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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Engineering Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Engineering Gelolgy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Dec 1998
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Aug 1998
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Apr 1998
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Characteristics of Acoustic Emission by Expansive Cement Induced Rock Fractures
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 8, issue 3, 1998, Pages 207~213
A study was conducted to determine the characteristics of acoustic emission(AE) events generated by the expansive cement induced rock fracturing. The dominant frequency and the maximum amplitude of the AE events are changed in relation to the rate of expansive pressure development in the hole. The dominant frequencies are in the range of 150∼230kHz for the small hole tests and 400∼500kHz for the large hole test. The maximum amplitudes are in the range of 0.015∼0.050cm/sec and 0.025∼0.064cm/sec, respectively. The fact that AE events of higher amplitude with higher frequency on the large hole test and lower amplitude with lower frequency on the small hole tests were detected, may strongly imply that the amount of energy consumed for a macro-crack in both tests may be similar. The expansive cement induced crack propagates stably without any distinguished event having higher amplitude and this implies that a macro-crack is a result of stable growth of micro cracks.
A Study of the Influence of Strain Gauge Location and Contact Conditions by Loading Platens on the Mechanical Behavior of Rock Specimens
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 8, issue 3, 1998, Pages 215~224
In this study, total strain was measured by LVDTs and local strains on the surface of specimens were measured by strain gauges. And axi-symmetrically elastoplastic FEM analyses was carried out for cylindrical specimens. Considering the influence of the restraint induced by the loading platen, in the case of H/D=1, the strain distribution on the side of a specimen is obviously affected by the condition of platen contact. Furthermore, it is clear that the larger H/D ratio becomes, the smaller the influence to the strain distribution is. For the smooth contact condition, the strain on the side is not influenced by the stiffness of the specimen, the shape and the scale effect, the strain distribution coincides with the nominal total strain. Whereas, in the case of rough contact condition, the strain distribution is remarkably affected. It is made clear that strain responses of hard rock specimens may more sensitive than these of soft rock specimens as a results of interaction between loading platens and specimen and the uniaxial strength of specimens may strongly depends on this interaction and stress-strain relation is affected by the contact condition.
Elasto-Plastic Analysis of Underground Openings Considering the Effect of Excavation
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 8, issue 3, 1998, Pages 225~234
The behavior of the underground opening depends mainly on the magnitude of the initial stress existing before excavation and on the stress redistribution due to the excavation. In the case of elasto-plastic materials such as rock mass, as the structural behavior of surrounded opening due to excavation depends on the stress path, methods and sequence of excavation have influences on the results of numerical analysis. Therefore, in order to design underground openings with large cross-section such as underground nuclear power plants, radioactive waste disposal cavems, oil storage caverns, and so on more reasonably it is desirable to consider the effect of the excavation sequence in the analysis. In this paper, the underground structure is analyzed using the finite element method and the distinct element methods with a view to review the the effect of the excavation sequence. Based on the results of the analysis the followings are discussed : influence of excavation shape and sequence, effect of structural reinforcements, influence of multi caverns.
A Study on the Development of a Procedure to Identify Gravel Aggregates for Bituminous Surfaces
Jung Chan Choi ;
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 8, issue 3, 1998, Pages 235~245
Adquate friction resistance is needed to prevent pavement slipperiness and to allow vehicles to stop in a reasonable distance. Performance of the aggregates is reduced over time by wear and polishing as a consequence of vehicular traffic. In this research, the objective was to develop a laboratory method to test Indiana gravel aggregates to predict field performance, and determine causes for the range of values amang gravel aggregates. The assessment of gravel sources was primarily on the basis of individual rock types and those proportions comprising the gravel. Polish and friction values were determined in the laboratory with the British Wheel and Pendulum. The gravels of this study were composed primarily of carbonate aggregates that showed considerable variability in polishing thresholds. Igneous and metamorphic constituents polished to a lesser degree and are expected to improve overall aggregate performance. Estimates of the IFV (Initial Friction Value) and PV (Polished Value) for crushed gravel samples can be made based on the percentage of rock types present in the sample. A weighted average is used to make this calculation.
Hydrochemical Characteristics of Natural Mineral Water in the Daebo and Bulguksa Granites
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 8, issue 3, 1998, Pages 247~259
Groundwater quality of the natural mineral water was investigated in hydrochemical aspects in order to ensure that mineral water meets stringent health standards. There exist 20 mineral water plants in the Daebo granite and 4 mineral water plants in the Bulguksa granite, respectively. Both granite areas show some differences in water chemistry. The pH, EC, hardness, total ionic contents in groundwater of the Daebo granite area are higher relative to those of the Bulguksa granite area. The content of major cations is in the order of Ca>Na>Mg>K, while that of major anions shows the order of $HCO_3>SO_4$>Cl>F. The fact that the
type is most predominant among water types may reflect that the dissolution of plagioclase that is most abundant in granitic rocks plays a most important role in groundwater chemistry. Representative correlation coefficients between chemical species are variable depending on geology. In the Daebo granite area,
show relatively good correlationships. In the Bulguksa granite area, fairly good correlationships are found among some components such as K-Mg(0.93),
, and K-F(0.90). According to saturation index, most chemical species are undersaturated with respect to major minerals, except for some silica phases. Groundwater is slightly undersaturated with respect to calcite, whereas it is still greatly undersaturated with respect to dolomite, gypsum and fluorite. Based on the phase equilibrium it is clear that groundwater is mostly in equilibrium with kaolinite and becomes undersaturated with respect to feldspars, evolved from the stability area of gibbsite during water-rock interaction. While the activity of silica increases, there is no remarkable increase in the acivities of alkali ions and pH, which indicates that some amounts of silicic acid dissolved from silica phases as well as feldspars were provided to groundwater. It is concluded that chemical evolution of groundwater in granite aquifers may continue to proceed with increasing pH.
Discontinuity Analysis Using Well Log Methods from a Borehole-PABH1 in the Pungam Sedimentary Basin
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 8, issue 3, 1998, Pages 261~273
Multiple well log analysis technique consisting of geophysical well log and geological core log has been made to analysis the discontinuities of a test borehole-PABH1 located in Pungam sedimentary basin, Sosok, Hongchon-gun, Kangwon Province. Well log methods consist of normal resistivity log, focussed log, single point resistance log, SP log, gamma log, natural gamma log as well as acoustic televiewer log and borehole television log. Core scanning technique was used as an aid for geological core log. The analysis was made by comparing firstly the televiewer and core discontinuities, and then the results from conventional geophysical log analysis were compared to those from core log and acoustic televiewer log. Fractures deduced from the acoustic televiewer log coincide well with discontinuities shown on the core and conventional geophysical logs. Particularly close coincidence could be observed between fractures derived from acoustic televiewer and conventional geophysical log analysis. It has been noted that the geophysical logs such as, caliper, resistivity, density and high resolution gamma gamma curves are effective in delineating the fractures. For example the ratio between density and resistivity (BRD/SHN) provides also an alternative indicator for discerning the fracture condition in the study area.
Microcrack Development in the Pocheon Granite due to Cyclic Loading
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 8, issue 3, 1998, Pages 275~284
Deformation behavior and microcrack development due to uniaxial compressive cyclic loading in the Pocheon granite were investigated using the ultrasonic velocity measurements and the differential strain analysis(DSA). Most microcracks were developed along the direction parallel to the loading axis. Microcracks developed at the early stage of cyclic loading were formed by propagation of pre-existing cracks. Ultrasonic velocity measurement, DSA and measurement of permanent deformation are good tools to represent microcrack development in rock. Since results from each method are slightly different, microcrack development should be interpreted from all three methods. The magnitude of microcracks developed at the early stage of cyclic loading under 80% loading level is twice compared with those under 70% loading level. The highest volumetric crack strain is about 3000, indicating that the Pocheon granite will fail with 0.3% occupation of microcrack in volume.
Subsurface Geological Structure of the Southwestern Part of the Ogcheon Zone by Gravity and Magnetic Surveys
The Journal of Engineering Geology, volume 8, issue 3, 1998, Pages 285~296
As a part of the study for understanding the deep geological structure of the Ogcheon Zone, both gravity and geomagnetic surveys are performed. A 70km survey line of which direction is nearly perpendicular to major faults in the southern tip of the Zone. The observed data are corrected and transformed into Bouguer and total magnetic intensity anomalies, respectively. Recent studies for petrology and geochemistry in the southwestern Ogcheon Zone in the vicinity of the survey line are reviewed for better interpretation. Both gravity and geomagnetic anomalies abruptly change around Janghung area, the southern boundary of the, Ogcheon Zone. This rapid increase of Bouguer anomaly around Janghung area can be explained by a deep seated normal fault with fairy large displacement between Precambrian gneisses and the denser intermediate plutonic rocks. It is believed that the fault acted an important role for the formation and evolution of the Ogcheon Zone. A pseudomagnetic intensity anomaly is calculated from the Bouguer anomaly assuming that the both anomalies are associated with the common source. From the origin of the survey line to the 50km point, the calculated anomaly coincides with observed magnetic anomaly. Whereas both anomalies show negative correlation in the outside 50km. From the residual Bouguer anomalies, the subterranean geological structure is provided through the iterative forward method. The initial model is obtained from informations about the surface geology as well as the results of the inverse method.