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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Engineering Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Engineering Gelolgy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Dec 1997
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Aug 1997
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Apr 1997
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A Study on Comparison and Application of Numerical Models to Experiments in Discontinuous Rock Mass
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 7, issue 2, 1997, Pages 91~99
In general, there are various approaches available in literature to model discontinuous rock masses and engineers are often confused which one to use for designing structures in rock masses. Modelling rock masses can be classified mainly into two approaches. One is discrete modelling of intact rock and discontinuities and the other is the equivalent continuum modelling. In this study five models are selected ;(1) Crack tensor model, (2) Equivalent volume defect model, (3) Damage model, (4) Micro - structure model (Parallel model and Series model), and (5) Homogenization model. Most of these models are mainly concerned with how to define additional strain due to discontinuities over the representative elementary volume (REV) and how to relate the stress field of discontinuities to that acting on the REV. The characteristics of these models are clarified by comparing with results of some laboratory tests.
Subsurtace Geological Structure of the Downstream Area of the Jangsung Lake
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 7, issue 2, 1997, Pages 101~112
Gravity and electrical resistivity surveys were carried out across the Kwangju fault in the downstream area of the Jangsung Lake, to investigate the location and geometrical feature of the fault. In the resistivity survey, dipole - dipole array method was adopted for 3 survey lines of which length and electrode spacing are 500m and 25m, respectively. Resistivity data are interpreted with aid of computer program "RESIS" which is widely used in resistivity data analysis and two dimensional resistivity profiles are obtained for 3 survey lines. Two large fracture zones relevant to the Kwangju fault are identified in the resistivity profiles. The total of 80 gravity data are observed with the mean spacing of 40 m and the exact leveling is accompanied to obtain more precise gravity anomalies. The subterranean density discontinuities calculated from the inverse method are appeared at the depths of 650rn and 120m. It is considered that the deep discontinuity indicates boundary between Jurassic granites and oveflying Cretaceous tuff formation. while, the shallow discontinuity is interpreted to be a boundary between alluvial deposits and basements. The subsurface geological structure to satisfy the observed Bouguer anomaly is determined from the iterative forward method in which results from existing surface geological informations, the inverse method, and from the resistivity interpretations are employed as an iuitial model. In conclusion, Kwangju fault is appeared to be a high angle normal fault mainly formed in tension stress filed.
Electrical Resistivity-Measurements for the Detection of Fracture Zones in the Woraksan Granitic-Bodies
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 7, issue 2, 1997, Pages 113~126
Electrical resistivity methods of dipole - dipole array profiling and Schiumberger array sounding were tested on a segment of the Woraksan granitic batholith for the research into the imaging of irregular attitudes of fracture zones in the crystaaline rock in terms of processing and interpretation schemes. By the dipole - dipole array method, inhomogeneities such as small scale of fracture zones were properly delineated down at some depth even within hard rock environment. Fracture zones were interpreted to be at the boundaries between the high amplitude zone and very low amplitude zone in the resistivity plot and they were also successfully outlined in two - dimensional layer and pseudo - three - dimensional volume constructed by the incorporation of vertical sounding data. The surface location of the fracture zones was correlated by the zero - crossing point in the VLF(very low frequency) electromagnetic data. Pseudo - three - dimensional attitudes of fracture zones were efficiently illuminated by optimum projection angle. The mean of bulk resistivity for the Woraksan granite and the near fracture zones is estimated to be approximately of 4,000 ohm - m which is much higher than the value of 700 ohm - m for the Rwachunri limesilicate environment. This difference is due to both the rock type, i.e., biotite granite vs limesilicate, and the occurrence of secondary openings of fold and fault associated with the intrusion of granite. In this study statistical analyses on the resistivity color plot were performed in terms of three representative statistical moments, i.e., standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis. The fracture zones in the standard deviation plot were characterized by the higher value, compared to the value of homogeneous portion. The upper boundary of the high resistivity zone was also successfully delineated in the skewness and kurtosis plots.
Physico-chemical Properties of the Bentonites Used for the Civil Engineering Works in Korea
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 7, issue 2, 1997, Pages 127~137
Bentonites that are used currently for the civil engineering puppose in our country were investigated to reveal their physico-chemical properties such as viscosity, swelling volume, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and chemical composition, and to compare the content of their constituting minerals and their characteristics using the X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrum methods. The content of montmorillonite in the hentonites ranges from 50 to 79%. As the content of montmorillonite in the hentonites increases, the viscosity, swelling volume, water content, methylene blue adsorption, CEC, and the amount of clay-size particles tend to increase in general. Because these properties also show good correlation within them, the results can he used to infer the characteristics of hentonites indirectly. However, a few samples do not show this correlation hetween the properties. This is probably due to the characteristics of constituting minerals of raw ore and manufacturing process. A saraple with lowest content of rnontrnofiiionite was shown to be inferior in the physico-chemical properties that are needed for the civil engineering-purpose bentonites.
Detection of Groundwater Table Changes in Alluvium Using Electrical Resistivity Monitoring Method
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 7, issue 2, 1997, Pages 139~149
Electrical resistivity monitoring methods were adopted to detect groundwater table change in alluvium. Numerical modelling test using finite element method(FEM) and field resisfivity monitoring were conducted in the study. The field monitoring data were acquired in the alluvium deposit site in Jeong-Dong Ri, Geum River where pumping test had been conducted continuously for 20 days to make artificial changes of groundwater table. The unit distance of the electrode array was 4m and 21 fixed electrodes were applied in numerical calculation and field data acquisition. "Modified Wenner" and dipole-dipole array configurations were used in the study. The models used in two-dimensional numerical test were designed on the basis of the simplifving geological model of the alluvium in Jeong Dong Ri, Geum River. Numerical test results show that the apparent resistivity pseudosections were changed in the vicinity of the pootion where groundwater table was changed. Furthermore, there are some apparent resistivity changes in the boundary between aquifer and crystalline basement rock which overlays the aquifer. The field monitoring data also give similar results which were observed in numerical tests. From the numerical test using FEM and field resistivity monitoring observations in alluvium site of Geum River, the electrical monitoring method is proved to be a useful tool for detecting groundwater behavior including groundwater table change. There are some limitations, however, in the application of the resistivity method only because the change of groundwater table does not give enough variations in the apparent resistivity pseudosections to estimate the amount of groundwater table change. For the improved detection of groundwater table changes, it is desirable to combine the resistivity method with other geophysical methods that reveal the underground image such as high-resolution seismic and/or ground penetrating radar surveys.
Determination of Granitic Core Orientation Using Healed Microcracks
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 7, issue 2, 1997, Pages 151~159
Since healed microcracks in quartz grain of grantic rocks within the same mass have identical preferred orientations, the oreintations of granitic cores may be determined if the distinctive feature of healed microcracks can be used.In this study, the possibility of determining orientations of granitic cores using healed microcrack orientations were examined using samples from the borehole drilled to 200 m in depth at the Hongcheon. Eight sections whose core recoveries are 100% were selected. Two to six samples were collected in each section and orientations of healed microcracks in each sample were measured. Healed microcracks in samples from each section show almost identical orientations. The error range for sections with only one preferred orientations is within
, indicating that correct orientations of core can be determined. However, orientations of cores in sections which have 2 or more healed microcrack orientations should be determined using orientations as well as distribution of peaks of orientations. The error range for this case is lager than former one and is within
. The orientations of joint which is very impontant factor for designing tunnel and slope stability can be determined using healed microcrack orientation in cores.