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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume 22, Issue 2 - Dec 1992
Volume 22, Issue 1 - May 1992
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Electron Microscopic Study on the Pineal Body of the Cat
Choi, Jae-Kwon ; Bae, Choon-Sang ; Oh, Chang-Seok ; Lee, Jung-Hun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 1~14
Parenchyma of the cat pineal body consisted of pinealocytes and glial cells. The pinealocyte, predominant cell type, was characterized by having large mitochondria with pale matrix, abundant polyribosomes, moderately-developed Golgi apparatus, centrioles and occasional cilia. The pinealocyte had one thick and long cytoplasmic process at the one pole of the cell, and slender and shorter processes at the other pole, and in addition occasional short processes from the cell body. These processes contained longitudinally arranged microtubules, and a few mitochondria. Thick processes teminated as bulgings either in the intercellular process-rich area, or in the perivascular border which was formed by glial cell processes. These endings of pinealocyte processes had many small vesicles, mitochondria, and occasional dense bodies. Glial cells with abundant filaments of intermediate type and clear cytoplasmic matrix were fibrous astrocyte. Perikarya of the astrocytes had small and dense mitochondria, moderately developed Golgi apparatus, dense bodies and variable amount of intermediate filaments. Glial cell processes run through the intercellular spaces among the pinealocyte processes. Glial cell of protoplasmic type had no or a few filaments, but it had well-organized rough endoplasmic reticulum, dense mitochondria, well developed Golgi apparatus and many dense granules. Intercellular canaliculi formed by adjacent pinealocytes and glial cell processes were often noted. Within the parenchyma, sympathetic and parasympathetic axons and their endings were noted. These endings were present mostly in the intercellular spaces without having membrane specialization, however, in rare instances, ending with small clear and dense cored vesicles, and large dense cored vesicles formed specialized synapse with a pinealocyte process. Within the perivascular spaces nerve fibers and endings, Schwann cells and pericyte were noted. In rare case pinealocyte process penetrated into the perivascular space through the interuptions of glial border. These results suggest that pinealocyte of the cat has less significance in secretory function and is rather neural type of cell.
Comparative Study on the Fine Structure of Small Cells in the Space of Disse of Various Animal Livers
Hwang, Seung-Jun ; Shin, Young-Chul ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 15~32
This study was an attempt to investigate and compare the fine structure of small cells in the space of Disse of various animal livers. All animal livers contained small cells with or without lipid droplets and the one with lipid droplet seemed to be more developed and show an abundance of activity in function. The fine structure of the small cells observed in the nonmammals was similar to that of Ito cell in the mammal. The electron density of the small cells was similar to that of other cell types in the same animal liver. The cisternal dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus was more predominant in the mammalian Ito cells. In the nonmammalian, aquatic vertebrates, however, lysosomes and filaments are much more abundant in the Ito cell and its abundant cytoplasmic processes rich in filaments were usually extended between the parenchymal cells. The disparity in size of organelles and numbers of lipid droplets in the small cells showed a tendency similar to those of other cell types in the same animal. From these results, it is considered that the small cells in the space of Disse is a Ito cell and the Ito cell without lipid droplets differentiates into the one containing lipid droplets according to the characteristics of the different animals respectively, and that the Ito cells in the mammals are more active in metabolic function, while those in the nonmammalian aquatic vertebrates are abundant in support of parenchyme.
Some Ultrastructural Observations of the Secretory Processes in Rat Adrenal Medullary Aminergic Cells by TAGO Method
Rhyu, Im-Joo ; Uhm, Chang-Sub ; Suh, Young-Suk ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 33~41
To clarify the exocytotic features in adrenal medullary aminergic cells, the authors observed rat adrenal medulla prepared by the TAGO method with transmission electron microscope. Rat adrenal medulla contains two types of aminergic cells, adrenergic and noradrenergic, as described. They were present as a group. In a single group both adrenergic and noradrenergic cells were present, but the same kind of cells showed the tendency forming small groups. Adrenergic cells were characterized with the granules having relatively electroluscent cores. These granules were relatively uniform in size, and the cores filled the granules with only thin halos. Noradrenergic cells were characterized with the granules of various size and forms. Most of the cores of these granules were generally more electron-dense than those of the adrenergic cells and only partly filled the granules without forming the halos. But, some granules were very similar in the shape and electron density as those of the adrenergic cells. Even empty-looking granules were present. Exocytotic figures with the classical omega figures were observed in both types of aminergic cells, but they were more frequent in adrenergic cells. These figures were mainly present along the plasma membranes toward the capillary. The excreted materials could be identified in the cleft of the omega figures. Apocrine-like secretory patterns but without cytoplasmic rims were identified in noradrenergic cells. Some vesicles, possibly formed from the cytoplsmic tubular systems were released. Some irregular lamellar structures of varying sizes were also observed. They looked like membranous structures sneaking through the plasma membranes. We could not, however, found any evidences of their involvement in exocytotic processes. These were present toward the capillaries and found only in the adrenergic cells. The authors conclude that the secretory processes in adrenal chromaffin cells may include not only the classical exocytotic processes but also the unusual direct secretions of granules or parts of cellular organelles. The membranous lamellar structures may indicate the remnants of excreted granules or functionally inactive excess membranes of the organelles removed from the cytoplasm.
A Quantitative Ultrastructural Study on the Effects of Ischemia and Reperfusion on the Rat and Cat Hearts
Park, Young-Sik ; Uhm, Chang-Sub ; Suh, Young-Suk ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 42~54
To understand the structural changes of the myocardial myocytes and endothelial cells in ischemic and reperfused heart, and to elucidate their roles in those conditions, the authors observed cat and rat myocardium ultrastructurally and evaluated them with morphometric techniques. In cat, mild ischemia and moderate degree reperfusion injury was induced by ligation of the anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery and reperfusion. In rat, severe ischemia and irreversible reperfusion iniury was made using in vitro Langendorff techniques. In normal cat myocytes, the volume densities of cytoplasm, myofibrils, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum and T tubules were
S.D.) respectively, and the myofibril/mitochondria ratio was
. The numerical density and average volume of mitochondria were
respectively. In normal cat endothelial cells, the volume densities of cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vesicles, tubular systems (including endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus) and mitochondria were
respectively. The mean thickness of endothelial cells was
. The numerical density and average volume of cytoplasmic vesicles were
respectively. In cat myocytes which received mild ischemic injury, the volume densities of organelles were not changed significantly in ischemic and reperfusion states. In reperfusion group myocytes, the numerical density of mitochondria was decreased significantly and the average volume was increased significantly. In endothelial cells, the volume density of tubular system in ischemic group and the average volume of cytoplasmic vesicles in reperfusion group were increased significantly. In rat myocytes which received severe ischemic injury, the volume density and average volume of mitochondria were increased significantly, and the volume density of sarcoplasmic reticulum and numerical density of mitochondria were decreased significantly in both ischemic and reperfusion groups. In ischemic and reperfused endothelial cells, the volume density and numerical density of cytoplasmic vesicles, the volume density of cytoplasm were decreased significantly. The volume densities of tubular system were increased significantly in both ischemic and reperfused groups. The volume density of mitochondria in ischemic group and the average volume of cytoplasmic vesicles in reperfusion group showed significant increase. The authors, based on the above observations, conclude that the mitochondria of myocytes and the cytoplasmic vesicles of endothelia are the first group of targets in ischemic and reperfusion injury and in this respect, the degree of ischemic insult is not significant. The role of myocyte mitochondria in reperfusion injury may be insignificant, but endothelial cells may contribute actively to reperfusion injury.
Identification and Seed Transmission of Peanut Viruses Occurenced in Honam Area
So, In-Young ; Cheong, Seong-Soo ; Chon, Kil-Hyong ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 55~69
Viral disease incidence in the peanut fields at Iri, Kochang, Iksan and Puan in Chonbuk province was 0.93% on July and 8.46% on August in 1991. The causal pathogen was identified as peanut stripe virus (PStV) by the results of host plant reaction, immunological assay and observation of virus particles. Seed transmission rates of collected seeds from diseased plants ranged from 12.9 to 14.8% at peanut fields. PStV transmission was higher in small than in large seeds. Seed transmission of PStV was correlated with the age of the plant when inoculated; infection of young plants resulted in more seed transmission than did infection of old plants. Seed transmission of PStV was correlated with pod formation stages when inoculated at the 45th day after sowing; formed seeds for 2 weeks after inoculation resulted in more seed transmission than did formed seeds after 4 weeks. In seed transmission, this causal virus was moved to embryo and cotyledon through gynophore, pod, and funicle from leaves.
Electron Microscopic Studies on Antibacterial Action of Ulmus pumila L. Extract
Sung, Tae-Kyung ; Lee, Heung-Yong ; Kim, Chi-Kyung ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 70~78
Antibacterial effects of the water-soluble extract of Ulmus pumila L. on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were studied by cylinder plate dilution method. The cells of S. aureus and E. coli treated with the extract were comparatively examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopies for their morphological features. The normal cells of S. aureus and E. coli showed thypical coccus and rod shapes, respectively, but the cells of S. aureus treated with the extract showed rough surface structures with many granular protrusions and were destroyed to form ghost cells by liberating their cytoplasmic components. E. coli cells treated with the extract were destoryed without enlarging in size and producing granules on their surfaces.
Electron Microscopic Study on the Effects of the Kainic Acid in the Duck Retina
Kim, Moo-Kang ; Lee, Geun-Jwa ; Shin, Tae-Gun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 79~88
In order to identify the effects of the kainic acid in the retina kainic acid (120 nmol/
) were injected through the pars plana of the ciliary body into the duck eye ball at 7th day after hatching. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation on the 1st, 4th and 10th day after injection of the kainic acid. The specimen was processed for the light and electron microscopes respectively. The results obtained were as followings 1. The inner nuclear, inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers of the retina showed marked changes in all of the groups. 2. The cells in the inner nuclear layer showed marked degenerative changes of the organelles including the pyknoses and destruction of the nucleus on the 1st day after injection. These destructive changes of the cells were progressively disappeared until the 10th day after injection. 3. After injection of the kainic acid the neurites of the inner plexiform layer were swollen at the first, and thereafter those changes were gradually disappeared until the 10th day. 4. In the ganglion cell defected by the kinic acid, the enlargement and segmentation of the endoplasmic reticulum and pyknosis of the nucleus were-observed in all the groups, although the lipid droplets were only shown in the 4th day. From the above results, the evidence suggests that kainic acid gives to the toxic effect on the nuurons of the retina with exception of the photoreceptors.
Effects of Cyclophosphamide in the Epididymis of the Rat I. Caput
Cho, Kwang-Phil ; Kim, Saeng-Gon ; Jung, Hae-Man ; Kim, Jeong-Sang ; Kim, Young-Gon ; Rho, Young-Bok ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 89~102
This research was undertaken to determine the effects of the anticancer and immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide (CP) on the epididymal caput of the male rat in terms of ultrastructural alteration and protein analysis by SDS-PAGE at different groups; control group, 1 week group, 3 weeks group, 5 weeks group were treated with saline (control group) or CP at doses of 20 mg/kg/week, 1 time a week, respectively. In the cytoplasm of the principal cells on the epididymis, the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes were significantly swollen or disrupted. The lumens of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) were also swollen, and the number of Golgi vesicles were increased, respectively. It is suggested that treatment with CP alters the specific cell organelles in the epididymis. CP caused changes in protein concentrations in caput of epididymis after CP treatment. Total proteins of 32 to 37 species such as lactate dehydrogenase, carnitine acetyltransferase and succinate dehydrogenase were expressed in the caput fluid. Then the more CP was increased, the more concentration of proteins caused to decrease, synthesize or increase in epididymis. In contrast to the control group, in particular carnitine acetyltransferase and the other 9 proteins in the caput fluid were decreased or disappeared, respectively, whereas lactate dehydrogenase and the other 5 proteins in the caput fluid were increased or synthesized, respectively. The other proteins are not showed distinctive difference. These alterations could be direct mediated by toxic effects of the drug on the epithelium or be secondary to changes in the spermatozoa as a result of the CP treatment.
A Morphologic Study on the Differentiation of Chicken Embryo Lens
Deung, Young-Kun ; Kim, Wan-Jong ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 103~112
Embryonic and postembryonic chicken lenses have been analyzed morphologically to investigate the differentiation of the lens fibers by light and electron microscopes. Morphogenesis of the chick lens was initiated as lens epithelial cells were proliferated and proceeded to elongate the cells characteristically at posterior side, by which the disintegrations of nuclei were accompanied during the early developmental stages. Primary and secondary lens fibers were identified at the late developmental stages, while interconnections between neigh-boring cells well developed and denucleation commenced. On day of hatching, the chicken lens fibers contained few cell organelles within the cytoplasm and showed the homogeneity of cytoplasmic appearance. On day 10 of hatching, the lens were fully differentiated; fiber cells, in which most cell organelles except polysomes were disappeared, showed a slender and elongated prismatic shape. At that stage gap junctions were particularly developed or cytoplasmic ridges are closely interlocked between adjoining cells. In conclusion, differentiation of chick lens involves the division of epithelial cells, the elongation into fiber cells, the loss of cell organelles and the increase of gap junction.
Effect of Chlorambucil as Extrinsic Factor on Aging Process of Rat Heart II. Cytochemical and Biochemical Study
Park, Won-Hark ; Chung, Hyeung-Jae ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 113~127
The present study was investigated to elucidate the effects of chlorambucil the heart tissue of various-aged rats. The male rats ranging from 3 to 36 months were used. The cytochemical and biochemical changes in myocardium of the rats were studied in the aspect of free radical roles in aging process. With the goals of evaluating the potential roles of free radicals in aging process, evidence was shought for alterations of myocardial lipid peroxide levels in control and chlorambucil treated rats. The result are summarized as follows: 1. Cytochemical studies showed that the activities of
-ATPase and succinic dehydrogenase increased with age. However, these enzyme activities were decreased with treatment of chlorambucil, when compared with control group. Interestingly it was observed that chlorambucil treatment increased the activity of acid phosphatase from 6 months upto 18 months, and decreased after 18 months. 2. The lipid peroxide level in myocatdium was increased with age; chlorambucil-treated group was higher than that of control group. 3. Age-dependent increase in activities of monoamine oxidase, xanthine oxidase and catalase was observed. But the increase of catalase activity was higher than that of monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity in control group. However, in chlorambucil-treated group, age-dependent decrease of these enzyme activities was observed, and catalase activity was more significant particularly with regard to other enzymes. In consequently, the morphological alterationsof myocardium due to chlorambucil treatment was exclusively observed. We demonstrate that this alteration is occured by lipid peroxidation upon chlorambucil treatment.
Ultrastructural Study on the Poison Secreting Organ of the Spider
Moon, Myung-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 1, 1992, Pages 128~142
Ultrastructure of the poison secreting organ in the spiders, Agelena limbata Thorell and Nephila clavata L. Koch were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The venom glands located its secretory sac portion in cephalothorax and excretory duct in the fang of chelicera are one pair of simple alveolar glands composed of three kinds of basic tissues-outer spiral musculature, middle myoepithelium and inner glandular epithelium. The muscle cells of the venom gland junctioned with the motor nerve endings at neuromuscular contact area are composed of smooth muscle fibers, whereas the myoepithelial cells between the musculature and inner glandular epithelium have compact collagenous fibers within the cytoplasm. The glandular epithelial cells which arranged along the concentrical location are subdivided into basal light cells and apical dark cells according to electron densities of their cytoplasms.