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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume 23, Issue 2 - Sep 1993
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Jun 1993
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Transepithelial transport and dynamic changes on apical membrane area of turtle bladder
Jeon, Jin-Seok ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 1~14
The present study was carried out to analyze the evidence of membrane recycling, and the regulation of cellular transport by dynamic changes in apical membrane area that functionally interacts with the number of cytoplasmic vesicles. Under scanning electron micrographs, turtle bladder mucosa contain three main type of cells; granular cells and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-rich cells, deviding into a and b type of epithelial cell. The granular cell is the majority cell type of the mucosa comprising 80% of the total cell number. The remaining 20% of the cells are characteristically rich in carbonic anhydrase. Uptake of HRP was detected in the most vacuoles or tubulovesicles in both type of CA-rich cells in the turtle bladder, indicating that the part of plasma membrane was internalized in the apical cytoplasmic vacuoles. It seems quite likely that CA-rich cells possess intracellular vesicles carrying proton pumps which are recycling back to the apical plasma membrane. In turtle bladder, the granular cells actively secrete large quantities of mucin and other proteins by an exocytotic mechanism in an apparently constitutive fashion. The possibility that bladder epithelial cells secrete mucin via a regulated secretory pathway has not been rigorously examined and much is still to be determined about these issues from this cell type.
Fine Structural Study on Compensation Effect of Red Ginseng against Methylmercury Injury to Brain and Gill of Fightingfish
Chung, Hee-Won ; Lee, Choon-Koo ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 15~24
The toxic effects of methylmercury on the ultrastructures of the brain and gill tissues of fightingfish and compensative effects of red ginseng were investigated by means of electron microscopy. The brain neuron of methylmercury exposure group showed dilatation of dendrite and axon, numerical decrease of ribosomes, partial loss of nucleoplasm and cytoplasm and considerable swelling of mitochondria as compared with the normal neuron. And necrotic cell with ruptured nucleus and vacuolated mitochondria was noticeable. While, slight swelling of mitochondria, some dilation of dendrite and axon and numerical increase of ribosome occurred in the neuron of methylmercury-red ginseng treatment group as compared with the methylmercury exposure group. In the gill lamella of methylmercury exposure group, collapse of pillar cells and arms, dilated epithelial cell and thickened membrane were observed. While, in the gill lamella of methylmercury-red ginseng treatment group, arms were slightly disintegrated and basement membrane was some thickend as compared with the methylmercury exposure group. From the above results, it is concluded that red ginseng has detoxication effect on methylmercury toxicity and so takes compensative effect on injured tissues caused by methylmercury intoxication.
Immunoelectron Microscopic Localization of Prolactin in Rat Exolacrimal gland
Park, Kyung-Ho ; Wood, Richard L. ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 25~34
Prolactin has been reported to be present in the tear film of humans and prolactin-like immunoreactivity has been detected by immunofluorescence in acinar cells of the lacrimal glands of humans and rats. The present study was aimed at clarifying the intracellular distribution of the prolactin-like immunoreactivity, using the electron microscope immunogold technique. The lacrimal gland acinar cells have two types of secretory granules: 1) Secretory granules containing flocculent materials irregularly shaped and are often coalesced. 2) Secretory granules are fairly round and contain homogenous materials of a moderate electron density. The density of the granular content varies even within a single cell. We found prolactin-like reactivity in secretory granules, some smaller cytosolic vesicles, Golgi cisternae and nuclei in acinar cells from intact glands of rat. Our present results are consistent with the conclusion that prolactin is present in lacrimal cells. The presence of prolactin reactivity in the nucleus suggests that prolactin may be a regulatory factor modulating gene expression.
Effects of the cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum on the Fine Structures of the Interalveolar Septum in the Mouse
Baik, Tai-Kyeoung ; Kwon, Ik-Seung ; Kim, Won-Kyu ; Baik, Doo-Jin ; Chung, Ho-Sam ; Lee, Kyu-Sik ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 35~55
cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) (cis-Platin), a metallic compound, has widely been used as an effective anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. The precise mechanism of action of this agent is still unknown, but it is postulated that cis-Platin may act on the cancer cell like bifunctional alkylating agents. Although this agent is very beneficial to the patients with cervical cancer, germinoma of testis, neuroblastoma and others, it may also damage to the normal cell so that many side effects; severe hemorrhagic enterocolitis, bone marrow depression, renal damage and liver damage will develope. This experiment has been undertaken to pursue the cytotoxic effects of the cis-Platin on the ultrastructures of the interalveolar septum in the mouse lung. A total of 55 healthy male mice of ICR strain were used as experimental animals and divided into 5 mice of normal control group and 50 mice of cis-Platin treated group. The mice of cis-Platin treated group were sacrificed by carotid exsanguination at 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days after intraperitoneal injection of 6.0 mg of cis-Platin (
Abic Co. Ltd.) per kg of mouse body weight. The specimen obtained from the lower lobe of left lung were sliced into
and prefixed with 2% glutaraldehyde -2.5% paraformaldehyde solution prepared with Millonig's phosphatae buffer solution (pH 7.4) at
for 3-4 hours. After postfixation with 1% osmium tetroxide solution all specimens were embedded in Epon 812. Ultrathin sections about
in thickness were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and observed with Hitachi-600 electron microscope. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Local swellings with increase of electron density and number of pinocytic vesicles in the cytoplasms of the type I pneumocyte and endothelial cell of the blood air barrier in interalveolar septum of cis-platin treated mice were observed. 2. Cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum were dilated and sacculated in association with detachment of membrane bound ribosomes of the type II pneumocyte in interalveolar septum of cis-Platin treated mice. 3. Swollon mitochondria with uneven electron density of their matrix were observed in the type II pneumocyte of interalveolar septum in the cis-Platin treated mice. 4. The lamellae of lammelar bodies in type II pneumocyte of interalveolar septum in cis-Platin treated mice were devoided or transformed into homogeneous electron dense material. It is consequently suggested that cis-Platin would induce the cellular edema of type I pneumocyte and endothelial cell, and degenerative changes of cytoplasmic organelles of the type II pneumocyte in the interalveolar septum of the mouse lung.
A Study on the Histogenesis of Tracheal Epithelium of the Albino Rat
Kim, Won-Kyu ; Kim, Ja-Young ; Baik, Tai-Kyeoung ; Baik, Doo-Jin ; Chung, Ho-Sam ; Lee, Kyu-Sik ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 56~76
To investigate the histogenesis of tracheal epithelium in Sprague-Dawley strain rat, the author has used the fetal rats at the 16th, 18th, 20th and 22nd prenatal day and neonatal rats at the 1st and 7th day as well as rats at age of 5, 10 and 15 weeks after birth as experimental animals. Specimens were double stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate for electron microscopic study. The results obtained were as follows; 1. At the 16th day of gestational age, ciliated cells were found in tracheal epithelium and light and dark ciliated cells possessing numerous mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm at the 22nd day of gestational age of the rat are observed. 2. At the 16th day of gestataional age, basal cells lying upon the basement membrane and having large numbers of glycogen particles in the cytoplasm, were found and at the 22nd day of gestational age, basal cells possessing numerous polysomes in the cytoplasm were observed. 3. At the 20th gestational age of the rat, microvillous cells possessing many rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria as well as microvilli protruding into the lumen were found in tracheal epithelium. 4. At the 5th week after birth brush cell having profound filamentous strands and many pinocytic vesicles in the cytoplasm, was visible in the tracheal epithelium. 5. At the 15th week after birth large proportions of tracheal epithelium were lined with ciliated cells. Cosequently it is suggested that pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium was differentiated at the 16th day of gestational age, in addition cytoplasmic organelles of the microvillous and basal cells were matured at the 20th and 22nd gestational age, respectively and most of the part of the tracheal epithelium was lined with ciliated cells at the 15th week after birth.
Studies on the concentrations of hormones and the structure of uterine endometrium during the implantation period in rats
Yoon, Mi-Chung ; Sohn, Seong-Hyang ; Kim, Chang-Mee ; Choe, Rim-Soon ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 77~90
The mechanism by which blastocysts implant to uterine endometrium has not been clearly understood. In the present study, the following question was investigated: how are hormonal levels changed and how is uterine endometrium morphologically changed? Results obtained are as follows: Concentrations of serum estradiol and progesterone were significantly increased on day 4 and 5 of pregnancy. Uterine concentrations of PGE and
were sharply increased on day 1 and maintained similar concentrations thereafter, reaching the maximum on day 5. Both prostaglandins (PGs) concentrations were gradually decreased thereafter. Furthermore, concentrations of PGs in implant sites were greater than those in non-implant sites. PBR (pontamine blue reaction) in uterine endometrium was positive on day 6 of pregnancy, indicating that vascular permeability was increased. Edema and changes in structure of cell components were pronounced in stroma where PBR was developed. Moreover, these were more prominent in implant sites than non-implant sites. These results suggest that uterine PGs as well as steroid hormones increase during implantation in rats and these hormones might be involved in the process of implantation by modulating vascular permeability and the fine structures of uterine endometrial cells.
An Electron Microscopic Study on Cartilage Canal in Thoracic Vertebra of Human Fetuses.
Yoon, Jae-Rhyong ; Lee, Byung-Ho ; Oh, Chang-Seok ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 91~108
The relationship of cartilage canals to initial osteogenesis of primary ossification center of developing vertebrae in human fetuses ranging from 50mm to 260mm in crown rump length was studied by light and electron microscopy. The cartiage canals of the thoracic vertebrae were first observed at 60mm fetus. Cartilage canals were identified as vascular channels arising from perichondrium surfaces. A number of cartilage canals were observed around the primary center of ossification at 80mm fetus. At 120mm fetus, cartilage canals of the bodies of vertebra were increased. Eventually the canals were eroded from the main medullary cavity and remained at only peripheral regions of growth cartilage. Superficial, intermediate, and deep canals were identified by the characteristics of cartilage cells. Fibroblasts, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, and vacuolated macrophages were observed adjacent to the matrix of resting cartilage cells in the superficial canal. Fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells were densely packed at the tip of canal, giving an epithelial appearance to the clustered cell in the intermediate canal. Vacuolated macrophages were in contact with matrix of hypertrophied cartilage. The thick-walled vessels in the intermediate and deep canals consisted of typical endothelial cells, but in the newly formed vessels contained mesenchymal cells and fibroblasts incorporated into the vessel wall. During lengthening of cartilage canal, the matrix of cartilage cells were invaded by newly formed capillaries and vacuolated macrophages. At the deep canal, the lateral wall of the canal terminated in matrix containing calcified cartilage. The mesenchymal cells began to differentiate into osteoblasts adjacent to the calcified matrix. The results indicate that the connective tissue cells within the cartilage canals proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts at the site of primary ossification center.
Ultrastructural Study on the Development of the Ependyma of the Central Canal in Human Fetal Spinal Cord
Yoon, Jae-Rhyong ; Choi, Yong-Ju ; Oh, Chang-Seok ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 109~124
The prenatal development of thoracic spinal cord was studied by electron microscope in human embryos and fetuses ranging from 9mm to 260mm crown-rump length (5-30 weeks of gestational age). Ependymal cells in all fetal ages had conspicuous junctional complexes close to the lumen of the central canal into which microvilli and cilia projected. The ependymal cells contained numerous longitudinally arranged mitochondria, flattened cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. At 20 mm embryo, the floor and roof plates were composed of ependymoglial cells and undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells. The neuroepithelia of the sacral spinal cord were delineated from central medullary cord. By 100 mm fetus few undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells remained in the floor and roof plates. At 150 mm fetus, the whole central canal was formed by ciliated columnar epithelial cells containing cilia with basal bodies. The microvilli became tangled and club-shaped and formed a matted surface. The canal was filled with areas of dark and pale amorphous materials bounded by membrane-like structure. These two types of material were found throughout the whole central canal from 100 mm fetus onwards. By 260 mm fetus, microfibrils were first observed in the ependymal cells. In conclusion, it seems that early development and differentiation of central canal ependyma are simlar to that in other part of the brain ventricular system although ependymoglial cells are more prominent.
The Effect of Cadmium Administration in Seminiferous Epithelium of Mouse Testes : Electron Microscopic Study
Jeon, Jin-Seok ; Kim, Jin-Suk ; Koo, Bon-Chul ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 125~138
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cadmium chloride on the spermatogenesis of male mouse. Cadmium chloride was administered as a single dose of 5mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection. The testes were isolated from the experimental animals at 3 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours respectively after administration of cadmium chloride. The major changes in ultrastructures of the seminiferous tubules observed after cadmium chloride administration include dilation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, swelling of mitochondria and vacuolation in cytoplasm of the germ cells. Especially, cadmium chloride caused direct damages to spermatogonia such as degeneration of nuclei, nuclear membrane and plasma membrane. In addition, necrotic changes were observed in most germ cells at 24 hours after cadmium chloride administration. Therefore, it seems clear from these results that cadmium chloride induces acute irreversible degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of the mouse testis, so that the cadmium chloride ultimately causes necrosis in germ cells at all stages of the spermatogenesis.
Intravascular Plugging in Clinical and Experimental Coronary Artery Occlusion and Recanalization
Kim, Ho-Dirk ; Jung, Hye-Lim ; Oh, Seung-Hwan ; Rah, Bong-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 23, issue 1, 1993, Pages 139~163
Background: It has been well established and is now no longer a controversial issue that ischemia produces a series of inflammatory reactions and the ischemic myocardium cannot survive without adequate restoration of coronary flow, ie, reperfusion. Nevertheless, controversies that intravascular pluggings (IVP) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or platelets may cause contractile dysfunction in ischemia and even in repefusion still remain. Accordingly, we attempted to examine the intravascular plug fomation as well as the ultrastructural changes in myocytes and microvessels and to determine the relation among them. Methods: 1) Human (n= 10, 39-63 years of age; 3 females and 7 males): left ventricular myocardium (LVM) was biopsied from chronic ischemic heart disease patient during bypass surgery. 2) Calf (Holstein-Friesian species, n=4): Circumflex branch of the left coronary artery (LCx) was occluded (ischemia) for 45 minutes and recanalized (reperfusion) for 3 and 6 hours, respectively and LVMs were biopsied after occlusion and recanalization, respectiverly. 3) Rat (Sprague-Dawley species, n=20): Left coronary artery (LCA) was occluded for 20 minutes and recanalized for an hour as the method described by Selye et al., (1960) and hearts were removed after occlusion and recanalization, respectively. 4) Pig (landrace type, n=7): Anterior ascending branch of the left coronary artery (LAD) was coccluded for 45 minutes and recanalized for 2 hours and LVMs were biopsied after occlusion and recanalization, repectively. All of the LVMs were routinely prepared for transmissiom electron microscopy. Rseults: In human, most of the LVM showed irreversible ultrastructural changes in myocytes and frequent IVPs by PMNs or platelets without any significant correlation with age or sex. In the animal LVM, myocytes showed reversible ultrastructural changes with slight variations in accordance with the species, duration of ischemia and reperfusion or site of biopsy, however, injuries were more severe in the subendocardial myocytes and IVPs by PMNs or platelets were frequently observed. Ultrastructural changes in the myocytes seemed to be gradually improved by recanalization, howerver, IVPs were still observed after recanalization. Conclusion: These results suggest that microvessels are more resistant to ischemic insult than the myocytes themselves and IVP by PMNs and platelets may play an important role to produce ischemic or reperfusion injuries. Thus, it is favorable that angioplasty is preceded by thrombolysis and it is likely that restoration of myocardial function requires relarively long period of time even after recanalization.