volcanic breccia specimens showed the greatest increase of absorption ratio and the biggest reduction ratio of the point- load strength during the tests. These results could aid prediction of the weathering rate of rocks in Ulleungdo island subjected to weathering processes; trachyte which appears to accelerate with time, and volcanic breccia whose mechanical strength can largely decrease in a relative short period of time. Proper measures therefore appear necessary for the prevention of natural disaster such as rock fall and landslide around the circuit road.
A Case Study of Ground Subsidence in a Groundwater-saturated Limestone Mine
Choi, Woo-Seok ; Kim, Eun-Sup ; Kang, Byung-Chun ; Shin, Dong-Choon ; Kim, Soo-Lo ; Baek, Seung-Han ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 511~524
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.511
Groundwater causing subsidence in limestone mines is uncommon, and thus relatively poorly investigated. This case study investigated the cause and possibility of future subsidence through an evaluation of ground stability at the Samsung limestone mine, Chungcheongbuk-do. The ground near the mine area was evaluated as unstable due to rainfall permeation, and subsidence in the unmined area resulted from groundwater level drawdown. Future subsidence might occur through the diffusion of subsidence resulting from the small thickness of the mined rock roof, fracture rock joints, and poor ground conditions around the mine. In addition, the risk of additional subsidence by limestone sinkage in corrosion cavities, groundwater level drawdown due to artificial pumping, and rainfall permeation in the limestone zone necessitates reinforcements and other preventative measures.
Improving the Standoff Compensation in a Density Log
Kim, Jongman ; Park, Sung Geun ; Jung, Dabin ; Kim, Yeonghwa ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 525~532
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.525
After comparing the effectiveness of standoff compensation between current techniques using data obtained from a series of borehole model experiments for standoff compensation in 2007, 2008, and 2009, a follow-up study was conducted to find a more effective standoff compensation algorithm, Comparing the results of the application of the conventional spine and ribs technique, and the spine and ribs technique in terms of apparent density shows that the standoff compensation error obtained from the latter method is more than twice that obtained from the former. The larger size of the compensation error from the spine and ribs plot using the radioactive decay equation indicates that there are no benefits in using this equation in standoff compensation. Based on these results, we propose a reverse transform spine and ribs technique by essentially combining the conventional spine and ribs technique and the spine and ribs technique in terms of apparent density.
Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Deterioration using the Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Shallow Portable Groundwater in an Agricultural Area
Yang, Jae Ha ; Kim, Hyun Koo ; Kim, Moon Su ; Lee, Min Kyeong ; Shin, In Kyu ; Park, Sun Hwa ; Kim, Hyoung Seop ; Ju, Byoung Kyu ; Kim, Dong Su ; Kim, Tae Seung ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 533~545
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.533
Spatial and seasonal variations in hydrogeochemical characteristics and the factors affecting the deterioration in quality of shallow portable groundwater in an agricultural area are examined. The aquifer consists of (from the surface to depth) agricultural soil, weathered soil, weathered rock, and bedrock. The geochemical signatures of the shallow groundwater are mostly affected by the NO
contaminants that show a gradual downward increase in concentration from the upper area, due to the irregular distribution of contamination sources. The concentrations of the major cations do not varied with the elapsed time and the NO
ions, when compared with concentrations in background groundwater, increase gradually with the distance from the upper area. This result suggests that the water quality in shallow groundwater deteriorates due to contaminant sources at the surface. The contaminations of the major contaminants in groundwater show a positive linear relationship with electrical conductivity, indicating the deterioration in water quality is related to the effects of the contaminants. The relationships between contaminant concentrations, as inferred from the ternary plots, show the contaminant concentrations in organic fertilizer are positively related to concentrations of NO
, and SO
ions in the shallow portable groundwaters, which means the fertilizer is the main contaminant source. The results also show that the deterioration in shallow groundwater quality is caused mainly by NO
derived from organic fertilizer with additional SO
contaminant from livestock wastes. Even though the concentrations of the contaminants within the shallow groundwaters and the contaminant sources are largely variable, it is useful to consider the ratio of contaminant concentrations and the relationship between contaminants in groundwater samples and in the contaminant source when analyzing deterioration in water quality.
Geotechnical Characteristics of a Waste Lime Embankment
Hong, Seung Seo ; Kim, YoungSeok ; Bae, Gu-Jin ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 547~555
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.547
This work investigated the geotechnical characteristics of an embankment constructed with a mixture of soil and waste lime. The waste lime was a by-product of the manufacture of Na
at a near by chemical factory in Incheon. Field measurements were take three years after construction, and included geotechnical tests such as field density measurement, plate loading testing, dynamic cone penetration testing, and field CBR measurement. The results indicate that the geotechnical characteristics of waste lime mixtures are suitable for embankment works.
Occurrences of Uranium and Radon-222 from Groundwaters in Various Geological Environment in the Hoengseong Area
Jeong, Chan Ho ; Yang, Jae Ha ; Lee, Yu Jin ; Lee, Yong Cheon ; Choi, Hyeon Young ; Kim, Moon Su ; Kim, Hyun Koo ; Kim, Tae Seong ; Jo, Byung Uk ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 557~576
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.557
Groundwaters in granite, gneiss, and two-mica granite formations, including faults, in the Hoengseong area are examined to determine the relationship between their uranium and radon-222 contents and rock types. The chemical compositions of 38 groundwater samples and four surface water samples collected in the study area were analyzed. Sixteen of the samples showing high uranium and radon-222 contents were repeatedly analyzed. Surface radioactivities were measured at 30 points. The uranium and radon-222 concentrations in the groundwater samples were in the ranges of 0.02-49.3 μg/L and 20-906 Bq/L, respectively. Four samples for uranium and 35 samples for radon had concentrations exceeding the alternative maximum contaminant level of the US EPA. The chemical compositions of groundwaters indicated Ca(Na)-HCO
+Cl) types. The pH values ranged from 5.71 to 8.66. High uranium and radon-222 contents in the groundwaters occurred mainly at the boundary between granite and gneiss, and in the granite area. The occurrence of uranium did not show any distinct relationship to that of radon-222. The radon-222, an inert gas, appeared to be dissolved in the groundwater of the aquifer after wide diffusion along rock fractures, having been derived from the decay of uranium in underground rocks. The results in this study indicate that groundwater of neutral or weakly alkaline pH, under oxidizing conditions and with a high bicarbonate content is favorable for the dissolution of uranium and uranium complexes such as uranyl or uranyl-carbonate.
Mechanical Properties of Oil Pollution Sand Due to Changes in the Viscosity of Oil
Hong, Seung Seo ; Bae, Gu-Jin ; Kim, YoungSeok ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 577~585
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.577
Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of oil viscosity on compaction characteristics, coefficient of permeability, and shear strength. Water permeability was also determined by using Kerosene, Engine oil, and Crude-oil as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. Direct shear test was conducted to investigate the effect of oil in the pore space in sandy ground. angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand.
Algorithm Development and Experimental Verification of Acoustic Emission First-arrival-time Determination for the Source Location
Jang, Hyun-Sic ; Choi, Jun-Young ; Jang, Bo-An ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 587~598
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.587
We examined various existing threshold methods for the determination of the first arrival time of acoustic emission (AE), and developed a new variable threshold method that could determine the first arrival time of AE more accurately and more quickly than existing methods. The new method, a modification of an existing threshold method, does not fix the threshold, but applies variable thresholds for the AE signals according to noise analysis. Two- and three-dimensional models were established to test the effectiveness of the new method. It could determine source locations of AE in a two-dimensional model 38.3% more accurately than the pre-existing threshold methods. Its accuracy improvement over the existing methods in a three-dimensional model was about 15.2%. A practical test involved measuring the source locations of AE during three-point bending tests of granite cores. The new method placed the sources closer to the fracture plane than did the pre-existing methods, indicating its superior (and quicker) ability to determine the source locations of AE.
Analysis of Economic Feasibility and Reductions of Carbon Dioxide Emission of Geothermal Heating and Cooling System using Groundwater
Kim, Jin-Sung ; Song, Sung-Ho ; Jeong, Gyo-Cheol ; Cha, Jang-Hwan ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 599~612
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.599
The development of renewable energy technologies that can replace fossil fuels is environmentally important; however, such technologies must be economically feasible. Economic analyses are important for assessing new projects such as geothermal heating-cooling systems, given their large initial costs. This study analyzed the economics and carbon dioxide emissions of: a SCW (standing column well), a vertical closed loop boiler, a gas boiler, and an oil boiler. Life cycle cost analysis showed that the SCW geothermal heating-cooling system had the highest economic feasibility, as it had the highest cost saving and also the lowest carbon dioxide emissions. Overall, it appears that geothermal systems can save money when applied to large-scale controlled agriculture complexes and reclaimed land.
Numerical Simulation for Prediction of Existing Cavity Location on Earthquake-Induced Building Collapse
Jung, Jahe ; Park, Hoon ; Kim, Kwang Yeom ; Shin, Hyu-Soung ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 613~621
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.613
The most urgent measure to be taken for a rapid rescue when a building collapse happens is to designate or predict a possible location where human beings are alive. It is, however, very difficult to find and correctly designate such cavities by conventional geophysical survey due to a pile of debris of building members. In this study, the simulation of building collapse induced by an earthquake was conducted to predict forming pattern of a existing cavities. The simulation cases included the influence of structure wall existence and height of building. Three types of building structure: five-story, ten-story and fifteen-story were prepared as a simulation case. In the case of high building, a collapse range on the inside of the building increased consequently lowering the possibility of lifeguard cavern forming. In addition, when a wall exists in the basement floor, the possibility that existing cavities could be formed increased compared to the cases without wall.
Discharge Equation Related to a Levee-Break for a Flood Hazard Map
Lee, Khil-Ha ; Kim, Sung-Wook ; Choi, Bong-Hyuck ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 623~627
DOI : 10.9720/kseg.2015.4.623
To compile a flood hazard map it is essential to identify the potential risk areas. A scenario-based numerical modeling approach is commonly used to build a flood hazard map in the case of a levee-break. The model parameters that capture peak discharge, including breach formation and progress, are important in the modeling method. In this study an earth-levee-break model is constructed under the assumption that the failure mechanism and hydraulic processes are identical for all levee-break river activities. Estimation of the hydrograph at the outlet as a function of time is highlighted. The constructed hydrograph can then serve as an upper boundary condition in running the flood routing model downstream, although flood routing is not considered in this study.