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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume 22, Issue 2 - Dec 1992
Volume 22, Issue 1 - May 1992
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Electron Microscopic Study on the Parafollicular Cells of the Thyroid Gland of the Head and Neck-Irradiated Rats
Kim, Young-Sik ; Yang, Nam-Gil ; Ahn, E-Tay ; Ko, Jeong-Sik ; Park, Kyung-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Gook ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 1~14
This experiment was performed to study the morphological responses of the parafollicular cells of rat following X-ray irradiation. Male rats were divided into normal and experimental groups. The head and neck region of the rat, under sodium thiopental anesthesia, was exposed to 3,000 rads or 6,000 rads of radiation in a single dose, respectively. The source was a Mitsubishi Linear Accelerator ML-4MV. The target to skin distance was 80 cm, and the dose rate was 200 rads/min. The rate of experimental groups were sacrificed on the 6th hour, 2nd and 6th day after X-ray irradiation. Pieces of the tissue taken from the thyroid gland were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde-1.5% paraformaldehyde (0.1M Millonig's phosphate buffer, pH 7.3), and in 1% osmium tetroxide (0.1M Millonig's phosphate buffer, pH 7.3), and embedded in araldite mixture. The ultrathin sections stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate were observed with JEM 100 CX-II electron microscope. The results were as follow; 1. Two types of the parafollicular cells, according to their electron densities, were found, i. e., light cells and dark cells. 2. Three types of the parafollicular cells, according to their sizes of secretory granules were found, i.e., small granule cells (
), medium granule cells (
), and large granule cells (
). 3. The differential ultrastructural changes of the cells according to their cell types, i.e., dark and light cell, or small, medium and large granule cells, were hardly observed in the time and dose range covered by this study. 4. The morphological changes of the parafollicular cells were not pronounced after exposure to 3,000 rads of X-ray. 5. Swollen cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and partial cytolysis were observed after exposure to 6,000 rads of X-ray. 6. Above results suggest that the parafollicular cells showed the alterations of mitochondrial and granular endoplasmic reticular swelling, and partial cytolysis, but only in doses of 6,000 rads.
An Ultrastructural Study on the Epithelial Cells of the Rabbit Gallbladder after Common Bile Duct Ligation
Yim, Soo-Jae ; Yang, Nam-Gil ; Ahn, E-Tay ; Ko, Jeong-Sik ; Park, Kyung-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Gook ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 15~29
The gallbladder is known to have the function of the storage and the concentration of the bile produced by the liver. This function is carried out by the removal of water and inorganic electrolytes. Extrahepatic cholestasis or the impairment of excretion of the bile leads to the distension and loss of the function of the gallbladder. The purpose of this study was to examine the ultrastructural characteristics of the normal gallbladder epithelial cells, and their structural changes induced by the ligation of common bile duct of the rabbit. Common bile duct ligation was performed under ether anesthesia. The rabbits were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th day, respectively after operations. The tissue blocks of the gallbladder were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde-1.5% paraformaldehyde prior to fixation in 1% osmium tetroxide, and embedded in the araldite mixture, and observed with JEM 100 CX-II electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. The normal gallbladder epithelium of adult rabbit demonstrated two cell types, the ordinary epthelial cell and the dark cell. The dark cells have electron dense cytoplasm, and were found much infrequently, whereas ordinary epthelial cells were found quite numerous. 2. The ordinary epthelial cells of normal gallbladder were provided with the regular microvilli at the free surface and the images of pinocytotic activities in the apical cytoplasm, and exhibit highly convoluted lateral surfaces with elaborated microfolds. These figures of the cells suggest that they are resorptive in functional activity. 3. In the early stages (1st, 3rd, 5th day groups) following the ligation, the apical cytoplasm of some cells is protruding from the free surface and lost their microvilli. Numerous mucous granules filled in the apical and supranuclear cytoplasm compactly. 4. In the late stages (7th, 14th day groups) following the ligation, many light cells containing mumerous mucous granules are seen, between the ordinary epthelial cells. Mucous granules are fused each other, and are discharged into the lumen from the apical cytoplasm. The lateral membranes are straight or undulating without any interdigitations. From the above results, it was concluded that in the cholestasis induced by the common bile duct ligation, there is a tendency for the mucosal epithelium of the rabbit gallbladder to have secretory rather than an absorptive function.
Ultrastructural Study on the Substantia Nigra of the Head-Irradiated Rats
Bae, Hack-Gun ; Yang, Nam-Gil ; Ahn, E-Tay ; Ko, Jeong-Sik ; Park, Kyung-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Gook ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 30~45
An experimental study on the acute irradiation effects on the substantia nigra of head-irradiated rats were carried out. Rats anesthetized with sodium thiopental, were exposed only on their head areas with a single dose of 3,000 rads or 6,000 rads, respectively. Radiation was produced by Mitsubishi linear accelerator at the speed of 200 rads/min. Aminals were sacrificed on 6 hours, 2 days and 6 days following irradiations. By the perfusion fixation through the heart, rats were fixed with 1% glutaraldehyde-1% paraformaldehyde solution. Two hours later, brains were exposed and immersed in the same fixatives over night. Tissue blocks from subtantia nigra were punched out, and they were refixed in the 2% osmium tetroxide solution. Blocks were dehydrated through alcohol series, and embedded in the araldite mixture. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate solutions, From the ultrastructural study, following results were made: 1. Six hours after irradiation, severe depletion of synaptic vesicles was occurred in the many axon terminals of the nigral neuropil. 2. Dramatical decrease of lysosomes and dense granules was observed. 3. Two days following irradiation, alterations of ribosomes, granular endoplasmic reticula, mitochondria, etc, were noticed. 4. Many of the malformations were seen to be repaired on the 6th day. 5. Above results were interpreted as follows. At the acute stage of heavy irradiation, neurotransmitters in the substantia nigra are released severely. But they are recovered within 6 days. It is concluded that acute head-irradiation may result severe disturbance of nigral motor control function during the first few days.
A Study of the Classification of Different Types of the Golgi Apparatus around the Bile Canaliculus in the Rat Liver
Chung, Min-Hwa ; Shin, Young-Chul ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 46~65
In this study, we have made morphological and cytochemical observations to investigate the type of Golgi apparatus around the bile canaliculus. The animal (Wister,
) were divided into 4 groups; normal, hydrochol, colchicine and hydrochol-colchicine. The Golgi apparatus is classified into 16 different types from 4 different groups. In the normal group, we could observe 12 different types of the sixteen. Type I which showed convexed cisterns facing the bile canaliculi was most abundant of the types. In the hydrochol group, 14 types were observed. Type VII and type I showed convexed cisterns facing the bile canaliculus and were abundant. In the colchicine group, 11 different types were viewed and type XIV which showed intensely dilated cisterns without the polarity was predominant. In the hydrochol-colchicine group, we observed 3 different types. Type XIV clearly showed the highest percentage, although that type was less numerous in this group than in the colchicine group. In the hydrochol group, the Golgi apparatus showed a tendency to increase in numbers, while in the hydrochol-colchicine group the Golgi apparatus showed a tendency to decrease in numbers. The reactive products of thiamine pyrophosphatase and acid phosphatase were apparent over the distal Golgi cistern in the normal and hydrochol groups, but were decreased or not observed in the colchicine and hydrochol-colchicine groups. From the results, it is assumed that with the presence of the microtubule, Golgi cisterns are dilated with polarity after stimulation of secretion. Without the microtubule, the cistern becomes more intensely dilated and none polaric. Also the enzymes within the cisternal membrane become decreaed or absent and the Golgi apparatus decreases in numbers after activation of secretion.
Effect on Embryogenesis and Ultrastructural Behavior of lamda-DNA Following Microinjection into Fertilized Eggs of Xenopus laevis
Song, Ji-Hwan ; Sohn, Seong-Hyang ; Choe, Rim-Soon ; Chung, Hae-Moon ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 66~74
In an attempt to produce transgenic amphibia, bacteriophage
was microinjected into fertilized eggs of Xenopus laevis, and the effect on early embryogenesis and the ultrastructural behavior of exogenous DNA were investigated. The effect of microinjected gene on embryonic development showed differences according to the concentration of injected DNA and the incubation temperature. Various concentrations of
were tested. Among those, microinjection of 1-2 ng DNA dissolved in 20 nl TE buffer was not shown to disturb normal embryonic development and was recorded the highest survivability to the late tadpole stage (Stage 43); however, injection of increased concentrations of DNA than above provoked irregular cleavages or abnormal appearances, which resulted in reduced survivability. When the injected embryos were incubated at low temperatures (e.g.,
), 54.5% of the embryos developed to Stage 43, whereas 42.4% survived when incubated at room temperature. The survivability showed also differences according to the injection site. 58.0% of the embryos developed to Stage 43 when microinjected into the vegetal pole, whereas 44.9% survived when microinjected into the animal pole. To understand the structural fate or behavior of injected DNA a combined light and electron microscopical study was applied. The nucleus-like structure was observed in the
DNA-injected embryos, which was quite a similar to the interphase nuclei of normal Xenopus laevis. The nucleus-like structure showed the typical double-layered nuclear membrane and nuclear complexes; however, it consisted of unusual structures such as furrows of nuclear envelope into the nucleoplasm.
Comparative study on the Spermatogenesis of two kinds of Korean planarias, Dugesia japonica and Phagocata vivida
Chang, Nam-Sub ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 75~83
Comparative study on the spermatogenesis of two kinds of Korean planarias, Dugesia japonica and Phagocata vivida, were studied with light and electron microscope. Observation results were as follows. Except following details, fine structure and morphogenesis of the spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyt spermatid and spermatozoon were consistant between the two species. The nucleus of primary spermatocyte of Dugesia japonica was surrounded with 36-38 microtubules, while that of Phagocata vivida with 40-42 microtubules. The C-shaped lamellar Golgi complex appeared in the spermatid cytoplasm of the former, while Straight-shaped lamellar Golgi complex in that of the latter. The four white spots were observed only in the nucleoplasm of matured spermatozoon in the latter, not in the former.
Mechanisms of proton secretion by carbonic anhydrase-containing cells in turtle bladder
Jeon, Jin-Seok ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 84~96
This study was carried out to examine the
transport mechanism by observing the properties of cellular membrane having an
type of carbonic anhydrase (CA)-containing cells in turtle urinary bladder. The urinary bladder consists of a heterogenous population of cells. As a result of fine observation with traditional thin-section electron microscopy. the bladder epithelium has three different cell types on mucosal surface. They are a basal cell, a granular cell and a third type of CA-rich cell. The CA-rich cells are divided into two distinct smaller groups within them and called them
type of CA cells. The
type of CA cells are responsible for the proton secretion using the proton pumps on the apical plasma membrane, while the
type of CA cells secrete bicarbonate via an oppositely-directed proton pumps in their basolateral plasma membrane. After performing the freeze-fracture technique, it was shown that there were distributed a large number of intramembranous particles having a special structure on the apical membrane of
type of CA-rich cells in the process of their
secretion. In turtle bladder
type of CA-rich cells, this particle was the only prominent structure in the apical membrane. These intramembrane rod-shaped particles probably represent the integral membrane components of the proton pump. This result may explain that carbonic anhydrase within epithelial cell of urinary bladder takes part in formation of
and bicarbonate, that active transport of
is done, and that the reabsorption of bicarbonate suggests transport mechanism containing
secretion. However, it seems that more studies are required for considering their regular transport pathway.
Spermiogenesis in the Korean Greater Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai
Lee, Jung-Hun ; Choi, Byung-Jin ; Son, Sung-Won ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 97~117
In order to study process of spermiogenesis of the Korean greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai, the cycle of seminiferous epithelium was examined by the light and electron microscope and the following results were obtained based on the epithelial cell differentiation. 1. Spermiogenesis occurred from early July to mid-Octber, and spermatogenic activity was vigorous from mid-August to late September. Spermatocytes including spermatogonia were found to be degenerated in only July. It is deduced that the degeneration serves as the mechanism to regulate effective use of energy to prepare for mating and hibernating periods, and regulation of breeding cycle. 2. Spermiogenesis of the Korean greater horseshoe bat was divided according to differentiation of the cell structure, into Golgi, cap, acrosome, maturation and spermiation phases; Golgi, cap and spermiation phases were further divided into two steps of early and late phase respectively, and acrosome phase into three steps of early, mid and late phases, and maturation phase has only one step. Hence, the spermiogenesis consists of ten phases. The first research was done in this article on the changes of chromatin with nucleus, the time of appearance and disappearance of chromatin granules, in case of Korean greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai). Chromatin granule began to be condensed in late Golgi and the condensation proceeded to form an irregular mass of a electron-dense chromatin in a form of circular cylinder in the center of nucleus at the phase of maturation. Finally, the chromatin condensation proceeded and perfect nucleus of sperm with homogeneous density was formed when the sperm was separated from Sertoli cell. Therefore, appearance and disappearance of chromatin granules occurred in the period of time between late Golgi and maturation phase, The tail of sperm began to develop in early cap phase, Numerous lipid droplets were obseved in the cytoplasm of spermatids during the maturation phase, which seemed to be used as energy source necessary to make mature sperm during spermiogenesis.
An Electron Microscopic Radioautographic Study of the Synthesis and Migration of the Glycoproteins in the Osteoclast of the Mice Maxillary Alveolar Bone
Kim, Myung-Kook ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 118~126
The pathway and time course of fucose-containing glycoprotein synthesis and intracellular translocation in osteoclasts of the mice maxillary alveolar bone were investigated by electron microscopic radioautography. Male Balb-C mice weighing 17gm were anesthetized with Nembutal and injected via the external jugular vein with 2.5 mCi of
(specific activity 16.8 mCi/mmol) in 0.1 ml of sterile saline solution. At 5, 10, 20, 35 minutes and 8 hours after administration of the
, animals were killed by intracardiac perfusion of 30ml of 2% glutaraldehyde in a modified Tyroid solution, pH 7.4. The maxillae were then removed and further fixed in Karnovsky fixative for an additional 3-4 hours. After rinsing in 0.1M cacodylate buffer for 10 minutes, the maxillae were demineralized for 2 weeks at
in ethylene diamine tetra acetate containing 2% glutaraldehyde. The first interdental areas were mesiodistally sectioned into slices of 1mm thickness and postfixed in osmium tetroxide. Tissues were then dehydrated and embedded in Poly Bed. To prepare electron microscopic radioautography, the dipping method of Kopriwa (1973) was employed. Thin sections were coated with a crystalline monolayer of ILford
photographic emulsion. After exposure for 4 months at
, the sections were developed Kodak Microdol-X and Phenidon (for compact grains), fixed in 30% sodium thiosulfate, stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined in the electron microscope (JEOL 1200 EX). At 5, 10 and 20 minutes after injection,
was concentrated in Golgi cisternae of the osteoblasts. By 35 minutes the labels were observed over small vesicles in the suprannclear area of osteoclasts. At 8 hours, numerous silver grains were located on the ruffled border and cell membrane of osteoclasts. These results indicate that fucose molecules are added in the Golgi apparatus and small vesicles appear to be responsible for translocation of the glycoproteins to the marginal portion of osteoblasts. The glycoproteins are distributed on the osteoclast cell surface and especially over the ruffled border.
Effects of Cyclophosphamide in the Epididymis of the Rat II. Corpus
Cho, Kwang-Phil ; Kim, Jeong-Sang ; Jung, Hae-Man ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 22, issue 2, 1992, Pages 127~140
This research was undertaken to determine the effects of the cyclophosphamide (CP) on the epididymal corpus of the male rat in terms of ultrastructural alteration and protein analysis by SDS-PAGE at different groups; control group, 1 week group, 3 weeks group and 5 weeks group were treated with saline (control group) or CP at doses of 20mg/kg/week, 1 time a week, respectively. In the cytoplasm of the principal cells on the epididymal corpus, the mitochondria were significantly swollen or disrupted. The lumens of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) were also dilated and the number of secretory vesicles and lysosomes were increased respectively. CP caused changes in protein concentrations in the corpus of epididymis after CP treatment. Total proteins of 31 to 36 species were expressed in the corpus fluid. Then the more CP was increased, the more concentration of proteins caused to decrease, synthesize or increase in epididymal corpus. In contrast to the control group, in particular 88KD and the other 8 proteins in the corpus fluid, were decreased or disappeared respectively, whereas acid phosphatase and the other 9 proteins in the corpus fluid, were increased or synthesized respectively. The other proteins are not showed distinctive difference. It is suggested that treatment with CP alters the specific cell organelles and proteins in segment of the epididymal corpus.